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Full text of "The history of the London Society for Promoting Christianity Amongst the Jews : from 1809 to 1908"

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S^TY  c> 


smwrrm,  • 





'II : 





OF    T^E 



From   1809  to  1908. 



The  Right  Hon.  Sir  John  h.  Kennaway,  Bart.,  C.B.,  M.P., 

President  of   the   Society. 






From  1809  to  1908 


REV.     W.    T.    GIDNEY,    M.A., 

Secretary  of  the  Society, 
Author  of  Missions  to  Jews  y  Sites  and  Scenes,  At  Hotne  and  Abroad,  &c.,  &c. 

lloob  HoSon  from  Wv^  (»oIq  tabltatton,  from  (eabm,  ann  Wz%%  ^q  people  Israel 

DkUT.    XXVI.   15, 



16,    Lincoln's    Inn    Fields,    VV.C.  * 

\All  rights  reserved ?[ 



psintbd  bv  the  operative  jewish  converts'  institution, 

Palestine  House,  Bodnkv  Road,  Hackney,  N.E. 



The  Most  Reverend 


Ix>RD  Archbishop  of  Canterbury 

Primate  of  All  England 


Patron  of  the  Society 

THIS  volume  is 

BY  His  Grace's  permission 

most  respectfully 


viii.  PREFACE 

clergymen  in  our  Church.  It  is  even  asserted  that  as 
each  Lord's  Day  comes  round  the  Gospel  is  proclaimed 
in  more  than  six  hundred  pulpits  of  Europe  by  Jewish 

More  remarkable  perhaps  than  everything  else  is  the 
evidence  of  the  changed  attitude  of  the  Jews  toward  Our 
Lord.  No  longer  is  He  denounced  and  cursed  as  an 
impostor,  but  He  is  held  up  by  the  thoughtful  among 
them  as  one  of  the  highest  types  of  humanity,  an  inspiring 
ideal  of  matchless  beauty — a  reformer  before  His  time  ;  and 
as  the  only  mortal  whose  death  was  more  effective  than 
His  life. 

We  are  thankful  indeed  for  this,  but  we  cannot  stay  or 
rest  content  with  anything  less  than  their  acknowledgment, 
in  the  words  of  Lord  Beaconsfield,  "  That  Jesus  of  Nazareth, 
the  Incarnate  Son  of  God,  is  the  Eternal  Glory  of  the 
Jewish  race." 

For  that  we  labour.  It  will  be  our  highest  happiness 
if  it  be  given  us  to  help  to  bring  it  about  and  to  light  such 
a  candle  in  Jerusalem  as,  by  God's  blessing,  shall  never 
be  put  out. 

John   H.   Ken n away, 


July  29M,  1908. 


In  sending  forth  this  volume  to  the  Christian  public,  I  may 
be  permitted  to  say  a  few  words  by  way  of  preface  about  its 
occasion,  scope,  and  character. 

The  London  Society  for  Promoting  Christianity  amongst 
the  Jews  entered  upon  its  One  Hundredth  Year  on  February 
15th,  1908,  having  been  founded  on  the  same  date  in  1809. 
The  celebration  of  a  Centenar>^  demands  an  historical  account 
which  shall  gather  up  the  records  and  lessons  of  the  past 
in  a  form  which  may  be  helpful  in  the  future.  For,  the 
future  of  the  Society  depends,  in  large  measure,  upon  the 
use  that  is  made  of  the  experience  gained  in  what  is 
acknowledged  on  all  hands  to  be  a  most  difficult  branch  of 
the  missionary  work  of  the  Church  of  Christ.  Archbishop 
Benson,  speaking  for  the  Society  at  one  of  its  Annual  Meet- 
ings, said  :  "  You  have  a  very  difficult  work  in  hand.  But  that 
is  not  a  discouragement.  It  has  in  all  ages  been  an  encour- 
agement to  Christian  hearts.  All  the  work  of  the  Church  is 
difficult,  and  you  have  chosen  a  particular  comer  of  the  vine- 
yard which  demands  the  utmost  exertion,  the  utmost  faith 
and  prayer." 

The  readers  of  this  History  must  not  expect  to  learn 
of  large  numbers  of  converts  gathered  in  at  one  time,  but 
rather  of  one  here  and  another  there.  Whatever  the  results 
are,  they  are  narrated  with  profound  thankfulness  to 
Almighty  God,  for  what  He  has  graciously  permitted  His 
servants  to  achieve  by  the  power  of  the  Holy  Spirit,  and, 
it  is  believed,  they  will  prove  a  source  of  encouragement 
to  those  who  are,  or  may  be,  engaged  in  this  work.  The 
failures  and  mistakes  of  those  who  have  gone  before — due  to 


the  weakness  of  mortal  nature,  and  to  circumstances  over  which 
they  had  no  control,  or  were  not  wise  enough  to  turn  to  good 
account — have  not  been  concealed  or  minimized.  To  have 
done  this  would  have  been  to  destroy  the  value  of  the  History 
as  a  guide  for  the  years  to  come. 

This  History  is  primarily  a  record  of  the  missionary  opera- 
tions of  the  Society  ;  but,  inasmuch  as  a  Society  is  composed 
of  individual  members,  a  great  deal  has  been  written  about 
the  personnel  of  the  Society,  that  is,  of  those  of  its  members 
who  have  had  a  share,  either  in  shaping  its  policy,  or  in 
carrying  it  out. 

Apart  from  the  first  two  Introductory  Chapters,  the  History 
itself  is  divided  into  ten  Periods  of  unequal  length.  In 
some  Periods  the  division  may  be  thought  to  be  more 
or  less  arbitrary  ;  but  I  believe  the  best  arrangement  has 
been  made  for  a  clear  and  comprehensive  grasp  of  the  subject. 
Each  of  the  first  two  Periods  occupies  only  one  chapter.  In 
the  subsequent  Periods,  the  first  chapter  deals  with  the 
Society  at  headquarters,  its  policy,  management  and  personnel. 
Most  of  the  other  chapters  deal  with  its  missionary  operations 
in  various  parts  of  the  world. 

The  materials  at  my  disposal  have  been  of  many  various 
kinds.  I  have,  of  course,  read  and  digested  the  Annual  Reports 
of  the  Society,  its  periodicals,  magazines  and  other  publica- 
tions since  the  year  1809.  ^  have  also  made  use  of  matter 
published  some  years  ago  in  my  Sites  and  Scenes  (2  vols.)  and 
At  Home  and  Abroad,  In  most  instances  the  references  to 
quotations  are  given,  but  not  in  every  case,  in  order  to  avoid 
cumbering  the  pages  with  too  many  foot-notes.  The  minutes 
of  Committee  since  the  beginning  have  been  studied,  and 
I  have  gleaned  from  them  many  interesting  facts  which  could 
not  have  found  their  way  into  the  publications  of  the  Society 
at  the  time,  but  which  may  now  be  stated,  without  any  fear 


of  serious  consequences.  This  volume  might  thus,  from  the 
wealth  of  materials,  have  easily  grown  to  unmanageable  pro- 
portions. Many  incidents  have  been  omitted.  Condensation 
has  been  imperative.  In  some  cases  the  history  of  a  year,  or 
of  several  years,  has  been  condensed  into  a  short  paragraph, 
or  even  into  a  single  line.  But  it  is  believed  that  no 
important  event  relating  to  the  Society  and  its  work  has 
been  left  out. 

The  collection  of  materials  for  this  History  has  necessitated 
reference  to  many  other  authorities  and  books  useful  for  the 
purpose.  When  quotations  have  been  made  from  these,  due 
acknowledgment  is  made  in  the  foot-notes. 

Dr.  Eugene  Stock  in  his  most  interesting  History  of  the 
Church  Missionary  Society  has  noted  nearly  all  that  need 
be  said  about  the  circumstances  of  the  times  in  which  the 
various  Missionary  Societies  were  founded.  There  is  nothing 
to  glean  where  Dr.  Stock's  rake  has  been  over  the  ground. 
I  have  also  found  in  his  book  useful  information  about 
some  members  of  the  Society,  who  were  also  identified  with 
the  C.M.S. 

My  respectful  thanks  are  due  to  his  Grace  the  Archbishop 
of  Canterbur}',  the  Patron  of  the  Society,  for  his  kind 
and  courteous  permission  to  dedicate  this  History  to  him, 
and  also  to  the  esteemed  President  of  the  Society,  Sir  John 
H.  Kennaway,  for  the  Preface  which  he  has  kindly  written. 

I  desire  also  to  express  my  thanks  to  the  Trustees  of  the 
National  Portrait  Gallery  for  their  kind  permission  to 
reproduce  the  portrait  of  H.R.H.  the  Duke  of  Kent. 

My  heartiest  thanks  are  given  to  my  friend  and  fellow 
undergraduate  of  far  distant  Cambridge  days,  the  Rev.  A. 
Lukyn  Williams,  Vicar  of  Guilden  Morden,  and  Examining 
Chaplain  to  the  Bishop  of  Durham,  for  his  kindness  in  revising 
the  proofs  and   making  many  suggestions.     I   wish  also  to 


thank  with  equal  cordiality  the  following,  all  of  whom  were 
able,  from  their  position,  to  give  me  valuable  advice,  namely, 
the  Rev.  F.  L.  Denman,  my  esteemed  colleague  and  fellow- 
worker  at  head-quarters  ;  the  Rev.  A.  Bernstein,  the  oldest 
ordained  Hebrew  Christian  missionary  ;  the  Rev.  C.  S. 
Painter,  the  senior  Organizing  Secretary ;  and  Mr.  H.  J. 
Bentall,  Chief  Clerk  in  the  Society's  House,  who,  being 
keeper  of  the  records,  was  able  to  assist  me  materially.  I 
desire  also  to  express  my  indebtedness  to  the  Operative  Jewish 
Converts*  Institution  for  the  ver}'  able  way  in  which  this 
volume  has  been  printed  and  bound.  The  unfailing  attention 
of  the  printing  overseer,  Mr.  W.  Mason,  to  my  wishes, 
deserves  special  mention. 

Finally,  I  wish  to  say  that,  whilst  for  the  facts  and  events 
narrated  in  this  volume  the  Society's  history  is  responsible, 
for  any  opinions  and  views  expressed  thereon  the  respon- 
sibility rests  with  myself  alone.  These  I  have  ventured  to 
make  after  an  official  connexion  with  the  Society  of  over 
twenty-six  years — just  more  than  one  quarter  of  its  existence. 

The  volume  has  been  prepared  in  the  midst  of  numerous 
secretarial  duties,  none  of  which  could  be  n^lected.  Com- 
menced on  May  29th,  1907,  nearly  a  year  and  a  half  ago,  it  has 
made  heavy  demands  upon  my  time  and  strength.  When 
often  feeling  the  weight  of  the  burden  laid  upon  me  by  the 
Committee,  who  honoured  me  with  the  task  of  its  production, 
I  have  been  consoled  by  the  hope  that  my  labours  may  not 
be  in  vain. 

I  now  send  the  book  forth  with  the  earnest  prayer  that  it 

may  be  of  benefit  to  the  cause,  and  of  use  to  all  those  who  are 

interested  in  the  missionary   work  of  our  Church  amongst 

the  Jews. 

W.  T.  G. 
September  9/A,  1908. 






Two  necessary  preliminaries — The  Days  of  our  Lord  and  His  Apostles — 
The  Post- Apostolic  Age — Hebrew  Christian  Bishops  of  Jerusalem — ^Justin 
Martyr — Hegesippus — Ariston  of  Pella — Origen — Tertullian — Epiphanius — 
From  the  Sixth  Century  to  the  Reformation — Raymond  Martin  and  his  Pugio 
Fidei—]}i\\w[i  of  Toledo  and  others— Nicolas  de  Lyra— Paul  of  Burgos — The 
Reformation — Reuchlin— Luther — Tremellius— Eflforts  in  the  Seventeenth 
and  Eighteenth  Centuries — Institutum  Judaicum  founded  by  Callenberg — 
S.P.C.K.  efforts— Bishop  Porteus  of  London — Bishop  Home  of  Norwich — 
A  missionary  era — The  Nineteenth  Century       3 



British  Christianity  and  St.  Augustine — The  Settlement  of  Jews — Roman 
times — Saxon  times — The  Conquest— Jews  in  Stamford,  Oxford  and 
London — William  II.  and  the  rabbis — Henry  I.  and  Stephen — **  Blood 
Accusation  ** — St.  Bernard  of  Clairvaux — The  Angevin  Kings — ^Jews  of 
Lincoln  and  York — "Ivanhoe" — John  and  Abraham  of  Bristol — Henry  III. — 
The  "  Domus  Conversorum" — Expulsion  in  reign  of  Edward  I. — Succeeding 
400  years — Menasseh  ben  Israel  and  Cromwell — Under  the  Stuarts — Georgian 
and  Victorian  eras — The  present  London  Jewry  :  status,  numbers,  language 
and  religion 13 

■i—'^-'yi    .'"  "w^i  T'' .'.f^^ 


F1R5T  PERIOD,    1809- 1815. 




Preceding  Events^.  S.  C.  F.  Frey  and  the  Ix)ndon  Missionary  Society- 
Separate  Organization  needed — Precursor  of  the  Society — Lectures  to  Jews 
in  Bur}'  Street — Actual  Foundation  of  the  Society  in  1809 — **  Utopian 
Expectations" — Reasons  for  Undenominational  Basis — Honorary  Officers— 
Committee— H.R.H.  Duke  of  Kent,  first  Patron — Lord  Barham  elected 
President — Vice-Presidents — Corresponding  Members —Country  Directors — 
Rules — Secretaries — Trustees — Treasurers — Physicians — Scope  of  Woik — 
Sermons  in  Spitalfields — Lectures  in  Ely  Place — Schools  and  Industrial 
Institutions — Magazines  and  Library — **  Palestine  Place  "  acquired — Opening 
of  the  Episcopal  Jews'  Chapel — Baptisms — Anniversary  Sermons — Thomas 
Scott — Meetings — Associations — Deputational  Expenses — Difficulties  of  the 
Dual  Basis — Theological  Differences— Financial  Position — Separation — Sir 
Thomas  Baring,  President — Munificence  of  Lewis  Way — Increased  clerical 
support  33 

SECOND  PERIOD,   1815-1819. 



Increase  of  Church  support — Episcopal  Patronage — New  order  of  Vice- 
Patrons — Trustees — The  numbering  of  the  Reports — Revised  Rules — 
Reduced  Committee — The  Grants — Honorary  Life  Members — Charles 
Simeon — ^Treasurers — Production  of  the  New  Testament  in  Hebrew — Other 
works — Spirit  of  enquiry  amongst  Jews  on  the  Continent — Ambitious  plans- 
Faith  in  their  accomplishment — The  Jewish  Expositor  zxid/ewish  Records — 
Missionary  Work  in  London — Lewis  Way  visits  Holland,  Germany,  and 
Russia — Missions  contemplated — School  Work — Secretariat — Annual  Sermons 
and  Meetings — Hopeful  prospects — New  Associations — Friendliness  of  the 
Church  Missionary  Society — Committee  of  Correspondence— Society's  first 
House — M  rs.  Adams'  History  of  the  Jews  51 


THIRD  PERIOD,  1830-1839. 





Expansion  hoped  for — New  Associations — England,  Scotland,  Ireland, 
Guernsey — Stationary  Income — Paid  help  necessary — Visitor  of  Associa- 
tions— Patronaf^e — Honorary  Life  Governors — Committee  and  Trustees — 
Secretariat — Annual  Sermons  and  Meetings — Publications — Dissatisfaction 
with  Prophetical  views -Home  Missions — London— Schools— Society's  Heb- 
rew Old  Testament — Criticisms  on  the  Hebrew  New  Testament — Lectures — 
Appeal  by  Dr.  Wolff  tojews— The  Provinces — Parochial  Clerg}'  exhorted  by  the 
Committee — Training  of  Missionaries — The  Seminary — Students — Operative 
Jewish  Converts*  Institution — Mistakes  and  attacks— ^Judgment  of  contem- 
poraries— Infirmities  of  Committees         65 



Jews  of  Holland — Visit  of  Lewis  Way  and  Solomon — Enquiries  by  Charles 
Simeon — Mission  established  at  Amsterdam — Thelwall  and  Simon  the  first 
missionaries — Notable  Converts — Isaac  da  Costa — Dr.  Abraham  Capadose — 
Joseph  Wolff  visits  Holland  -Converts  at  Dussellhal— Other  missionaries   ...     81 



Jews  of  Central  Europe— A  Great  Problem— Old  Kingdom  of  Poland — 
History  of  the  Jews  there — **  Privileges  of  Boleslaus" — Russian  Conquest — 
Jews  in  Russia  Proper — Peter  the  Great  admits  them— Pale  of  Jewish 
Settlement — ^Jewish  jargons — Yiddish — Population       89 



Origin  of  the  Mission— Emperor  Alexander  I.  and  Lewis  Way — His 
Majesty's  letter  to  the  local  authorities — Prince  Galitzin — Solomon,  Nitschke 
and  Moritz,  the  first  missionaries — New  Testament  in  jargon — Warsaw  to  be 
the  station — Alexander  McCaul — F.  \V.  Becker — Widespread  distribution  of 
the  New  Testament — Difficulties  overcome — Wendt  and  Hoff— Services — 
Wermelskirch  and  J.  C.  Reichardt— "The  Polish  Jerusalem "-Petrikau— 
Concessions  by  Nicholas  I. — Growing  work— Old  Testament  in  jargon — 
Independent  Testimony — Baptisms— Operative  Institution — Additional  mis- 
sionaries— Lublin  a  mission  station  95 





Joseph  Wolff — Birth  and  parentage — Early  life  and  baptism — Introduction 
to  the  Society — Proceeds  to  Gibraltar,  Malta,  and  the  East — At  Alexandria 
and  Cairo— Jerusalem — Syria — Cairo  again — Second  visit  to  Jerusalem— 
Meeting  with  Way — Way's  description  of  him — Damascus — Aleppo 
again — Across  the  Euphrates — Orfa — Mardin — Mosul — Bagdad—  Bussorah — 
Jacobites— The  «*  Patriarch  Job"— Wolff's  influence  on  the  future  of  the 
Society         loi 



Beni-Israel—Dr.  Claudius  Buchanan — ^Jewish  Translation  of  the  New 
Testament — ^Jacob  Levi — Michael  Sargon — Corresponding  Committee  at 
Madras — Schools  at  Cochin  and  Bombay — Wolff  in  Cochin — White  and  Black 
Jews — Beni- Israel  of  Poonah  —Wolff  visits  Bombay  and  Calcutta      112 



An  early  station — The  Mother  City  of  the  Jews — Population — Establish- 
ment of  the  Mission — Tschoudy — Lewis  Way's  efforts — Wolff's  visit — W.  B. 
Lewis— Dr.  George  Dalton  first  Medical  Missionary — Nicolayson — Visits  to 
the  North— Return  to  Jerusalem — Obliged  to  retire—  Third  visit  of  Wolff    ...   117 



German  Empire — History  of  Jews — Crusaders — Moses  Mendelssohn — 
Berlin  Mission — Professor  Tholuck — The  Rhine  Provinces  occupied  — 
Frankfort-on -the- Main — ^J.  D.  Marc— J.  Stockfeld — P.  Treschow — Saxony — 
Dresden— ^J.  P.  Goldberg — I-eipzig — Breslau— Duchy  of  Posen— McCaul  and 
Becker  visit  Posen — Bergfeldt  and  Wermelskirch  stationed  there — Princess 
Radzivil— Baltic  Provinces — Wendt  and  Hoff  at  Konigsberg — Ayerst  and 
Alexander  at  Danzig — Dr.  Gerlach  at  Thorn — Hamburg — Efforts  of  Esdras 
Edzard -J,  C.  Moritz        123 



Jews  in  France — Alsace  and  Lorraine — Strasburg — Revs.  J.  J.  Banga  and 
P.  J.  Oster — Metz — Switzerland — Sweden — Denmark — ^J.  C.  Moritz — ^Jews 
in  Spain— Their  "  Golden  Age  "—Wolff  at  Gibraltar— Rev.  Charles  Neat  and 
Dr.  George  Clarke— Mediterranean  Mission — Dr.  Ewald  at  Lisbon 134 

CONTENTS  xvii. 

FOURTH  PERIOD,    1830- 1840. 




Notable  years  in  the  history  of  England — The  Societ/s  youth — Obstacles 
and  encouragements — Total  Jewish  population— Circulation  of  the  Scriptures — 
Hebrew  Christian  congregations— A  wise  resolve — Monthly  Intelligence — 
fewish  Intelligence — Patrons  and  Vice-Patrons — ^John  labouchere,  Trea- 
surer—Committee and  Trustees — Society's  Bankers — Death  of  Basil  Woodd 
and  C.  S.  Hawtrey — Secretarial— Death  of  William  Wilberforce,  Isaac 
Saunders,  Charles  Simeon,  and  Lewis  Way — Literary  activity— Old  Testament 
in  Yiddish — New  Testament  in  Hebrew — Liturgj'  in  Hebrew — Its  use  at 
various  stations  of  the  Society — Reopening  of  Seminary — Anniversary  Sermons 
and  Meetings — Exeler  Hall— Annual  Breakfast— Speech  by  Wolff— Circum- 
stances attending  his  severance  from  the  Society — Other  important  speeches...  143 



Systematic  work  in  London — ].  C.  Reichardt — Michael  Solomon  Alexander 
— Mission  House  opened — Aldermanbury  Conferences — Old  Paths  and 
Dr.  McCaul — Aaron  Saul — Services  in  Hebrew  established — Baptisms 
and  results — ^Jews  in  the  Provinces — Liverpool  as  a  station —  H.  S.  Joseph — 
J.  G.  Lazarus  158 



Revolutit»ns  of  1830 — Poland — Work  interrupted  and  restored — Nine  mis- 
sionaries at  work — Results — ^Jcws  in  Austria  and  Galicia — Mission  established 
at  Cracow — Dr.  Gerlach — T.  Iliscock — Bellson — Davenport  — Holland — 
German  stations — Berlin  and  McCaul — W.  Ayerst — C.  Becker— Frankfort - 
on-the-Main — Moritz — Missionaries  at  Breslau — Moritz,  Neumann  and  Hell- 
muth— Petri,  O'Neill  and  West  at  Hamburg— Other  stations  in  Germany — 
French  Jews  after  the  Revolution — Oster  at  Marseilles — ^Jewish  visitors  from 
Morocco — Osier  removes  to  Meiz — J.  A.  Hausmeister — Switzerland  repeatedly 
visited — Sweden  also — Testimony  of  Professor  Tholuck  to  progress  of  Jewish 
missions        162 



Oiiuman  Empire— Sephardim— Constantinople — Salonica — A  false  Messiah 
— Religious  movement  amongst  Jews  of  the  Capital — ^Jacob  Levi  the 
first  victim — Mission  opened— Rev.  S.  Farman — "John  Baptist" — School 
and  medical  work — Deaih  of  Farman — Schwartz — Mission  suspended— 
Asiatic  Turkey — The  Seven  Churches — Smyrna — Earlier  history  —Lewis  and 
Wolff  there — Lewis  appointed — In  bonds  for  the  Gospel — **John  Baptist" 
again — Deputation  from  the  Church  of  Scotland  171 


xviii.  CONTENTS 




Nicolayson  makes  further  attempts  to  settle  in  Palestine — Farman  and 
Caiman — Troubles  occasioned  by  Mehemet  All — Appeal  for  a  church — Funds 
and  plans — More  missionaries — Daily  Hebrew  service — Purchase  of  a  site — 
Medical  work — Plans  for  a  hospital — First  baptisms — Building  operations 
commenced,  suspended  and  renewed      178 




Pioneer  work — Necessity  and  advantages — Arabia — Provinces  and  people — 
Jews  of  Yemen — Wolff's  and  Stem's  descriptions — Introduction  of  Christ- 
ianity— The  Koran  or  the  Sword — ^Jewish  victims— Conquests  of  Islam — 
Wolff" in  Yemen — His  preaching — Baptisms       ...  182 



Ancient  Kingdom  of  Barbary — Tripoli — Tunis — Algeria  and  Morocco- - 
Pioneer  work  in  Tripoli  and  Tunis  by  Nicolayson  and  Farman — Visit  to 
Algiers — Ewald  also  goes  there — Tunis  Mission  established  by  Ewald — 
Successful  beginning — **  In  labours  more  abundant  "—Missionary  journeys- 
Great  desire  for  the  Bible — Visible  effects  of  the  work — Other  agents — 
Mission  suspended 188 



Jewish  Communities— Turkestan— Dr.  Wolff"  at  Sarakhs,  Mervand  Khiva- 
Jews  of  Balkh  and  Afghanistan— Wolff"  at  Bokhara  in  1832— Again  in 
1846 — His  strange  welcome — Jews  and  the  Ameer — His  opinion  of  Wolff"    ...  196 

FIFTH  PERIOD,    1841-1849- 



Necessity  for  Episcopal  Patronage — Patron  and  Vice- Patrons — History  of 
the  Jerusalem  Bishopric  movement — Frederick  William  IV. —  Chevalier 
Bunsen— The  Society  leads  the  way — Trustees — Selection  of  a  Bishop - 
Michael  S.  Alexander — His  previous  career  as  rabbi — Baptism  and 
Ordination — Consecration — His  farewell  sermon  and  departure — Deputation  to 
King  of  Prussia — W.  E.  Gladstone — Death  of  the  Patron  and  the  President — 
Archbishop  of  Canterbur>',  the  new  Patron — Lord  Ashley  President — Annual 
Sermons — By  the  Patron,  Bishop  Blomfield  and  Bishop  Wilberforce — Other 
preachers— Annual  meetings  and  speakers — Vice-Patrons — Vice-Presidents — 
Committee — Trustees — Secretariat — Establishment  of  other  Jewish  Missionary 
Societies       203 





Hebrew  Christian  Community — Services—German  lecture — Additional 
missionaries — Hebrew  College  under  McCaul  and  his  successors — ^Jubilee  of 
the  C.M.S.— Baptisms— Rev.  J,  B.  Cartwright—ResulU— Palmy  days  of  the 
Mission — Provinces — Efforts  on  behalf  of  Jewesses — Mrs.  Hiscock — Fund  for 
Wdows  and  Disabled  Missionaries — Temporal  Relief — Rule  iv. — Special 
Funds 215 



Holland  Mission  re-opened— Rev.  C.  W.  H.  Pauli— Zion's  Chapel— Nether- 
lands' Auxiliary — Saul  at  Brussels — Poland  Mission — Rabbi  Schwartzenberg — 
A  rich  and  boundless  field — Warsaw  and  other  stations — Posen — Sowing  the 
seed — Mission  Schools — Changes  in  staff— Hiscock,  C.  J.  Behrens  and  Hoff 
at  Cracow — Pauli  at  Berlin — Rev.  R.  Bellson  and  others — McCaul's 
visit — Many  Jewish  Christians — Rev.  B.  W.  Wright— Revolutions  of  1848— 
Dr.  Biesenthal — His  Early  Ages  of  the  Christian  Church — Frankfort-on-the- 
Main — Rev.  J.  Stockfeld  in  Lower  Rhine  district — Baltic  Provinces — 
Bergfeldt  and  the  Scriptures — Roumania — Early  days  of  the  Mission — Pieritz — 
Mayers  and  Sander — Spanish  Peninsula — Salonica        220 



Previous  difficulties  and  hindrances — Consummation  beyond  expectation — 
Letter  Commendatory  to  Greek  Patriarch — Entry  of  the  Bishop  into  the 
City — Hb  first  services — Revival  in  the  work — Hebrew  Christian  staffs 
Building  of  Church  and  Hospital — Three  Jerusalem  rabbis — Hebrew  College — 
House  of  Industry — Miss  Cook's  Munificence — Enquirers'  Home — Influx 
of  Jews — Lyons  family — Bible  Depot — Opening  of  Hospital — Death  of 
Bishop  Alexander — Funeral  services — A  grand  Testimony — Bishop  Gobat 
succeeds — Diocesan  Schools — Society's  Schools  projected — Consecration  of 
Christ  Church — Description  of  Services  ...         ...         ...   232 



Jaffa — Depdt  opened — Dr.  Kiel  as  medical  missionary — Hebron  an  outp<:)st 
of  Jerusalem  Mission — Visits  of  Bishop  Alexander,  Ewald  and  Veitch — 
Kerns  attempts  to  occupy  it — Visited  by  Lord  and  Tymmim  from  Safed — Work 
in  Galilee — Tiberias — Safed — Sternchuss  and  A.  J.  Behrens  appointed — 
Mission  House  purchased — Dr.  Kiel  as  medical  missionary — ^Jewish  hostility — 
Work  interrupted — Recommenced  by  Lord — Fanaticism — ^J.  Cohen — Encour- 
aging work — Wide  distribution  of  literature — Ewald  visits  Safed        246 




Smyrna— John  Cohen,  Markheim  and  Solbe — Progress — Fire  and  pesti- 
lence— Syria — Damascus — "Blood  Accusation" — Visited  by  missionaries — 
Tartakover  and  Winbolt  at  Beyrout — Dr.  Kerns  at  Aleppo — Chaldaea — Murray 
Vicars  and  Stem  at  Bagdad — Excommunication — Wide-spread  results  of  the 
work — Persia  occupied  for  a  time — Egypt — Lauria  and  Goldberg — Cholera 
ravages — Bishop  Gobat  visits  Cairo — Levi  at  Mogador,  Tangier  and  Oran   ...  252 

SIXTH  PERIOD,   1850-1859- 


THE    society's    HOME   AFFAIRS. 

An  important  Period — Many  new  stations — Income  increasing — Da  Costa's 
Israel  and  the  Gentiles  and  Stem's  Wanderings  in  the  East — Patronage — 
Trustees — Committee — Secretariat — Annual  Sermons  and  Meetings — The 
President — Three  notable  speeches,  by  Henry  \'enn.  Stern,  and  Dr.  Fry  of 
Hobart  Town — Revival  of  the  Annual  Breakfast — Death  of  Grimshawe — New 
Honorary  Life  Governors — Death  of  E.  Bickersteth — Stor}'  about  him  and 
Simeon — Miss  Jane  Cook  and  her  benefactions — Death  of  Lord  Bexley,  J.  S. 
C.  F.  Frey,  W.  Pym,  Haldane  Stewart,  Sir  Robert  Inglis,  Sir  George  Rose, 
W.  Grane,  Thomas  Fancourt,  Miss  Sarah  Hooper,  Miss  C.  Cooper,  Dr. 
Neander  and  others — Society's  present  House,  16,  Lincoln's  Inn  Fields — 
Missionaries  sent  out  during  the  Period ...    267 



London — Dr.  Ewald's  appointment — "Wanderers'  Home" — Converts — 
Cartwright  and  missionaries — Miss  Sarah  Hooper — Parochial  Missions — 
Hirsch  at  Liverpool — Lazarus,  Hershon  and  Niirnberg  at  Manchester — 
Sternchuss,  Hodges  and  Klcinhenn  at  Bristol  and  in  the  West  of  England — 
Amsterdam — Many  Hebrew  Christians — Sir  Moses  Salvador — Russian  Poland 
Mission — Crimean  War  and  suspension  of  the  work — Ineffectual  efforts  to 
re-open — ( )t rem ba  at  Cracow — Death  of  E.  Blum — Graf  at  Posen     279 


THE   WESTERN   MISSION    FIELD — {lOntiniwd). 

Bellson  and  Biesenlhal  at  Berlin — Hartmann  occupies  Breslau — Lange, 
Zuckertort  and  A.  I.  Behrens — Popcr's  work  at  Frankfort-on-the-Main — Large 
number  of  converts— Rhine  Provinces — Hausmeister  at  Strasburg — Hechler 
and  Schlochow  at  Colmar  and  Miilhausen — Work  in  Southern  States  of 
Germany — Markheim  at  Paris — F.  W.  Becker  and  West  at  Hamburg — 
Konigsberg,  Danzig  and  Stettin — Moritz  at  Gothenburg — **  Kametz-Cross" 
agitation — Adriatic  Missions — Wright  at  Trieste — Kleinhenn  goes  to 
Bucharest --Salonica  and  Constantinople — Ix»rd,  Goldberg,  Stern,  and  New- 
man     287 





Jerusalem  again — Nicolayson  and  staff— His  death  and  successor — 
Death  of  Miss  Cooper— Her  Jewesses*  Institution  becomes  the  property  of  the 
Society— Boys*  School— Safed— Daniel  obliged  to  leave— Smyrna— Bagdad- 
Operative  Institution— J.  H.  Briihl  joins  Stem— Arrival  of  Eppstein— Stem 
and  Briihl  visit  Persia— Stern's  joumey  through  Arabia  296 



Lauria  and  Reichardt  at  Cairo— Page  at  Tunis— Markheim  at  Oran— His 
successful  missionary  journeys  in  Algeria— Ginsburg  at  Constantine— Mark- 
heim in  Morocco 305 



Preliminary  announcements — Celebrations  in  London — Great  Conimeniora- 
tion  Meeting — Bishop  of  Carlisle  on  the  principles  of  the  Society— Its  open 
constitution— Dallas— T.  R.  Birks— Edward  Hoare— Jubilee  Sermon  by  Dr. 
Marsh — Celebrations  in  the  Provinces — Closing  Meeting— Jubilee  Fun<ls — 
Receipts  and  disposal — Special  publications      311 

SEVENTH  PERIOD,   1860-1874. 



A  long  Period — Important  events  in  the  histor)'  of  the  world  aft'ecting  the 
Society — Abyssinian  Expedition — "Alliance  Israelite  Universelle" — Number 
of  Jewish  Missionary  Societies — Wolverhampton  and  Brighton  Church  Con- 
gresses— Exploratory  missionary  journeys — Deputation  to  Canada — Missionary 
work  in  New  York — Day  of  Iniercession  for  Foreign  Missions  appointed — 
Jewish  Missionary  Conference  at  Clifton — Appointment  of  missionaries- 
Archbishop  Longley ,  Patron — Vice-  Patrons — Vice-Presidents —  Trustees- 
Honorary  Life  Governors — Committee — Anniversary  Sermons  and  Meetings — 
Death  of  the  Revs.  G.  Solbe,  H.  Crawford,  Dr.  McCaul,  A.  S.  Thelwall, 
Dr.  Marsh,  J.  J.  Reynolds,  Dr.  Wolflf  and  other  former  missionaries  and 
friends — Resignation  of  Good  hart — The  Secretariat — Death  of  Captain 
Layard — Association  Secretaries — Periodicals  of  the  Society — Hebrew  New 
Testament — Halsted's  O/zr  J//Vxw//j       ...         321 


xxii.  CONTENTS 




Dr.  Ewalds  labours — Death  of  Cartwright — Isaac  Brock  appointed 
Chaplain — Succeeded  by  W.  Warren — Death  of  Ewald — Appointment  of 
H.  A,  Stem — Services  and  Meetings — Work  for  Jewesses  by  Mrs.  Reynolds — 
Death  of  J.  C.  Reichardt— The  Provinces— Training  of  students      340 



Territorial  disposition  of  Jews— Work  in  Holland — Death  of  Isaac  da  Costa — 
Pauli  and  Adler — Berlin  Mission — Schulze  and  Bellson — Christ  Church 
built — Paulus  Cassel — De  le  Roi  at  Breslau — Biesenthal  at  Leipzig — Professor 
Delitzsch  —  Graf  at  Posen  —  Rhine  district  —  Frankfort-on-the-Main — Dr. 
Poper's  work— A.  C.  Adler— Baltic  Provinces— E.  M.  Tartakover,  G.  H. 
Handler,  J.  Skolkowski  and  others — Hamburg — Death  of  F.  W.  Becker — 
Appointment  of  S.  T.  Bachert      345 



Three  new  stations — Work  at  Cracow — Lemberg — Briihl  and  Lotka — 
Hefter  at  Buda-Pesth — Handler  at  Prague — Vienna — Ayerst's  visit — Briihl  at 
Vienna — Markheim  and  Frank  el  at  Paris — International  Exhibition  of  1867 — 
Burnet — Fall  of  Napoleon  III. — Siege  of  Paris — Markheim  in  Spain — 
Opening  of  Rome  Mission — Pope  Pius  IX. — Proselytism — Burtchaell — 
Lauria  at  Turin  and  Leghorn— Cotter  at  Modena,  Milan  and  Trieste — 
Markheim  at  Nice — Ancona         353 



Barclay  .ind  Stem  at  Constantinople — Dr.  Leitner — Newman  and 
Zabanski — Baptisms — **  Children's  Jubilee  Memorial  " — Large  number  of 
Scholars — Home  for  Jewesses      363 



Its  thrilling  interest — Falashas — Their  origin — Gobat  and  Kugler,  C.M.S. 
missionaries — Gobat's  missionarj'  party — Flad's  third  visit — His  letter  and  the 
Society — Stem  sent  to  explore — ^Joined  by  Flad  and  Bronkhorst — Return  and 
speech  of  Stern — Woric  carried  on  by  Flad  and  Bronkhorst — First  converts — 
Stern's  return  to  Abyssinia — Results  of  the  work — Imprisonment — The  captive 
missionaries — English  Expeditionary  Force — Battle  of  Magdala — Release, 
return  home  and  rejoicings — Native  missionaries  at  work — Flad  visits  the 
frontier — Letter  from  Beroo — Training  missionaries  for  the  work — Arrival  in 
Abyssinia      ...         ...  366 





Death  of  Dr.  Maq;owan — Succeeded  by  Dr.  Chaplin— Joseph  Barclay  as 
head  of  the  Mission — Other  workers — Russian  buildings — Visit  of  the  Prince 
of  Wales — Also  of  the  Crown  Prince  of  Prussia — ^James  Neil  succeeds  Barclay — 
Extensive  erection  of  buildings — Death  of  P.  H.  Stem — Safed  and  Tiberias 
visited — Damascus  also — Frankel  appointed — Book  depot  opened — Rabbinical 
opposition — Progress — Grants  to  British  Syrian  schools — Missionary  visits — 
M.  Rosenthal — ^J.  B.  Goldberg  at  Smyrna — Convert  cast  into  prison — ^J.  M. 
Eppstein's  arrival — Baptisms — Developments — Chapel,  Dispensary,  etc. — Ten 
years*  busy  work — Bagdad — Briihl  at  Bombay — Dispensary  at  Bagdad — 
Closing  of  station — Results  diiect  and  indirect 376 



Reichardt  at  Cairo — Schools  and  circulation  of  the  Scriptures — B.  W. 
Wright  succeeds — Mission  given  up,  but  revisited — Reichardt  at  Alexandria — 
Missionary  placards  issued — Fenner  at  Tunis — Gaining  the  ear  of  the  Jews — 
Ten  laborious  years  and  early  death — Ginsburg  at  Constantine — He  visits  the 
Sahara  and  other  places — His  good  work  at  Algiers — Home  for  Enquirers — 
Church  erected — Morocco  visited  by  Ginsburg — Also  by  Sir  Moses  Montefiore  387 

EIGHTH  PERIOD,  1875- 1890. 



Our  longest  Period — Re-opcning  of  Russia  Mission — Funds — Largest 
income — Subsequent  depression — Wars  in  Eastern  Europe — '  *  The  Jewish 
Question  " — Refugees  from  Russia  in  Palestine — Special  Funds — ^Jubilee  of 
Queen  Victoria  Fund — Boards  of  Missions — Oxford,  Swansea,  Leicester  and 
Derby  Church  Congresses — Conferences  at  Southport  and  London — 
Patronage — Committee— Death  of  the  Patron  and  Vice- Patron — Death  of  the 
President,  Lord  Shaftesbury — Sir  John  H.  Kennaway  elected  President- 
Death  of  nine  members  of  Committee— Death  of  Dean  McNeile,  A.  M.  Myers, 
William  Ayerst,  Miss  Rebecca  Porter,  R.  Bellson,  J.  B.  Goldberg,  C.  L. 
Lauria,  H.  Markheim,  Dr.  Edersheim,  Henry  Hall-Houghton,  the  Earl  of 
Beaconsfield,  Sir  Moses  Montefiore  and  Franz  Delitzsch — Annual  Sermons 
and  Meetings — Speeches  of  Archbishop  Benson  and  Bishop  Temple — Secre- 
tariat— Magazines — Four  new  Jewish  Missionary  Societies      397 

xxiv.  CONTENTS 




The  Irish  Controversy — Mr.  B.  Bradley's  fateful  visit  to  Devonshire — **  The 
Oaks  of  i  la  Ronde  " — Action  by  Committee — Rev.  Ralph  W.  Harden  and 
his  pamphlets — Rev.  W.  Fleming  as  Secretary — Weak  spots  exposed — Con- 
ferences and  result — Anglican  Jerusalem  Bishopric  revived — Grant  from 
Society  toward  it — ^Archdeacon  Blyth  appointed — Dissatis^tion — Com- 
mittee's Statement — The  President's  speech — Bishop  Blyth — His  fund  and 
Anglican  College 416 



Stem  in  London — Aided  by  M.  Wolkenberg — Division  of  labour — 
Dr.  H.  S.  Roberts — Rev.  J.  B.  Barraclough — "Prayer  Union  for  Israel" — 
Degree  of  D.D.  conferred  upon  Stern — His  death — Memorial  Fund — 
J.  M.  Eppstein  succeeds  him — Mrs.  Re5molds  and  Miss  L.  J.  Barlee — Revs. 
W.  Warren  and  H.  Symmons — Missionary  Colleges — Parochial  grants — 
Operative  Jewish  Converts'  Institution — Missions  in  the  Provinces — 
Manchester — Liverpool — Birmingham — Leeds — Hull — Many  other  towns 
visited — Work   in    Dublin 423 



New  grouping  of  stations — Four  Jewish  sects — Orthodox,  Reform, 
Chassidim  and  Karaites — Adler  in  Holland — ^Jews  of  France — Mamlock's 
efforts  in  Paris  and  other  towns — Marseilles — Dr.  Cassel  at  Berlin — His  great 
work — Three  German  Emperors  and  the  Society — **  Institutum  Judaicum  " 
founded  by  Professor  Strack  at  Berlin — Ilartmann  and  de  le  Roiat  Breslau — 
**  Instituta  Judaica"— A.  C.  F.  W.  Becker— Z>i<^r^  ^///^M— Baptisms- 
German  stations  surrendered — Retirement  and  death  of  Dr.  Bicsenthal- 
Handler  at  Leipzig — Hefter's  work  at  Frankfort-on-the-Main — Succeeded  by 
Bernstein — Antiquities  of  Worms — Rhine  District  and  Baltic  Provinces — 
Bachert  at  Hamburg — Home  supported  by  Irish  Auxiliary — Amongst  the 
emigrants 430 



Re-opening  of  Warsaw  Mission — Visit  of  Rev.  F.  Smith  to  St.  Petersburj; — 
Appointment  of  Dr.  Ellis — His  vigorous  work — Towns  visited — Faltin  at 
Kischineff — Zuckertort  at  Posen — Succeeded  by  Ix)tka — Rappoport,  Hiindler 
and  Pick  at  Cracow — Galicia — Lotka,  Herz,  and  Rosenstrauch  at  Lemljerg — 
A.  I.  Behrens  and  Handler  at  Vienna      441 





Mrs.  S.  B,  Burtchaell  at  Rome — Women's  classes— Arias  in  North  Italy- 
Venice  occupied — Kleinhenn  at  Bucharest — Death  of  Mrs.  Newman  at 
Constantinople — Rev.  J.  B.  Crighton-Ginsburg  takes  up  the  work— Mrs. 
Ginsburg's  **  Home  " — Distribution  of  Scriptures  by  Mose  Paulo    446 



Three  Heads  of  Jerusalem  Mission — Rev.  A.  H.  Kelk  and  fellow- workers- - 
Death  of  Bishop  Gobat — Appointment  of  Dr.  Barclay — A  short  Episcopate-  - 
Biography  of  Bishop  Barclay — Interregnum — Bishop  Blyth— Russian 
Refugees — Refugees*  Aid  Society — Artouf  Settlement — Schools — Hospital— 
Dr.  Wheeler  succeeds  Dr.  Chaplin — ^Jaffa  occupied — Mission  re-established 
at  Safed — Oczeret  and  Shadan — Astonishing  progress — Medical  Mission— 
Dr.  Sahyun — Friedmann  and  Weinberg — First  convert — Dr.  Iliewitz  in 
chaise — Reichardt  at  Damascus — Succeeded  byC.  P.  Sherman — His  four  years' 
work — Segall  appointed — Bishop  French's  visit — Time  of  trouble — Eppstein 
at  Smyrna — Dispensary  opened — Assisted  by  H.  L.  Briihl — Eppstein  leaves — 
Succeeded  by  Miihlenbruch — Two  colporteurs  in  charge         450 



**  After  many  days  " — Many  believers — Touching  appeal — Dr.  Bnice's 
report — ^J.  Lotka  sent  to  Hamadan — History  of  the  movement — Services 
commenced — More  traces  of  former  work — Baptisms — Conference  in  London- 
I^tka's  missionary  journey — Sunshine  at  Hamadan — H.  L.  Briihl  sent  out — 
Gathering  clouds — Second  missionary  journey — Preaching  in  the  synagogue — 
**  Blessed  days  at  Kashan " — At  Vezd,  Kimian,  and  Shiraz — Return  to 
Hamadan  and  London — A  retrospect — Vacancy — M.  Norollah  appointed — 
Arrival  at  Tehran — Baptism  of  his  brother — Visit  to  Hamadan — Settled  at 
Isfahan — Persecution  of  Jews — Steady  and  telling  work         465 



Romantic  story  of  the  Mission  continued — *'  In  perils  of  robbers" — and  l>y 
their  •*own  countrymen" — "  In  hunger  and  nakedness" — More  baptisms — 
King  John's  edict — Visit  from  J.  M.  Flad — Cheering  news — Soudan  War  of 
1883-4 — Many  baptisms — '*The  children  of  Flad  " — No  news  for  three  years — 
New  Amharic  Bible — Terrible  sufferings— Argawi  imprisoned— Wide-spread 
misery — **  Persecuted  but  not  forsaken  " — Heroic  work  accomplished- 
Conference  with  Flad — **  Martyrs  of  Jesus" — Great  famine — Death  of  Beroo, 
the  first  convert 476 

xxvi.  CONTENTS 




Frankel  succeeds  Fenncr  at  Tunis — St.  Augustine's  Church — Mission 
Schools— E.  H.  Shepherd  and  H.  C.  Reichardt— Arrival  of  C  F.  W.  Flad— 
Ginsburg  leaves  Algiers — 2^rbib*s  visit — Goldenberg  in  charge — Ginsburg 
settles  at  Mogador — Influence  of  the  •*Mizpeh" — Outbreaks  of  fanaticism — 
Famine  and  disease — Dark  days — Englbh  protection  withdrawn — Ginsburg 
leaves  to  acquire  French  naturalization — His  return  to  Mogador — A  flourishing 
work — More  troubles — Results  of  eleven  years — Zerbib  succeeds  to  the 
charge  485 

NINTH  PERIOD,   1891-1900. 



Progress  and  expansion — Result  of  Prayer — Increase  in  the  Funds — In 
number  of  agents — In  buildings  and  properties — Three  new  Organizations — 
"Children's  Beehive  for  Israel"— **  Ladies'  Union"— ** Clergy  Union"— 
Keswick  Convention — "Eustace  Maxwell  Memorial  Fund" — "Diamond 
Jubilee"  of  Queen  Victoria — The  President — "Palestine  Exhibitions" — 
Anniversary  Sermons  and  Meetings — Bishop  Creighton's  speech — Annual 
Breakfast  Addresses— Commemoration  of  the  Jubilee  of  Christ  Church, 
Jerusalem — Death  of  the  Patron,  Archbishop  Benson — Archbishop  Temple 
becomes  Patron — Vice-Patrons — Death  of  the  five  Vice-Presidents — New 
Vice-Presidents — Trustees — Physicians—  Honorary  Life  Governors — Com- 
mittee— Many  Deaths— James  Cohen— Admiral  Rodd— J.  H.  Moran — 
General  Maclagan — G.  Arbuthnol — W.  N.  West — W.  Ord- Mackenzie — 
J.  W.  Reynolds— A.  I.  McCaul— W.  H.  Graham— E.  Maxwell— Earl  of 
Roden — Prebendary  Gordon  Calthrop — Canon  E.  Hoare — ^J.  Montagu 
Randall — Dean  Fremantle — Bishop  Billing — Bishop  Ryle — Adolph  Saphir — 
Scarcity  of  good  missionary  hymns  for  Jews — Death  of  former  missionaries, 
Hefter,  Tartakover,  Daniel,  H.  C.  Reichardt,  D.  J.  Hirsch  and  William 
Bailey — Death  of  C.  J.  Goodhart  and  W.  Fleming — Secretariat  in  London, 
Canada  and  Dublin — Office  Staff — Rise  of  Zionism — Dreyfus  case — Baron  de 
Hirsch — Publications  of  the  Period      495 



Jewish  Missions  to  the  front — Church  Congresses  at  Rhyl,  Norwich  and 
London — Missionar)'  Conference  of  the  Anglican  Communion — Pan-Anglican 
Conference  at  Lambeth — Committee  of  Convocation  on  "  Missions  to 
Israelites  " — Report  and  Resolutions — Forward  movement  by  the  Society — 
Letters  to  Prelates  and  Rural  Deans — The  replies  of  the  Bishops — Islington 
Clerical  Meeting — Three  Courses  of  Sermons — Conference  on  Jewish 
Missions        521 

CONTENTS  xxvii. 




Appointment  of  the  Rev.  A.  Lukyn  Williams — Three  classes  of  Jews  to  be 
reached — College — Mission  Hall — Chapel — Labour  Home — Surrender  of 
Palestine  Place — Old  associations  and  record  of  work — Memorial  Tablets 
and  Font — Schools  transferred  to  Streatham  Common — Appointment  of  Dr. 
Ellis — Fellow-helpers — Baptisms  in  London — Hostel  for  Students  at  the 
London  College  of  Divinity — Parochial  grantees — Operative  Jewish  Converts' 
Institution — Death  of  J.  H.  Briihl  and  Ezekiel  Margoliouth — Liverpool  and 
Manchester — Death  of  Lewis  Paul  Samson  and  Marcus  Wolkenberg — 
Leeds  and  Newcastle — Death  of  Kroenig  of  Hull — Birmingham  Mission 
re-organized-  New  Mission  Hall — Bristol  Mission  re-opened — Eppstein  and 
the  Wanderers*  Home — Ireland  Mission  re-organized 529 



Holland— Death  of  Julius  Paul  Bloch— Dr.  Ellis  at  Warsaw— Death  of 
fellow-helpers — Ellis  leaves  Warsaw  for  London — Baptisms — Succeeded  by 
Rev.  C.  H.  Titterton — Summary  of  his  work  and  baptbms — Death  of  Joseph 
Rabinovitz,  Jewish  Reformer — Vienna  visited — Rosenstrauch's  work  and 
death  at  Lemberg — A.  C.  F.  W.  Becker  succeeds  Professor  Cassel  at  Berlin — 
Death  of  the  latter — also  of  Dr.  Klee  and  Hausig — Closing  years  of  Bachert's 
work  at  Hamburg — Succeeded  by  D.  H.  Dolman — Mamlock  at  Paris — 
Miihlenbruch  at  Bucharest — Death  of  J.  B.  Crighton-Ginsburg — Succeeded 
by  A.  G.  S.  Biddulph — His  early  death — Greece  visited         540 



Development  of  country  by  railways — New  buildings  in  Jerusalem — Girls' 
School — Boys'  School — Dr.  Wheeler's  efforts  for  a  new  Hospital — Founda- 
tion stone  laid  by  the  Earl  of  Northbrook — Formally  opened  by  Mr.  W. 
Grain — Patients  and  staff— Death  of  Alexander  Iliewitz— New  Home  for 
Jewesses — Canon  Kelk  and  his  staff— Jubilee  of  House  of  Industry  and  Christ 
Church — Yemenites  at  Jerusalem — Hebron  Mission— Jaffa— B.  Z.  Friedmann's 
work  at  Safed — Medical  Mission— Dr.  Anderson— New  Hospital  projected...  548 



M.  Norollah  at  Isfahan— His  expulsion — Work  superintended  by  C.M.S. 
^ents — Settles  at  Tehran — Extensive  missionary  journeys — Visit  to  England — 
Schools  at  Isfahan— Norollah  returns  to  Tehran— Schools — Rev.  J.  L.  Garland 
appointed  to  Isfahan — Rev.  J.  Segall  at  Damascus — Remarkable  scenes — 
Visit  of  the  Bishop  of  Argyll  and  the  Isles — Jewish  opposition— Work 
stopped  for  a  time— Developed — Medical  mission — School — Rev.  J.  Miihlen- 
bruch returns  to  Smyrna    555 

xxviii.  CONTENTS 




Famine — Invasion  by  Dervishes — Cholera — Massacres — Better  prospects — 
Flad's  sixth  visit — Mission  re-organized— Rout  of  the  Italians — Silence 
for  three  years — Royal  permission  to  resume  work — English  Mission  to 
Abyssinia — More  hardships — Brighter  hopes      562 



Alexandria  occupied — Revs  J.  Lotka  and  Dr.  Ellis — Rev.  C.  F.  W. 
Flad  at  Tunis — Services,  &c. — Extensive  missionary  journeys — Schools — Visit 
of  Archbishop  Benson — Baptisms — Algiers — Death  of  A.  Goldenberg — 
F.  Spiro — Anti-Semitic  Riots — Close  of  Mission — Summary — T.  E.  Zerbibat 
Mogador — Visitors  to  Dep6t— Circulation  of  New  Testament  566 

TENTH  PERIOD,   1901— 1908. 



Less  to  be  said  about  the  I..ast  Period — New  Ceniury  ushered  in  by  an  *' All 
Day"  Meeting — Death  of  Queen  Victoria — Accession  of  King  Edward  VII. — 
Address  by  the  Committee — Income  rising — New  mission  stations — Exhibitions 
and  Prizes  at  the  Universities — **  Popular  Meetings'* — Advent  Sermons  and 
Bible  Readings — Conferences  on  Jewish  Missions — Meetings  to  protest  against 
Jewish  persecutions — Alien  Immigration — Convocation  of  Canterbury  and 
''Missions  to  Israelites" — Parochial  Missions — Church  Congresses — Con- 
ferences— Annual  sermons  and  meetings — Speeches  by  the  Bishops  of  London 
and  St.  Albans — Medical  Aid  Branch  to  the  Ladies'  Union — Letter  from  the 
President — Palestine  Exhibitions— Cinematograph — Patronage — Trustees — 
Committee — Death  of  the  Patron — Archbishop  Davidson  Patron — Death  of 
Bishop  Hellmuth,  John  Deacon,  several  members  of  Committee  and 
many  other  friends  and  former  missionaries — Dr.  Chaplin — Rev.  C.  II. 
Banning — Dr.  Herzl  and  Zionism — Bishop  Schereschewsky — Maxwell  Ben 
Oliel — ^John  Wilkinson — Publications  <^f  the  Period — Missionary  pub- 
lications— Church  Consultative  Committee         573 

CONTENTS  xxix. 




Dr.  Ellis  returns  to  Warsaw — Canon  Kclk  succeeds  him — Rev.  C.  H. 
Titterlon — Services  in  Goulston  Street  Hall — Medical  Mission — Baptbms — 
Schools — Magazine — Students — Operative  Jewish  Converts'  Institution — 
Parochial  grants  to  many  parishes — Dr.  Paul  Bendix — Open-air  pulpits  in 
Spitalfields  and  Whitechapel  Churchyards — Work  in  these  parishes — Liver- 
pool— Manchester — Leeds — Death  of  Canon  Kelk — Birmingham — Bristol — 
Death  of  the  Rev.  J.  M.  Eppstein— Death  of  the  Rev.  J.  C.  S.  Kroenig— 
Hull  Mission — Death  of  the  Rev.  J.  Lotka        591 



Rev.  A.  C.  Adler  in  Holland — His  death — Succeeded  by  Rev.  L.  Zeck- 
hausen — Rev.  D.  H.  Dolman  at  Hamburg— Baltic  Provinces — J.  M.  Flad  at 
Kornthal  —Rev.  W.  Becker  leaves  Berlin — Review  of  the  work  in  the  German 
Empire — Rev.  C.  H.  Titterton  and  Dr.  Ellis  at  Warsaw — Becker  at  Vienna — 
Lemberg  and  Cracow — Rev.  J.  H.  Adeney  at  Bucharest — Death  of  Mamlock 
in  Paris —  Succeeded  by  Rev.  A.  L.  W.  Adler — Wc>rk  in  Rome  and  Constan- 
tinople ...         ...         59S 


A    LAST   VISIT  TO  THE    HOLY    LAM). 

Canon  Kelk  retires  from  Jerusalem — Succeeded  by  the  Rev.  J.  Carnegie 
Brown — New  School — Jerusalem  staff— Summary  of  results — Work  in  the  Hos- 
pital, City  dispensar}',  and  Siloam — Archdeacon  Sinclair  visits  the  Hospital — 
The  House  of  Industry — Death  of  Dr.  Conrad  Schick — Benefits  conferred  by 
the  Mission — Development  of  Jafi'a  Mission — Grant  of  Land  at  Haifa — 
Safed  Mission — School  work — New  Hospital — Summary  of  work  in  Palestine  605 



Damascus — Retirement  of  the  Rev.  J.  and  Mrs.  Segall — Difticullies  of  the 
work — The  Great  Mosque — Rev.  J.  Miihlenbruch  at  Smyrna — New  chapel 
necessary — Persia — Mr.  M.  Norollah  and  Rev.  J.  L.  Garland — Summary — 
Egyot  re-occupicd — Mr.  F.  Blum  at  Alexandria — Rev.  C.  E.  Thomas  at 
Cairo — Abyssinia  Mission — Baptisms — Tunis  Mission — New  Church  of  St. 
George — Direct  and  indirect  results— Mogador  and  Morocco — Visit  by  Bishop 
of  Sierra  Leone — A  wide  field  well  sown — Association  in  Canada — Miss  E. 
G.  Vicars — Deputation  sent  out— Establishment  of  mission  at  Montreal       ...  612 




Difficulty  of  appraising  results — Effort  expended — Missionary  and  parochial 
results  —  Statistics  —  Baptisms  —  Missionaries  and  workers  —  Eminent 
Converts — Change  in  Jewish  views  concerning  Christ — Gratitude  to  God  for 
past  development  of  the  Society's  work 623 



Many  problems  yet  to  be  solved — Education  and  training  of  Missionaries — 
Supply  of  Clergy — Temporal  Relief— Baptism — Finance — Supply  of  Deputa- 
tions— How  to  evangelize  the  millions  of  Jews  in   Russia  629 




INCOME  OF  THE  SOCIETY   FROM    1809  TO    I908         638 








The    Right    Hon.    Sir   John    H.    Kennaway, 
Bart.,  C.B.,  M.P.  ... 

H.R.H.  The  Duke  of  Kent 

Palestine  Place 

The  Rev.  Lewis  Way    ... 

Sir  Thomas  Baring,  Bart. 

Bishop  Alexander 

Prebendary  Alexander  McCaul,  D.D. 

The  Earl  of  Shaftesbury,  K.G. 

The  Rev.  H.  A.  Stern,  D.D 

Christ  Church,  Jerusalem 

Mission  Schools,  Streatham  Common... 

Hospital  at  Jerusalem 

Bishop  Hellmuth  


to  face 

























By  the  Bishop  of  Durham. 

1  r\  THOU,  the  high  and  holy  Name, 

\J    Thy  chosen  Abraham's  Friend  and  Lord, 
Of  old  and  evermore  the  same, 

By  priests  and  seers  and  kings  adored, 
Our  prayer  receive  ;  on  Israel's  race 
Descend  in  glory  and  in  grace. 

2  Mysterious  line  !    To  them  alone, 

Till  the  last  prophet's  harp  was  dumb. 
The  secret  of  Thy  Hope  was  shewn, 
The  wonder  of  the  Christ  to  come  : 
Our  prayer  receive ;   &c. 

3  He  came,  the  Prince  of  peace  and  heaven. 

And  David's  crown  was  on  His  brow  ; 
From  Judah  to  Thy  Son  was  given 
The  Manhood  linked  with  Godhead  now  : 
Our  prayer  receive ;    &c. 

4  Alas,  did  Zion,  lost  and  blind, 

Her  own  Messiah  scorn  and  slay  ? 
Yet  bear  her  age-long  woes  in  mind, 
Nor  cast  the  covenant-seed  away  : 
Our  prayer  receive  ;    &c. 

5  Think  on  the  Gentiles  and  their  load, 

Sin,  strife,  and  wanderings  wild  from  Thee  ; 
Bid  Israel  lead  them  up  the  road 
Of  faith  and  worship,  to  be  free : 
Our  prayer  receive  ;   «S:c. 

6  Bid  soon  the  fig-tree  bud  and  flower, 

And  soon  the  eternal  summer  shine  ; 
Command  at  last  the  longed-for  hour, 
The  year  of  Jubilee  divine  : 

Our  prayer  receive ;   &c. 

7  By  all  the  fathers'  hope  and  faith, 

By  all  the  stricken  children's  woes, 
By  all  mankind's  disease  and  death, 

Ix)rd,  bid  the  years  of  judgement  close  : 
Receive  our  prayer ;    on  Israel's  race 
Descend  in  glory  and  in  grace. 

///>,    JQOS. 


^an  JSf  to  tht  nsLuqf^ta  of  ^ton,  Bcl^olU,  if^xi  salbatton  comet|). 

Isaiah  lxii.  ii. 




Two  necessary  preliminaries— The  Days  off  our  Lord  and  HLs  Apostles— The 
Post-Apostolic  Age— Hebrew  Christian  Bishops  off  Jerusalem— Justin  Martyr— 
Hegesippus— ArUton  of  Pella— Origen— TertuUlan— Epiphanius— From  the  Sixth 
Century  to  the  Reformation— Raymond  Martin  and  his  Pu^o  /^rV//f'— Julian  off 
Toledo  and  others— Nicolas  de  Lyra— Paul  of  Burgos— The  Reformation— Reuchlln 
—Luther— Tremelllus— Efforts  In  the  Seventeenth  and  Eighteenth  Centuries— 
Instltutum  Judaicum  founded  by  Callenberg— S.P.C.K.  efforts— Bishop  Porteus  of 
London— Bishop  Home  of  Norwich— A  missionary  era— The  Nineteenth  Century. 

BEFORE  entering  upon  the  History  of  the  London 
Society  for  Promoting  Christianity  amongst  the  Jews, 
it  seems  necessary,  by  way  of  introduction,  to  give, 
first,  a  brief  account  of  efforts  to  evangelize  them  prior  to 
its  foundation,  and,  secondly,  a  short  epitome  of  their  history 
in  our  own  country. 

We  shall  see  in  this  chapter  that,  whilst  there  have  been 
some  attempts  to  bring  this  ancient  people  of  God  to  a  know- 
ledge of  His  Son,  Jesus  Christ,  they  have  been,  for  the  most 
part,  spasmodic  and  unorganized,  without  any  very  intelligent 
or  sustained  aim.  Not  that  the  Jews  have  ever  been  altogether 
neglected,  nor  that  there  has  ever  been  a  time  when  the 
"  remnant  according  to  the  election  of  grace  "  was  non-existent 
We  pass  over,  in  the  fewestwords,  the  age  of  Christ  and  His 
Apostles.  His  and  their  work  for  their  brethren  according  to 
the  flesh  stands  out  in  clear  relief  in  the  Gospels  and  the 
Acts  of  the  Apostles.  The  result  of  the  Apostles'  labours  is 
also  given— many  thousands  (literally  "myriads"  or  tens  of 
thousands)  of  Jews  believed  (Acts  xxi.  20).  Forty  of 
these  early  converts  are  mentioned,  mostly  by  name,  in  the 
New  Testament.  Whatever  may  have  been  the  results  of 
Missions  to   Jews   since   Apostolic   days,   there   is    not   the 

B  2 


slightest    doubt   that   the  work   was  wonderfully  successful 

Turning  to  the  immediate  post-Apostolic  Age  (A.D.  70 — 
120)  we  find  that  according  to  Eusebiusf  there  were  fourteen 
Hebrew  Christian  bishops  of  Jerusalem  after  St  James,  up  to 
the  time  of  Hadrian  (a.D.  120),  namely,  Symeon,  Justus, 
Zacchaeus,  Tobias,  Benjamin,  John,  Matthias,  Philip,  Seneca, 
Justus,  Levi,  Ephres,  Joseph  and  Judas.  It  is  fair  to  presume 
that  during  this  period  there  were  also  elsewhere  a  number  of 
Hebrew  Christian  bishops,  presbyters,  deacons,  evangelists,  and 
other  fellow-helpers  in  the  Gospel.  When  a  Gentile  church  was 
established  at  ^Elia,  as  Jerusalem  was  called  in  A.D.  135,  the 
Hebrew  Christian  Church  retreated  to  Pella,  and  other 
towns  across  the  Jordan.  This  doubtless  greatly  disorganized 
the  Church.  According  to  Justin  Martyr,  Origen,  Epiphanius, 
and  Jerome,  its  members  maintained,  under  the  name  of 
Nazarenes  and  Ebionites,  their  faith  in  Christ,  with  adherence 
to  certain  Je^vish  rites. 

The  great  apologist,  Justin  Martyr,  was  evidently  desirous 
of  winning  over  one  Jew  at  least  to  the  faith  of  Christ 
His  Dialogue  with  Tr^'pho  {circ,  160)  "takes  deser\edly 
a  high  place  in  the  history  of  conscientious  attempts  "  in  this 
direction.  * 

Amongst  the  Hebrew  Christian  teachers  of  this  time  we 
may  mention  Hegesippus,  who  was  the  author  of  Memoirs  of 
t/u  History  oftJu  Church,  in  five  books  {circ,  177),  and  Ariston  of 
Pella,  the  author  of  a  Colloquy  between  Jason  and  Papiscus 
concerning  Christ. 

Origen  (185 — 255),  who  was  a  great  opponent  of  heresy  in 
all  its  forms,  brought  a  number  of  Jews,  as  well  as  heathen 
and  corrupt  Christians,  to  the  truth.§ 

As  a  rule,  however,  most  writings  on  the  Jewish  controversy, 
from  A.D.  160  to  SCO,  partake  of  a  polemical  and  not  a  mis- 

*  See  the  author's  Missions  to  JnvSy  pp.  43-48  ;  dXso  j€ws  and  their  Evan^li- 
uUion,  pp.  S6-89  ;  where  this  period  is  dealt  \d\\i  at  some  length, 
t  Hist.  EccL  iv,  5.  J  Williams,  Missions  to  thtjews^  p.  8. 

§  Robertson,  History  of  the  Christian  Churchy  vol.  i.,  p.  15S. 


BY    THE    FATHERS  5 

sionary  character.  Tertullian  (i6o — 2CX)),  for  example,  wrote 
a  treatise,  Adversus  Judceos,  He  was  followed  by  many  others, 
among  whom  we  may  mention  the  honoured  names  of  Hip- 
polytus,  Cyprian  of  Carthage,  Eusebius,  Gregory  of  Nyssa, 
Chrysostom,  Augustine,  and  Cyril  of  Alexandria. 

Epiphanius,  who  embraced  Christianity  at  the  age  of  i6,  and 
subsequently  became  Bishop  of  Constantia,  died  in  403.  He 
was  an  able,  zealous,  and  gifted  man,  and  was  called  by  St. 
Jerome, "  the  five-tongued,"  in  allusion  to  his  linguistic  attain- 
ments. Epiphanius  relates  the  conversion  of  the  Jewish 
patriarch  Hillel,  a  descendant  of  Gamaliel.* 

It  must  be  confessed  that,  during  the  long  period  from  the 
sixth  century  to  the  Reformation,  both  the  means  employed  in 
the  evangelization  of  the  Jews,  and  the  actual  results  arising 
therefrom,  were,  comparatively  speaking,  insignificant.  The 
efforts  put  forth  to  reach  them  were  few  and  far  between  ; 
they  were  spasmodic  and  not  continuous,  and  they  were  not 
always  dictated  by  the  purest  motive,  that  of  love  to  Christ 
and  perishing  souls.  Individual  Christians  there  doubtless 
were,  who  longed,  prayed,  and  worked  for  the  salvation  of  Jews, 
but  the  Church,  as  a  whole,  made  no  provision  for  preach- 
ing the  Gospel  to  the  scattered  race.  On  the  contrary,  Jews 
were  treated  with  scorn  and  abhorrence,  with  contempt  and 
hatred,  and  as  the  enemies  of  Christ.  This  spirit  was  shewn 
in  the  Councils  of  the  Church.  The  provincial  Synod  of 
Canterbury,  A.D.  1222,  actually  forbade  a  Jew  to  enter  a  Christ- 
ian place  of  worship.f 

This  spirit  of  indifference  and  worse,  is  seen  in  the  fact 
that  for  800  years,  from  the  time  of  St.  Jerome  (384—420)  to 
that  of  Raymond  Martin,  who  published  his  Pugio  Fidei  in 
1278,  the  study  of  Hebrew  was  neglected,  and  the  Church  did 
not  produce  a  single  scholar  of  note  in  that  language.  Nor, 
till  the  days  of  Reuchlin  in  the  fifteenth  century  did  any  one 
attempt  to  translate  the  New  Testament  into  Hebrew.  J 
Amongst  the  writings  of  the  sixth  century  bearing  upon  this 

*  Haeres.  c.  30.      +  Tovey,  Ans^lia  Judaica^  p.  81. 
X  McCauK  Equality  of  Jew  ami  GentiUy  p.  22. 


point,  we  may  cite  a  dispute  of  Gregentius  with  a  Jew  named 
Herbanus  ;  those  of  Isidore,  bishop  of  Seville,  containing  in- 
vectives against  the  Jews  ;  and  those  of  Leontius,  of  NeapoHs, 
who  carried  on  disputations  against  them. 

Julian,  Archbishop  of  Toledo,  and  Primate  of  Spain, 
flourished  toward  the  end  of  the  seventh  century.  Amongst 
his  numerous  books  was  one  against  the  errors  of  Judaism  about 
the  Advent  of  the  Messiah.  He  probably  was  largely  respon- 
sible for  the  decrees  of  the  Council  of  Toledo  (680)  forbidding 
the  Jews  to  observe  the  Sabbath  and  the  Passover  and  to 
practise  circumcision.*  Many,  indeed,  were  the  attempts  in 
Spain,  from  this  period  to  the  fifteenth  century,  to  compel 
Jews  to  accept  Christianity,  but  not  in  the  "  more  excellent " 

In  the  ninth  century  may  be  noticed  the  work  of  Rabanus 
Maurus,  Archbishop  of  Mainz,  against  the  Jews.    . 

In  the  eleventh  century,  Crispin,  Abbot  of  Westminster, 
wrote  his  Disputatio  Judcei  cum  Christiana,  and  Pedro  Alfonsi 
wrotea  Dialogue  defending  the  Christian  and  refutingthe  Jewish 
faith.  Pedro  had  been  known  as  Rabbi  Moses,  of  Huesca, 
in  Aragon,  but  was  baptized  on  St.  Peter's  Day,  1106,  being 
then  forty-four  years  of  age.  He  became  a  celebrated  writer 
chiefly  through  his  Disciplina  Clericalis. 

In  the  twelfth  century,  St.  Bernard  of  Clairvaux  made  a 
noble  protest,  1147,  against  the  Crusaders'  ill-treatment  of  the 
Jews  ;  t  but  fifty  years  later  Peter  of  Blois  wrote  his  Contra 
perfidiam  fudceorum,  in  which  he  supplied  arguments  against 
the  Jews. 

We  may  notice  the  founding,  in  the  thirteenth  century,  of 
the  Domus  Conversorum  by  Henry  III.  of  England  in  1232, 
without  here  touching  upon  the  expedients  resorted  to,  in 
order  to  gain  converts.  J 

Two  Jewish  converts,  Donin,  called  Nicholas  of  Paris,  and 
Paulus   Christianus    of    Montpelier,   displayed    considerable 

*  Williams,  Missions  to  the/ews,  p.  19  ;  Msirgo\iouth*s  Fitndamen/a/ Rri^iciples 
of  Modern  fudaism,  p.  [xv.]  ;  and  Bernstein's  y<r«//jA  Witnesses  for  Christy  p.  21. 

t  See  page  20.  %  See  page  25. 


activity,  however  questionable  their  motives,  in  their  attempts 
to  Christianize  Jews :  whilst  the  Dominican  monk,  Raymond 
Martin,  in  his  celebrated  Pugio  Fidei,  alluded  to  above,  endea- 
voured, in  his  anxiety  to  win  converts  to  Christ  and  the 
Church,  to  deduce  Christian  truths  from  the  Talmud  and  other 
Jewish  writings. 

In  the  fourteenth  century  we  come  across  two  famous  names. 
Nicolas  de  Lyra,  whose  Jewish  descent  is  a  matter  of  dispute, 
published  a  work  on  J  he  Messiah  and  His  Advent  in  reply 
to  the  Jews.  It  is  said  that  both  Wyclif  and  Luther  learned  a 
great  deal  from  Nicolas.  The  jingling  couplet  is  well  known — 

**  Si  Lyra  non  lyrasset, 
Lutherus  non  saltasset." 

Paul  of  Burgos  (1351 — 143S)  is  the  other  Hebrew  Christian 
celebrity  of  this  century.  Originally  a  rabbi,  he  became  a 
Christian  through  reading  the  De  Legibus  of  Aquinas,  and  was 
baptized  in  1391,  exchanging  his  old  Jewish  name  of  Solomon 
Levi  for  that  of  Pablo  de  S.  Maria.  He  took  the  degree  of 
Doctor  of  Divinity  in  Paris,  was  ordained  to  the  priesthood, 
and  won  the  favour  of  the  Avignon  Anti-Pope,  Benedict  XIII. 
Paul  successively  became  Canon  of  Seville,  Archdeacon  of 
Trevinjo,  Bishop  of  Carthagena,  Bishop  of  Burgos,  and  High 
Chancellor  of  Leon  and  Castille.  He  was  the  author  of  several 
works,  the  most  famous  being  his  Scrutinium  Sacrarum 
Scripturarum,  in  which  he  cleverly  met  the  objections  of  the 
Jews.  His  family  were  scarcely  less  distinguished.  His  eldest 
son,  Alfonso,  succeeded  to  the  see  of  Burgos  ;  his  second 
son,  Gonzalo,  became  Bishop  of  Valencia ;  and  the  youngest, 
Alvar,  was  known  as  a  historian.  Paul  left  no  stone  unturned, 
either  in  the  way  of  controversy,  or  harshness,  to  convert  his 
former  co-religionists  to  his  new  faith. 

Dr.  McCauFs  brief,  though  imperfect,  summary  of  this  period 
may  conveniently  close  this  era : — "  In  the  beginning  of 
the  fifth  century  we  read  of  the  conversion  of  the  Jews  in 
Candia ;  in  the  sixth,  of  the  Jewish  inhabitants  of  Borium  in 
Africa ;  in  the  seventh,  of  the  Jews  in  Cyprus  and  other  places  ; 
in  the  ninth  century,  of  some  in  France ;  in  the  eleventh,  in 
Germany  ;  in  the  twelfth,  in  Germany,  Spain,  Normandy  and 


England.  On  one  of  the  rolls,  in  the  reign  of  Henry  III.,  the 
names  of  500  Jewish  converts  are  recorded."  * 

As  we  approach  the  era  of  the  Reformation  we  come  to  the 
age  of  more  gentle  methods  to  win  the  Jews.  "  Baptism,  or 
death,"  had  too  often  been  the  cry  of  the  Church,  just  as  the 
'*  Koran  or  the  sword  "  had  been  of  Islam.  We  now  see  a 
change,  very  gradual  indeed,  but  still  a  change,  in  the  direction 
of  more  sympathy  and  love  to  the  Jews.  In  the  early  part  of 
the  fifteenth  century  John  Reuchlin  (1455 — 1 522),  of  Pforzheim, 
in  Germany,  a  learned  Hebrew  scholar — when  Pfefferkorn,  a 
converted  Jew  of  Cologne,  and  the  Dominicans  wished  to  bum 
the  copies  of  the  Talmud — declared  that  the  best  method 
for  converting  the  Israelites  would  be  to  establish  two  masters  of 
Hebrew  at  each  university,  who  might  teach  theologians  to 
read  the  Hebrew  Bible,  and  thus  refute  that  people*s  teachers,  f 

The  immortal  Martin  Luther  was  well  disposed  toward  the 
Jews  in  his  early  reforming  days.  Having  spoken  in  his  treatise, 
1 523,  That  Jesus  Christ  was  of  Jewish  Birth  (dass  Jesus  Christus 
ein  gebomer  Jude  ware),  of  the  contumely  and  cruelty  meted 
out  to  Jews,  he  goes  on  to  say,  "  My  hope  is  that  if  we  act 
kindly  toward  the  Jews,  and  instruct  them  out  of  the  Holy 
Scriptures,  many  of  them  will  become  genuine  Christians,  and 
so  return  to  the  faith  of  their  fathers,  the  prophets  and 
patriarchs.  We  ought  to  treat  the  Jews  in  a  brotherly  way, 
if  so  be  that  some  of  them  may  be  converted."  But,  alas  !  the 
great  Reformer  belied  his  early  promise  of  a  missionary  spirit. 
In  a  tract  published  in  1543,  entitled  The  Jews  and  their  Lies ^ 
he  spoke  of  them  in  unrestrained  and  immoderate  bitterness  : 
"  Much  less  do  I  go  about  with  the  notion  that  the  Jews 
can  ever  be  converted.  That  is  impossible."  On  this  Da 
Costa  remarks,  "The  Christian  in  Luther  is  lost  sight  of  in 
the  German,  always  the  adversary  of  the  Jews."  J  Is  this  the 
reason  why  Luther's  Commentary  on  the  Romans  stops  short 
at  the  end  of  chapter  viii.  ? 

*  Equality  of  Jew  and  GetttiU^  p.  24. 

t  D'Aubign^,  History  of  the  Reformation^  Bk.  i.,  ch.  7. 

t  Israel  and  tfu  Gentiles^  Bk.  iv.,  p.  468. 


Emanuel  Tremellius  of  Ferrara,  who  wrote  a  translation  of 
the  Old  Testament,  and  also  of  the  New  Testament  and  parts 
of  the  same,  was  a  converted  Jew.  He  was  a  friend  of  the 
English  Reformers  and  a  professor  at  Cambridge.  His  Cate- 
chism for  Enquiring  Jews  (1554)  is  still  in  use  as  a  missionary 

We  must  notice  during  this  period  lastly,  the  elder  Buxtorf, 
who  wrote  Synagoga  Judaica^  in  the  sixteenth  century. 

Coming  to  the  seventeenth  and  eighteenth  centuries,  we 
can  mention  only  the  principal  writers.  In  the  seventeenth, 
Bartolocci  wrote  Bibliotheca  Magna  Rabbinica  ;  Frischmutt 
published  addresses  on  the  Messianic  prophecies ;  Majus, 
a  book  on  Jewish  Theology  ;  Wagenseil  wrote  Tela  ignea 
Satani]  and  Dantz.  a  treatise  on  the  Shechinah.  Philip 
Lamborch,  a  Dutch  divine,  published  in  1687  his  Arnica 
Collatio  cum  Erndito  Judceo,  in  other  words,  an  account  of  his 
dispute  with  Orobio,  a  Spanish  Jew,  who  had  professed 
Christianity  in  Spain,  and  apostatized  in  Holland.  Then  there 
was  Bishop  Kidder,  whose  work,  Demonstration  of  the  Messias, 
obtained  a  good  reputation  ;  and  Leslie,  whose  Short  and 
Easy  Method  with  the  Jews  is  found  of  use  at  the  present  day. 
The  saintly  George  Herbert,  and  Archbishop  Leighton,  must 
not  be  forgotten  as  praying  friends  of  Israel.  The  latter's 
words,  "  They  forget  a  main  point  of  the  Church's  glory  who 
pray  not  daily  for  the  conversion  of  the  Jews,"  *  doubtless 
influenced  many  to  intercede  and,  perhaps,  to  labour  for 

The  most  noteworthy  attempt  in  the  seventeenth  century-  to 
win  Jews  to  Christ  was  that  made  by  Esdras  Edzard  (1629 — 
1708).  He  lived  at  Hamburg,  and  was  said  to  be  of  Jewish 
descent.  For  fifty  years  he  was  a  veritable  apostle  to  the 
children  of  Israel.  Young  and  old,  rich  and  poor,  flocked  to  him 
for  instruction  in  Hebrew  and  other  Oriental  languages.  He 
used  his  opportunities  for  his  Master,  and  during  his  long  life 
was  the  means  of  bringing  hundreds  of  Jews  into  the  Church 
of  Christ.    Bishop  Kidder  says  that  he  was  the  means  of 

*  Sermon  ott  Isaiah  ix.  I.     His  Works,  ii.  iv.  178. 


converting  more  Jews,  among  them  a  considerable  number  of 
rabbis,  than  any  one  person  in  the  world.  Amongst  them 
was  Rabbi  Jacob  Melammed,  whose  confession  was  printed 
in  German.  Edzard*s  son,  a  preacher  in  London,  brought 
several  Jews  to  a  knowledge  of  Christ  Edzard  published,  in 
Latin,  a  translation  of  the  first  two  chapters  of  Avoda  Sara, 
the  Talmudical  treatise  on  Idolatr>%  in  which  he  treats  of 
the  controversy  between  Jews  and  Christians.  He  left  a  sum 
pf  money  to  be  invested  for  the  benefit  of  proselytes  and  Jews, 
which  fund  still  has  its  beneficiaries  at  the  present  day. 

In  the  eighteenth  century,  Schottgen  wrote  on  the  Messiah  ; 
Wolf,  of  Hamburg,  compiled  his  famous  Bibliotheca  Hebraicay 
in  which  he  enumerates  more  than  one  hundred  Jews 
who  had  written  on  behalf  of  Christianity.  Gusset  wrote  a 
reply  to  Rabbi  Isaac's  Defence  of  Faith ;  Eisenmenger 
published  An  Exposure  of  fudaism  ;  and  Allix,  The  Judgment 
of  the  Jewish  Church.  The  labours  of  Friedrich  Albrecht 
Augusti  (1691 — 1782),  an  eastern  Jew  converted  to  Christ- 
ianity, greatly  helped  on  the  cause  of  Christianity  amongst 
his  brethren.  Pfeifer,  Carpzow  and  others  wrote  works  in 
connexion  with  the  Jewish  controversy. 

In  the  religious  revival  in  Germany  at  the  beginning  of  the 
eighteenth  century,  which  was  owing  to  the  zealous 
labours  of  Spener — especially  by  his  "Collegia  Pietatis" — 
and  of  Franke,  the  claims  of  the  Jews  were  not  overlooked. 
Missionary  and  Bible  Societies  came  into  existence,  and  the 
University  at  Halle  was  founded  in  1694.  Special  interest 
in  the  Jews  was  awakened,  and  animated  all  classes  for 
their  conversion.  Reineck  in  171 3  declared,  "The  general 
topic  of  conversation  and  discussion  at  the  present  day  is 
about  the  conversion  of  the  Jews."  Many  Christians,  by  way 
of  equipment  for  the  work,  studied  Judaeo-German ;  and 
Professor  John  Henr>'  Callenberg  had  a  class  of  1 50  learning 
that  language.  Just  at  that  time  the  Rev.  John  Miiller,  of 
Gotha,  wrote  a  tract  for  the  Jews,  entitled.  The  Light  at 
Eventide,  which  had  an  extraordinary  career.  It  was  first 
translated  into  Judaeo-German  by  a  Jewish  convert,  Dr.  From- 
mann.     Translations  in  Hebrew,  German,  Dutch,  and  Italian 


soon  followed.  In  173 1  the  Society  for  Promoting  Christian 
Knowledge  issued  an  English  translation  of  it.  Even  Roman 
Catholic  priests  aided  its  circulation.  This  tract  led  to  the 
formation,  in  1728,  of  the  Callenberg  "  Institutum  Judaicum/' 
the  objects  of  which  were  the  establishment  of  a  printing  press, 
provision  for  converts  and  catechumens,  and  the  appointment 
of  students  as  travelling  missionaries  to  the  Jews.  This 
institution  carried  on  this  work  until  its  suppression,  in  1792, 
by  the  Prussian  Government,  owing  probably  to  the  rising 
influence  of  Rationalism.  In  the  meantime  it  had  trained 
and  sent  out  its  missionaries  far  and  wide.  The  best  known 
of  them  was  Stephen  Schultz,  who  published  his  experiences 
in  his  Reisen.  When  he  visited  England  in  1749,  he  was 
told  by  the  Secretary  of  the  S.P.C.K.  that  there  were 
many  laymen  in  London  zealous  for  the  conversion  of  the 

On  May  24th,  1759,  there  was  published  in  London  Goldney's 
Epistle  to  the  JewSy  "  wheresoever  scattered  abroad  upon  the 
face  of  the  whole  earth." 

The  S.P.C.K.  likewise  lent  its  aid  to  efforts  to  reach  the 
Jews  about  this  period ;  and  the  Church  of  the  United 
Brethren  of  Moravia  laboured  in  the  same  direction  from 
1738  to  1764.  Missions  to  Jews  were  apparently  advocated 
by  Bishop  Porteus  of  London  (1787 — 1809),  f^^*  ^^e  Rev. 
J.  W.  Cunningham,  preaching  before  our  Society  in  181 5, 
said  : 

It  is  my  hope  that  none  who  hear  me  on  the  present  occasion,  and  especially 
none  who  are  qualified  for  missionary  exertions,  will  forget  that  our  own  country 
is  a  very  small  part  of  the  sphere  to  which  the  operations  of  this  Society  should  be 
extended.  I  remember  to  have  heard  the  late  venerable  Bishop  Porteus,  not  long 
before  his  death,  standing  as  it  were  upon  the  very  verge  of  heaven,  and  thence 
perhaps  catching  some  more  than  common  glimpse  of  the  glories  within,  use  his 
expiring  strength  to  stimulate  his  countrymen  to  become  the  apostles  of  the  land 
of  Israel. 

Bishop  Home  of  Nonvich  (1790 — 2),  writing  on  Psalm 
cvii.  33,  spoke  of  the  privileges  derived  from  the  Jews,  and 
his  Case  of  the  Jeivs,  published  in  the  Society's  magazine 
(18 1 3),  is  an  eloquent  appeal  for  "the  preparation  of  our  elder 
brethren  "  for  the  Messiah. 

12         EARLY    EFFORTS     TO    EVANGELIZE     THE   JEWS 

We  have  now  reached  the  time  when  Christians  at  home 
were  to  become  more  alive  to  the  spiritual  needs  of  the  Jews. 
It  is  strange  that  this  feeling  did  not  arise  until  after  the 
realization,  that  the  heathen  were  perishing  without  the  true 
knowledge  of  God,  had  stirred  men*s  minds  to  found  mis- 
sionary organizations  for  them.  The  Society  for  Promoting 
Christian  Knowledge,  founded  in  1698,  and  the  Society  for 
the  Propagation  of  the  Gospel,  which  had  been  founded  in 
1 701,  were  primarily  intended  for  our  own  colonies  and 
dependencies  in  foreign  parts.  These  two  societies  stood 
alone  for  nearly  one  hundred  years.  Then,  in  1792,  was 
founded  the  Baptist  Missionary  Society ;  three  years  later,  in 
1795,  The  Missionary  Society,  afterward  called  the  London 
Missionary  Society  ;  in  1799,  the  Church  Missionary  Society, 
and  the  Religious  Tract  Society  ;  and,  in  1804,  the  British 
and  Foreign  Bible  Society.  When  Gentiles  had  been  thought 
of,  came  the  turn  of  the  Jews,  thus  inverting  the  Scriptural 
principle,  "  The  Jew  first"  It  is,  indeed,  a  most  remarkable 
thing  that  at  a  period  when  clouds  and  darkness  were  over- 
shadowing England  and  the  Continent  during  the  Napoleonic 
war,  and  great  depression,  financial  and  otherwise,  lay  upon 
our  country,  there  should  have  been  such  an  outburst  of 
missionary  zeal  on  behalf  of  the  non-Christian  part  of  the 
world.  In  1809,  as  we  shall  see  later,  our  own  Society  was 
founded,  which  is  the  oldest,  as  well  as  the  most  extensive 
Jewish  missionary  organization  in  the  world,  and  may  be 
regarded  as  the  mother  Society.  Last  century  (1801  — 1900) 
was  fruitful  in  producing  organizations  for  the  Evangelization 
of  the  Jews.* 

*A  list  of  these  Societies  will  be  found  in  the  author's  Jews  and  their 
Evattgelizaiion^  pp.  19 — 102 ;  and  also  in  the  Year- Book  of  the  Evangelical 
Missions  among  the  Jews  ^  vol.  i.  pp.  93 — 121. 



British  Christianity  and  SU  Augustine— The  Settlement  off  Jews— Roman  times 
5axon  times— The  Conquest— Jews  In  5tamfford,  Oxfford  and  London— William  II. 
and  the  rabbis— Henry  I.  and  Stephen— '* Blood  Accusation*'— St.  Bernard  of 
Clalrvaux— The  Angevin  Kings— Jews  of  Lincoln  and  York— **lvanhoe**— John  and 
Abraham  off  Bristol— Henry  111.— The  **  Domus  Conversorum**— Expulsion  In  reign 
of  Edward  1.— Succeeding  400  years— Menasseh  ben  Israel  and  Cromwell— Under 
the  Stuarts— Oeorglan  and  Victorian  eras— The  present  London  Jewry  :  status, 
numbers,  language  and  religion. 

THE  first  settlement  of  the  Jews  in  England  is  lost  in 
obscurity.  It  was  probably  at  a  very  early  date, 
synchronizing,  it  may  be,  with  the  establishment  of 
Christianity  in  our  land.  Let  us  discuss  the  latter  event  first.  In 
1897  we  celebrated  the  1300th  anniversary  of  the  coming 
of  St.  Augustine  in  A.D.  597.  He  is  said  to  have  brought 
Christianity  to  the  Saxons.  We  do  not  know,  for  certain, 
who  was  the  first  to  introduce  Christianity  into  the  country, 
but  it  could  not  have  been  St.  Augustine  ;  for  when  he  landed 
he  found  a  British  Church  already  existing,  with  bishops, 
clergy,  and  liturg}'  of  her  own.  The  Church  had  been 
founded  in  these  islands  long  before  St.  Augustine's  time,  and 
established,  as  every  other  early  Church — whether  at  Rome, 
Corinth,  Ephesus,  Philippi,  Colossae,  or  Thessalonica — by 
the  preaching  of  the  Gospel  of  our  Lord  and  Saviour  Jesus 

The  probability  is  very  great  that  the  Gospel  was  introduced 
into  Britain  about  the  close  of  the  first  century.  During  the 
Roman  invasion  and  domination  there  existed  a  very  close 
connexion  between  Rome  and  her  tributary,  and  there  was  a 
great  deal  of  coming  and  going  between  Italy  and  Britain, 
owing  to  the  strict  and  wholly  military  occupation  of  our 
country.  The  magnificent  old  Roman  roads  offered  every 
facility  for  this  intercourse  between  Rome  and  her  conquered 
countries.     A  man,  for  instance,  could  ride  in  his  chariot  all 

14  JEWS    IN    ENGLAND 

the  way  from  Byzantium,  on  the  Bosphorus,  to  Boulogne  ;  and 
then  again  from  Dover,  along  Watling  Street,  through  London, 
right  away  to  Cardigan  Bay.  It  is  simply  incredible  that 
everything  else  should  have  travelled  along  the  road  from 
Rome  to  London,  except  the  Gospel  of  Jesus  Christ.  It  must 
have  come,  and  that  early  ;  and,  if  old  writers  can  be  trusted, 
it  did  so  come.*  Gildas,  the  early  British  historian  (6th  cen- 
tury), says  that  Christianity  was  introduced  into  Britain  before 
the  defeat  of  Boadicea,  A.D.  6i.t 

Metaphrastes,  of  Constantinople  (loth  century),  claimed 
St  Peter  as  the  Apostle  of  Britain.  Baronius  also  asserts  that 
he  came  to  Britain,  A.D.  6i,  a  statement  which  is  repeated 
by  Lippomanus  and  Nicephorus.  The  traditions  about  St. 
James,  St.  Simon  Zelotes,  and  St.  Philip,  are  not  supported  by 
any  ancient  authorities.  Others  assigned  British  Christianity 
to  the  efforts  of  Joseph  of  Arimathea.  J  From  the  writings  of 
Clement,  Jerome,  Theodoret,  perhaps  also  Eusebius,  Arnobius, 
Venantius  Fortunatus,  and  others,  many  have  supposed  that 
St.  Paul  preached  the  Gospel  in  Britain.  §    So  Camden,  Parker, 

•  Justin  Martyr  (a.d.  i6o)  says  that  there  was  no  race  of  men,  whether  barbarian 
or  Greek,  among  whom  there  were  no  Christians.  This  would  include  Britain. 
Cum  Tryphone  Judiro  Dialogtis  (Ed.  Thirlby,  London,  1722),  p.  388. 

Irenxus  {circ.  185)  speaks  of  the  propagation  of  the  Gospel  to  the  extremities  of 
the  earth  by  the  Apostles  and  their  disciples,  expressly  naming  the  Celts,  who 
then  inhabited  the  British  Isles.    Adv,  Haeres^  i.,  2  and  3  (Lut.  Par.,  1639),  p.  53. 

TertuUidn  (r.  197)  speaks  of  Christians  in  remote  parts  of  Britain ;  **  Britan- 
norum  inaccessa  Romanis  loca,  Christo  vero  subdita  .  .  .  Chrisli  nomen  regnat 
.  .  .  Christi  nomen  et  regnum  colitur."    Adv.  fudtcos  vii.  (Paris,  1664),  p.  189. 

Origen  (<:.  231)  speaks  to  the  same  effect  :  Horn,  vi.  inLucam, 

t  De  Excidio  Britannuc^  inter  Monumenta  S.  Fatrum  (Bas.,  1569),  p.  833. 

t  In  a  charter  of  Henry  XL,  dated  1185,  the  church  of  Glastonbury  is  said  to 
have  been  erected  **  by  the  very  disciples  of  our  Ix)rd."  Fuller  narrates  that  the 
English  Bishops  present  at  the  Council  of  Basel  claimed  precedence  on  the  ground 
that  the  Britons  had  been  converted  by  Joseph.     History  iv.,  iii.  8. 

§  St.  Clement,  of  Rome,  says,  (Ad Corinthos,  v.  7)  that  St.  Paul  visited  "the 
utmost  bounds  of  the  West "  (ejr*  t6  Tspfia  rrjc  ivatuQ  iXOutv)  an  expression 
which  may  have  covered  the  British  Isles. 

Theodoret,  a  Church  historian  of  the  5th  century,  says  the  Britons  received  the 
Gospel  (Sermon  ix.,  Dc  Legibus^  p.  610,  vol.  iv.,  Paris,  1642);  "Paul  carried 


Usher,  Stillingfleet,  Burgess  •  Cave,  Gibson,  Godwin,  Rapin, 
Short,  and  others.  But  modem  scholars,  such  as  Bishop 
Stubbs,  Mr.  Haddan,  Bishops  Lightfoot  and  Browne  (of  Bris- 
tol), do  not  support  the  Pauline  origin  of  British  Christianity,  t 
Whoever  the  original  preacher  may  have  been,  there  can  be 
little  doubt,  seeing  that  every  tradition  refers  it  to  a  Jewish 
origin,  that  the  first  message  of  salvation  was  delivered  in  our 
land  by  a  Hebrew  Christian.  And  this  is  the  point  we  wish  to 
emphasize  and  enforce.     It  gives  us  a  very  strong  argument, 

salvation  to  the  islands  which  lie  in  the  ocean"  (on  Psalm  cxvi.,  vol.  i.,  p.  871) ; 
and,  "Paul,  after  his  release  from  Rome,  went  to  Spain,  and  thence  carried  the 
light  of  the  Gospel  toother  nations'*  (on  2  Tim.  iv.  17,  vol.  iii.,  p.  506). 

St.  Jerome  says,  **  St.  Paul,  having  been  in  Spain,  went  from  one  ocean  to 
another  .  .  .  and  his  diligence  in  preaching  extended  as  far  as  the  earth  itself" 
(on  Amos).  Again,  '*  St.  Paul,  after  his  imprisonment,  preached  the  Gospel  in 
the  western  parts"  {De  Scripturis  Ecclesia)^  in  which  St  Jerome  probably 
included  Britain  {cf,  Epistola  ad  ManeUam), 

Eusebius  says  that  some  of  the  Apostles  *'  passed  over  the  ocean  to  those  which 
are  called  the  British  Isles  "  (iirl  rdiQ  gaXovfikvac  Bpcravvtcdc  vriaovQ).  Demotisi. 
Evang,  tit.,  7,  p.   1 12,  Paris,  1628. 

Venantius  Fortunatus,  Bishop  of  Poictiers  in  the  6ih  century,  says,  "  Paul, 
having  crossed  the  ocean,  landed  and  preached  in  the  countries  which  the  Briton 
inhabits,  and  in  utmost  Thule*'  ( Vita  S.  Martini^  lib.  iii). 

Sophronius,  patriarch  of  Jerusalem  in  the  7th  century,  speaks  of  St.  Paul's  visit 
to  Britain.     {Sermo  de  Natali, ,  App. ). 

There  can  be  little  doubt  that  early  writers,  both  classical  and  theological,  did 
allude  to  Britain  under  the  terms  western  and  utviost — e  g.,  Catullus,  **  the  utmost 
Britons"  {Epist,  ad  A ure/iufft)  ;  **  that  utmost  island  of  the  west,"  **in  ultima 
occidentis  insula  "  {Epise.  ad  Oesarem^  Carmen  xxix.) ;  Horace,  **  the  Britons  ut- 
most of  the  world  "  {Carm.  i.  35).  So  also  Eusebius,  Chrysostom,  Theodoret, 

It  is  probable  that  the  noble  British  Christians  at  Rome — Pomponia,  wife  of 
Aulus  Plautius,  formerly  governor  of  Britain  ;  and  Claudia,  wife  of  Pudens  (2 
Tim.  iv.  21.  C/.  **  Claudia,  Rufe,  meo  nubit  peregrina  Pudenii,"  and  **  Claudia, 
cceruleis  cum  sit  Rufina  Britannis  edita,"  Martial.  Epigr.  iv.  13  ;  vi.,  53) — would 
have  drawn  the  Apostle's  attention  to  Britain's  need  of  evangelization. 

See  also  Stillingfleet,  Origines  Britannicu:^  c.  i. 

*  Bishop  Burgess  even  says,  **We  may  fairly  conclude  that  the  testimony 
respecting  St.  Paul's  preaching  in  the  utmost  bounds  of  the  westy  that  is,  in 
Britain,  is  indisputable." — Tracts  on  the  Origin  and  Independence  of  the  Atuient 
British  Church  (London,  181 5),  p.  52. 

t  Lightfoot  on  the  passage  in  St.  Clement  says  there  is  **  neither  evidence  nor 
probability  "  for  it. 

16  JEWS    IN    ENGLAND 

in  the  way  of  gratitude,   for  the  promotion  of  Christianity 
amongst  the  Jews. 

Side  by  side  with  the  foregoing  enquiry  as  to  the  introduction 
of  Christianity  into  Britain  runs  another — When  did  Jews  first 
visit  or  settle  in  our  country'  ?  The  terminus  a  quo  can  never 
indeed  be  definitively  settled,  from  the  simple  fact  that  we 
possess  no  evidence  worthy  of  the  name,  English  or  Jewish, 
before  the  Norman  Conquest,  upon  which  to  rely  thoroughly. 

There  are,  however,  many  interesting  conjectures  which 
are  here  given  for  what  they  are  worth.  The  learned  Dr. 
Moses  Margoliouth,  a  missionary  of  our  own  Society, 
calling  to  mind  the  wandering  and  migratory  propensities 
of  the  Jews  ever  since  the  time  of  Abraham,  held  that 
they  visited  these  islands,  as  they  did  other  countries 
remote  from  their  own  before  the  Babylonian  Captivity.* 
Again,  if  Tarshish  be  Tartessus  in  Spain,  the  Israelites  who 
came  as  far  west  as  that,  even  in  Solomon's  time,  may  have 
come  a  little  further  west.  We  know  that  the  Phoenicians  did 
come  to  the  British  Isles  for  tin,  why  not  Jews  also  ?  The 
islands  were  well  known  to  Herodotus,  B.C.  4SO.t  Again, 
there  is  a  certain  affinity  between  the  Hebrew  and  Welsh 
languages,  which  may  point  to  intercourse  between  the  Jews 
and  ancient  Britons.J 

It  has  been  argued  that  because  Jews  were  in  alliance  with 
the  Romans  {cf.  i  Mace.  viii.  22 — 29),  and  even  served  in 
the  Imperial  ranks,  some  would  probably  be  in  the  Roman 
legions  in  Britain  in  the  time  of  Julius  and  successive  Caesars. 
This  does  not  prove  they  settled  here.  Joseph  ben  Gorion, 
an  Italian  Jew,  who  probably  lived  in  the  middle  of  the  tenth 
centur>',  says  g  the  Jews  of  Asia  sent  the  following  letter  to 

*  Histoty  of  the  Jcivs  of  Great  Britain^  vol.  i.,  pp.  I -41. 

t  He  calls  them  Cassiterides,  that  is  "islands  of  tin"  (iii.  115).  The  word 
^r/Vfl/w  is  derived  by  Bochart  from  the  Phoenician  Baratanic^  1.^.,  **  count r>'  of 
tin."     Camden,  however,  derives  it  from  the  Celtic  name  Pr^'dhain. 

X  H  yam  son,  History  of  the  Jews  ^  p.  i. 

§  Ch.  xlvii.,  quoted  in  Tzemach  Davids  by  Rabbi  David  Ganz  ;  and  Margo- 
liouth, History  of  the  Jews  in  Great  Britain^  i.  28. 

IN    SAXON    TIMES  17 

Hyrcanus  the  high  priest:  "Be  it  known  unto  you,  that 
Augustus  Caesar  sent  throughout  all  the  countries  of  his 
dominion,  as  far  as  beyond  the  Indian  Sea,  and  as  far 
as  beyond  the  British  territory,  and  commanded  that  in 
whatever  place  there  be  man  or  woman  of  the  Jewish 
race,  servant  or  hand-maiden,  they  should  be  set  free  without 
any  redemption  money."  Margoliouth,  commenting  on 
this,  says,  "The  Jews  in  this  country  chronicle  the  same 
event  annually  in  their  calendar  in  the  following  words, 
'Augustus's  edict  in  favour  of  the  Jews  in  England.  C.^E. 
15.'"  In  the  Tzemach  David,  a  Hebrew  chronicle  by 
Rabbi  David  Ganz  (a.D.  1592),  we  read  that  Caesar  Augus- 
tus was  "a  lover  of  Israel." 

The  above  legends,  for  they  are  hardly  more,  have  seemed 
to  some  to  establish  a  probability  that  Jews,  at  least  visited 
this  country  during  the  Roman  domination.* 

When  we  come  to  the  Saxon  period  the  evidence  can  hardly 
be  held  to  be  sufficient  to  establish  the  certainty  of  the  pre- 
sence of  Jews  in  this  country.     It  amounts  to  this  ; 

(i.)  The  Liber  Poenitentialis  attributed  to  Theodore,  Arch- 
bishop of  Canterbury  (A.D.  669-690),  contains  enactments 
against  Christians  attending  Jewish  feasts.  So  also  the 
Excerptiones,  or  "Canonical  Excerpts,"  attributed  to  Ecg- 
berht,  Archbishop  of  York  (a.d.  732-766).  Jacobs,  however, 
thinks  these  Jews  were  probably  non-resident,  being  Gallo- 
Jewish  slave-dealers,  visiting  this  country  in  order  to  export 

(ii.)  Ingulphus,  in  his  History  of  Croyland  Abbey,  relates 
that  Whitglaflf,  king  of  Mercia,  granted  a  charter,  in  833,  to 
the  Abbey,  confirming  all  lands  and  other  gifts  which  had 
been  bestowed  upon  it  by  Christians  or  by  Jews.  J 

(iii.)  Basnage  asserts  that  the  Jews  were  banished  from 
England  in  the  beginning  of  the  nth  century,  and  did  not 

*  Margoliouth,  Id,  p.  31,  cf,  Tovey,  Anglia  Judaica,  p.  4. 

t  Jacobs,  y«e;j  of  Angevin  England,  pp.  2,  3. 

X  Ingulphus,  History  of  Croylaftd  Abbey,  p.  9  (now  held  to  be  a  forgery  of  the 
13th  or  14th  century.  See  Jacobs,  Jews  of  Angevin  England,  p.  300  ;  and  cf  Dr. 
Robinson,  Historical  Character  of  St,  Jokn^s  Gospel,  p.  49.) 


18  JEWS    IN    ENGLAND 

return  till  after  the  Conquest.*  W^ith  this  agrees  Lindo,  who 
says  explicitly,  ''CJE.  1020  Canute  banished  the  Jews  from 
England."t  We  do  not  know,  however,  the  ultimate  authority 
for  these  statements. 

(iv.)  In  certain  laws,  attributed  to  Edward  the  Confessor,  it 
is  enacted  that  Jews,  and  all  that  they  have,  belong  to  the 
king.  X 

There  is  nothing  in  the  foregoing  statements  to  prove  that 
Jews  were  domiciled  in  England  before  the  Conquest. 

Many  Jews  came  over  to  England  during  the  reign  of 
William  I.  (1066 — 1087),  from  whom  they  are  said  to  have 
purchased  the  right  to  do  so.  They  settled  at  Stamford,  § 
Oxford,  and  also  in  London,  especially  in  the  neighbour- 
hood of  the  Tower,  where  they  would  be  under  the  imme- 
diate protection  of  the  king.  The  Crown  claimed  entire 
jurisdiction  over  the  Jews  of  England,  and  they  were  known 
as  **  the  king's  men  " — they  and  theirs  belonging  exclusively 
to  the  monarch. 

About  the  year  1075  the  Jews  appear  to  have  been  very 
numerous  at  Oxford,  where  they  let  houses — Lombard  Hall> 
Moses  Hall,  and  Jacob  Hall — to  the  students  whom  they 
instructed  in  Hebrew.  I  William  H.  (1087 — iioo)  befriended 
the  Jews,and  convened  a  meeting  between  the  Bishops  and  some 
leading  rabbis,  for  the  discussion  of  the  respective  merits  of 
Christianity  and  Judaism,  and  actually  went  so  far  as  to  swear 
"  by  the  face  of  St.  Luke  "  that  if  the  Jews  came  off  best,  he 
would  himself  embrace  their  faith.  Both  parties  claimed  the 
victory-.  The  king  continued  to  lend  his  countenance  to  the 
Jews,  and  even  farmed  to  them  vacant  bishoprics.  They 
were  not  allowed  a  burial  ground,  but  might  bur}*  their  dead 

*  Basnage,  History  of  ihc/ca's,  vii.  x.  iS. 

\  Jewish  Calendar  for  Sixty -four  Years  {1^-^%). 

^Jacobs,  mjeu's  in  Anoevin  England {\i.  3),  says  that  this  particular  clause 
was  an  interpolation  in  the  reign  of  Henry  II. 

§  Peck,  Antiquarian  Annals  of  Stamford ^  Hk.  iv.  ch.  ii. 

[I  Wood,  Histoty  and  Antiquities  of  the  University  of  Oxford^  Bk.  i.  p.  46. 


in  St.  Giles,'  Cripplegate,*  which  came  to  be  called  "  The 
Jews'  Garden." 

During  the  reign  of  Henry  I.  (iioo — 1135)  the  Jews 
continued  to  multiply  and  prosper,  and  even  attempted  to 
proselytize,  for  we  read  of  monks  being  sent  to  towns  where 
they  resided,  in  order  to  counteract  their  efforts. 

With  the  accession  of  Stephen  (1135),  the  troubles  of  the 
Jews  commenced  in  real  earnest,  and  from  thence  right 
onward  to  their  expulsion  from  England  in  1290,!  their 
histor>'  is  full  of  "  lamentation,  and  mourning,  and  woe  " — a 
state  of  things  which  reflects  lasting  discredit  upon  kings, 
Church,  and  people,  during  this  long  period.  If  the  information 
had  come  to  us  through  Jewish  channels  we  must  have  deemed 
it  utterly  incredible  ;  seeing,  however,  that  it  is  derived  from 
Christian  historians,  we  must  perforce  sorrowfully  admit  its 
accuracy,  in  the  main  outlines  at  least.  But  little  attempt 
can  here  be  made  to  fill  in  the  outlines  of  this  '*  time  of  Jacob's 
trouble  "  ;  which  present  a  monotonous  recurrence  of  imposi- 
tion of  taxes,  false  accusations,  robbery,  pillage,  and  massacre, 
without  regard  to  sex  or  age. 

In  1 141  Stephen  extorted  a  fineof  ;^2,ooo  from  the  London 
Jews  on  a  false  charge  of  manslaughter.  Matilda,  daughter 
of  Henr}^  I.,  during  her  short  tenure  of  power,  compelled 
the  Jews  of  Oxford  to  give  her  money,  an  example 
eagerly  followed  by  Stephen  when  he  came  into  his  own 

It  was  in  1 144  that  the  "  Blood  Accusation  "  was  first  heard 
of  in  England.  The  Jews  of  Norwich  were  calumniously 
charged  with  crucifying  a  lad  named  William,  and  using  his 
blood  in  their  passover,  or  other  ceremonial  rites.  This 
hideous  charge  was  probably  believed  by  the  ignorant 
populace,  just  as  it  is  credited  to-day  in  Eastern  lands,  §  and  it 
was  repeated  more  than  once  against  the  Jews  ;  but,  as  an  old 

*  Milman,  History  of  the  Jews  ^  Bk.  xxv.  231. 
t  See  page  25. 

{  Wood,  History  and  Antiquities  of  Oxford^  Bk.  i.  p.  51. 
§  Sites  and  Scenes  J  I.  pp.  no,  115,  118,  128,  155,  156. 
C  2 

20  JEWS    IN    ENGLAND 

historian  pointedly  observes,  they  are  never  said  to  have 
practised  this  crime  except  at  "  such  times  as  the  king  was 
manifestly  in  great  want  of  money."  * 

In  1 147  St.  Bernard  of  Clairvaux  addressed  the  follow- 
ing noble  encyclical  letter  "  to  the  people  of  England,"  or 
"  to  the  clergy  and  people  of  Eastern  France,"  and  to  German 
Bishops : 

For  the  rest,  my  brethren,  I  advise  you,  or  rather  not  I,  but  the  apostle  of  God 
through  me,  not  to  believe  in  every  impulse.  We  hear  and  rejoice  that  the  real 
of  God  bums  in  you,  but  it  should  not  fail  altogether  to  be  tempered  by  knowledge. 
You  should  not  persecute  the  Jews,  you  should  not  slay  them,  you  should  not  even 
put  them  to  flight.  Consult  the  divine  pages.  I  know  what  is  written  propheti- 
cally of  the  Jews,  "  The  Lord  will  shew  unto  me,"  says  the  Church  (Ps.  lix.  9,  10), 
"  about  mine  enemies  :  do  not  kill  them  :  never  will  my  people  be  forgotten." 
They  are  living  symbols  for  us,  representing  the  Lord's  Passion.  For  this  are 
they  dispersed  to  all  lands,  so  that  while  they  pay  the  just  penalty  of  so  great  a 
crime,  they  may  be  witnesses  for  our  redemption.  Nevertheless  they  will  be 
converted  at  eve,  and  in  time  there  will  be  respect  to  them.  At  last,  says  the 
Apostle  (Rom.  xi.  26),  "When  the  multitude  of  the  heathen  shall  have  entered, 
then  all  Israel  shall  be  safe."  In  the  meantime  he  that  dies  remains  in  death. 
I  keep  silence  on  the  point  that  we  regret  to  see  Christian  usurers  jewing  worse 
than  Jews,  if  indeed  it  is  fit  to  call  them  Christians  and  not  rather  baptized  Jews. 
If  the  Jews  are  altogether  ground  down,  how  in  the  end  shall  their  promised 

salvation  and  conversion  prosper? It  is,  too,  a  mark  of  Christian 

piety,  both  to  war  against  the  proud  and  spare  the  humble,  and  especially  those 
**  of  whom  was  Christ  according  to  the  flesh "  (Rom.  ix.  5).  But  you  may 
demand  from  them,  according  to  the  apostolic  mandate,  that  all  who  take  up  the 
cross  shall  be  freed  by  them  from  all  exaction  of  usury,  f 

Under  the  Angevin  Kings  (1154 — 12 16).  All  things  con- 
sidered, the  reign  of  Henry  II.  was  less  disastrous  to  the  Jews 
than  that  which  preceded  and  those  which  followed  it,  and  the 
monarch  even  granted  them  cemeteries  outside  eveiy  town 
where  they  resided.  Still,  severe  pecuniary  measures  were 
dealt  out  against  them,  amounting,  on  one  occasion,  to  an 
extortion  of  a  quarter  of  their  property.  On  another  occasion 
they  had  the  privilege  of  contributing  ;^6o,ooo  toward  the 
Third  Crusade,  the  entire  Christian  population  of  England 
being  mulcted  at  £yopoo  only.  Moreover,  the  "Blood 
Accusation  "  cropped  up  again  at  Gloucester  and  Bury   St. 

*  Tovey,  Anglia  Judaica^  p.  1 1. 
'\]2L.coh%^  Jews  of  Angevin  England y  p.  22. 

REIGN    OF    RICHARD    L  21 

Edmunds,  with  the  usual  result  to  the  royal  coffers.  Notwith- 
standing, the  Jews  prospered  in  commerce  and  in  the  pursuit  of 
arts  and  literature.  They  had  schools  of  learning  in  London, 
Cambridge,  Lincoln,  Lynn,  Norwich,  Oxford  and  York,  of 
which  even  Christians  were  not  slow  to  take  advantage. 
England  thus  felt  some  rays  of  that  brilliant  light  of  Jewish 
culture  which  was  shining  in  Spain  during  the  same 
period.  ♦ 

It  was  during  the  reign  of  Henry  IL,  probably  in  1 158,  that 
the  celebrated  Rabbi  Abraham  Ibn  Ezra  visited  London,  where 
he  wrote  some  of  his  works,  amongst  them  a  treatise  called 
Yesod  Mora,  i>.,  "  Foundation  of  Religion." 

Jewish  hopes  for  better  things  ran  high  upon  the  accession 
of  Richard  Coeur  de  Lion,  the  reason  for  which  is  difficult  to 
find,  seeing  that  the  warrior-king  would  scarcely  be  likely  to 
view  with  favour  those  whom  the  Crusaders  regarded  as  the 
enemies  of  Christ.  The  Jews  were  soon  undeceived. 
Forbidden  to  attend  the  coronation,  some  of  their  number, 
nevertheless,  did  so.  This  disobedience  to  the  royal  command 
enraged  the  populace,  who  mercilessly  attacked  those  Jews 
who  were  present  at  the  ceremonial.  The  same  night  the 
Jews  of  London  generally  were  sought  out,  and  pillage  and 
massacre  followed.  The  slaughter  ceased  only  when  the 
mob  were  glutted  with  blood.  A  celebrated  rabbi,  Jacob  of 
Orleans,  was  put  to  death  amongst  others.  A  compatriot,  Rabbi 
Gedeliah  ben  Joseph,  thus  recorded  the  shocking  event : — 
"  Our  rabbi,  Jacob  of  Orleans,  was  put  to  death  in  glorification 
of  God's  name,  and  many  other  Jews  with  him."  t  An 
enquiry  into  these  sanguinary  riots  proved  abortive,  as  might 
have  been  predicted.  It  was  at  this  juncture  that  a  Jew  of 
York,  Benedict  by  name,  who  happened  to  be  in  London,  was 
ordered  to  embrace  Christianity.  He  was  forcibly  baptized. 
He  confessed  to  Richard  that  he  still  retained  his  former  faith, 
whereupon  the  King  asked  the  Archbishop  of  Canterbury, 
who  was  present,  what  punishment  he  ought  to  receive  for  his 
apostasy?     "  Not  any,"  was  the  answer  ;  "for  if  he  will  not  be 

*  See  page  139. 

t  ShahheUth  Hakahbaiah,  quoted  mjews  in  Great  Britain,  i.  91. 

22  JEWS    IN    ENGLAND 

a  servant  of  God,  let  him  be  a  servant  of  the  devil."  The  citizens 
of  Norwich,  Lynn,  Stamford,  and  Bury  St.  Edmunds,  who 
were,  perhaps,  inflamed  by  fanatical  friars  then  preaching  the 
Third  Crusade,  followed  the  example  of  those  of  London  in 
maltreating  the  Jews ;  whilst  in  some  other  towns  the  Jews 
saved  themselves  by  submitting  to  baptism.  At  Lincoln  they 
escaped  with  their  effects  into  the  castle,  having  bought  this 
privilege  of  sanctuary  at  a  very  high  price. 

It  was  at  York  that  the  Jews  suffered  most  terribly.  The 
houses  of  Benedict  and  other  wealthy  Jews  were  seized,  and 
the  residents  murdered.  Hundreds  of  Jews  escaped  with  their 
families  into  the  castle.  A  monk  inflamed  the  fury  of  the 
rabble  who  attacked  it,  crying  out,  "  Destroy  the  enemies  of 
Christ !  Destroy  the  enemies  of  Christ ! "  Finding  their  fate 
inevitable,  after  a  desperate  resistance,  the  Jews,  stimulated  by 
a  venerable  rabbi,  set  fire  to  the  castle  and  destroyed  their 
families  and  themselves.  The  numbers  who  were  massacred 
at  York,  one  way  or  another,  were  variously  estimated  at  from 
500  to  1,500.  No  doubt  the  citizens  of  York  found  this  a 
short  and  easy  way  of  ridding  themselves  of  their  creditors. 

Sir  Walter  Scott  has  eloquently  described  *  the  terrible 
position  of  the  Jews  in  England  at  this  period  : 

Except,  perhaps,  the  flying  fish,  there  was  no  race  existing  on  the  earth,  in  the 
air,  or  the  waters,  who  were  the  object  of  such  an  unintermitting,  general, 
and  relentless  persecution  as  the  Jews  of  this  period.  Upon  the  slightest  and 
most  unreasonable  pretences,  as  well  as  upon  accusations  the  most  absurd  and 
groundless,  their  persons  and  property  were  exposed  to  every  turn  of  popular  fury. 

The  same  writer  also  put  into  the  mouth  of  a  Jewish  maiden 
of  that  age : 

Such  is  no  safe  abode  for  the  children  of  my  people.  Ephraim  is  an  heartless  dove — 
Issachar  an  over-laboured  drudge,  which  stoops  between  two  burdens.  Not  in  a 
land  of  war  and  blood,  surrounded  by  hostile  neighbours,  and  distracted  by 
internal  factions,  can  Israel  hope  to  rest  during  her  wanderings,  t 

Richard  established  what  was  called  the  "Exchequer  of  the 
Jews."  Their  property  was  scheduled,  and  their  wealth  esti- 
mated, ostensibly  that  the  same  might  be  protected,  in  reality 
that  the  king  might  draw  upon  it  at  his  pleasure.     They  thus 

*  Ivanhoe,  ch,   vi.  f /</.,  ch.  xliv. 

REIGN    OF  JOHN  23 

obtained  rest  from  their  enemies,  but  at  very  great  cost  to 

Nothing  good  could  the  Jews  expect  from  John  when  he  came 
to  the  throne.  He  took  full  advantage  of  the  "  Exchequer," 
and  obtained  whatever  supplies  he  coveted.  To  allay  the 
growing  fears  of  the  Jews  he  granted  them  a  charter  of  liberty 
and  privileges,  accepting  their  appointment  of  one  Jacob  of 
London  as  their  chief  rabbi  ("presbyteratus  omnium  Judaeorum 
totius  Angliae"),  whom  he  called  "  our  dear  friend."  The  sum 
of  4,000  marks  was  the  price  paid  for  these  privileges.  The 
net  was  spread,  and  the  Jewish  birds  flew  over  from  the 
Continent  in  pursuit  of  wealth.  When  they  had  amassed  it, 
the  king  came  down  upon  them  and  extorted  66,000  marks, 
a  very  considerable  sum  in  those  days.  Payment  was 
enforced  by  imprisonment  or  torture.  Many  victims  were 
deprived  of  one  eye.*  One  Jew,  Abraham  of  Bristol,  suffered 
the  loss  of  a  tooth  per  diem  for  seven  days,  rather  than  pay 
his  share  of  the  levy.  It  cost  him  10,000  marks  to  save  his 
last  solitary  tooth.  In  fact,  the  Jews  proved  a  veritable  gold 
mine,  thoroughly  well  worked  when  the  king  was  in  need  of 
money.  John's  death  must  have  been  a  relief  to  the  Jews. 
"  Thank  God  that  there  was  only  one  king  John,"  was  the 
exclamation  of  a  modern  Jew.f 

In  1 21 3  Richard,  a  prior  of  Bermondsey,  opened  a 
"  Hospital  of  Converts  "  for  the  reception  of  Christian  Jews. 
There  was  a  similar  institution  at  Oxford  circ,  1289.  % 

There  was  some  amelioration  in  the  unenviable  lot  of  the 
Jews  during  the  minority  of  Henry  III.  The  Earl  of  Pembroke, 
the  enlightened  and  just  Regent,  lifted  their  burdens,  opened 
the  prison  doors,  and  enacted  that  the  property  of  the  Jews 
of  London,  Bristol,  Gloucester,  Hereford,  Lincoln,  North- 
ampton, Oxford,  Southampton,  Stamford,  Warwick,  Winchester, 
Worcester,  and  York  should  be  inviolate.  John's  charter  was 
re-confirmed.  This  happier  state  of  things  lasted  also 
throughout  the  regency  of  Hubert  de  Burgh.     There  was  one 

*  Margoliouth  thinks  thb  was  the  origin  of  the  phrase,  "  worth  a  Jew's  eye." 
t  Margoliouth,  History,  p.  132.     %  Wood,  History  of  Oxford,  Bk.  i.  p.  132. 

24  JEWS    IN    ENGLAND 

questionable  privilege  which  the  Jews  enjoyed,  that  of  being 
compelled,  for  their  protection  it  was  alleged,  to  wear  upon 
their  breast  a  distinctive  badge  of  linen  or  wool.  This  cut 
two  ways.  It  also  marked  them  out,  and  prevented  both  them 
and  their  wealth,  which  was  more  to  the  purpose,  as 
subsequent  events  shewed,  from  being  lost  sight  of 

This  era  of  prosperity  attracted  Jews  from  the  Continent,  and 
their  numbers  in  England  rapidly  increased.  Though  the 
wardens  of  the  Cinque  Ports  imprisoned  and  pillaged  the 
immigrants,  the  Crown  stood  by  them  and  shielded  them. 
This  enraged  the  populace,  whose  cupidity  was  fanned  by 
the  Church.  Stephen  Langton,  Archbishop  of  Canterbuiy, 
ordered  that  the  Jews  should  be  severely  ostracised.  No  one 
was  to  trade  with  them,  or  even  to  sell  them  the  necessaries 
of  life ;  and  they  were  not  allowed  to  keep  Christian  servants, 
or  to  erect  any  more  synagogues.  Worst  of  all,  the  doors  of 
all  churches  were  to  be  kept  shut  to  them  ;  and  this  because 
a  deacon  had  turned  Jew,  though  he  was  promptly  hanged  at 
Oxford !  To  such  a  depth  had  the  Christianity  of  our  land 
sunk.  The  kingdom  of  heaven  was  to  be  closed  against  the 
race  to  which  the  Saviour  of  mankind  belonged.  How 
deplorably  true  then  the  words,  "  This  is  Zion,  whom  no  man 
careth  for ! " 

Once  again,  and  for  the  last  time,  the  Crown  interposed.  The 
victims  were  to  be  fleeced  in  another  way.  The  wealth  of  the 
Jews  was  too  much  for  the  king's  cupidity.  A  pretext  for 
despoiling  them  was  soon  found :  they  were  accused  of 
clipping  the  coin  of  the  realm.  They  were  heavily  taxed  again 
and  again,  and  furnished  "  the  sinews  V  for  war  against  France 
(1230-6).  In  the  year  1240  Henry  summoned  a  Parlia- 
mentuvi  Judaicuffiy  composed  of  the  wealthiest  Jews  in  every 
town.  The  hopes  of  the  community  rose  high,  and  they 
looked  for  better  days.  It  was  but  a  fool's  paradise ;  they 
were  called  together  merely  for  the  purpose  of  helping  the 
needy  monarch.  Extortion  succeeded  extortion  in  shameless 
regularity.  Jacob  of  Norwich,  Aaron  of  York,  Abraham  of 
Berkhampstead,  and  Hamon  of  Hereford,  were  some  of  the 
wealthiest  victims.     The  reader  is  referred  to  the  writings  of 


Matthew  Paris,  Agnes  Strickland,  Dr.  Tovey,  J.  E.  Blunt,  W. 
Prynne,  Margoliouth,  Madox,  and  others,  for  details  of  the 
rapacious  plundering  of  the  Jews  during  this  reign.  They 
became  royal  chattels,  now  sold  or  mortgaged  to  Richard  Earl 
of  Cornwall,  who  farmed  them  at  his  will  and  pleasure,  and 
now  to  Prince  Edward.  The  king  varied  his  treatment  by 
opening  a  "  Domus  Conversorum,"  an  institution  for 
converts,  in  Chancery  Lane,  on  the  site  afterward  occupied 
by  the  Rolls  Court ;  one  of  the  conditions  of  entering  which 
and  embracing  the  Christian  faith  was  the  loss  of  all  things. 
No  wonder  the  king  was  eager  for  the  conversion  of  his 
Jewish  subjects ! 

Edward  I.  had  been  brought  up  in  a  bad  school,  and  will- 
ingly followed  in  his  father's  footsteps.  Having  tasted  blood 
he  hastened  to  consume  the  prey.  By  his  Statutum  de 
JudatS7fto  {i2y$)  the  Jews  were  forbidden  to  practise  usury, 
were  obliged  to  engage  in  trade  or  agriculture,  and  to  wear  a 
badge  upon  their  persons.  Tyranny,  slavery,  spoliation,  and 
massacre  sum  up  his  treatment  of  the  ill-fated  people.  The 
old  and  successful  charge  of  "  sweating  "  money  was  levelled 
against  them  once  again.  Most  of  them  were  arrested,  and 
280  executed  in  London  alone.  Shortly  afterward,  in  1290, 
a  decree  was  issued  compelling  all  the  Jews  who  had  escaped 
death  to  quit  these  inhospitable  shores  by  All  Saints'  Day. 
It  was  no  case  of  "  spoiling  the  Egyptians  "  this  time  ;  on  the 
contrary,  the  Jews  themselves  were  hounded  from  town  to  town, 
pillaged  and  robbed,  and  were  victims  of  other  outrages.  A 
story  of  unspeakable  barbarity  is  told  of  the  treatment  which 
some  of  the  refugees  suffered  at  Queenbo rough.  They  were 
left  on  the  shore  at  the  mouth  of  the  river,  the  captain 
jeeringly  advising  them  to  look  to  Moses,  who  had  led  their 
forefathers  through  the  Red  Sea,  to  save  them.  Leaving  them 
to  their  fate,  the  captain  sailed  off  with  their  few  remaining 
effects.  About  15,000  or  16,000  then  fled  the  country,  their 
property  and  mortgages  being  confiscated  by  the  king. 

Thus  ended  the  first  chapter  of  Jewish  history  in  England. 

Much  our  country  lost  during  the  succeeding  four  centuries 
from    the  absence  of  Jewish  industry,  learning,  intelligence 

26  JEWS    IN    ENGLAND 

and  wealth.  How  much  of  the  Divine  blessing  was  forfeited 
from  disobedience  to  the  injunction,  "  Let  My  outcasts  dwell 
with  thee,"  and  disregard  of  the  Divine  warning,  "  Blessed 
is  he  that  blesseth  thee,  and  cursed  be  he  that  curseth  thee," 
can  never  be  known. 

Although  the  enactment  of  Edward  I.  remained  in  force  for 
this  long  period,  there  can  be  little  reasonable  question  that  it 
was  evaded  by  individual  and  adventurous  trading  Jews. 
Dean  Milman  says  : 

It  can  hardly  be  doubted  that  Jews  must  have  walked  the  streets  of  London, 
and,  though  proscribed  by  the  law,  must,  by  tacit,  perhaps  unconscious, 
connivance,  have  taken  some  share  in  the  expanding  commerce  of  England 
during  the  reign  of  the  Tudors.  * 

Where  did  Shakespeare  get  his  portrait  (caricature  ?)  of 
Shylock  from  ?    And,  as  Isaac  Disraeli  asks. 

Had  there  been  no  Jews  in  England  {i.e.  in  the  reigns  of  Elizabeth,  James  I. 
and  Charles  I. ),  would  that  luminary  of  the  law,  Sir  Edward  Coke,  have  needed 
to  inveigh  against  the  Jew  as  *  Infidels  and  Turks  ? '  and  regarded  them  as  *  not 
admissible  as  witnesses  ? ' "  f 

Queen  Elizabeth's  physician  was  a  Jew,  Rodrigo  Lopez  by 
name  ;  and  it  is  highly  probable  that  the  Reformation  lessened 
the  feeling  of  prejudice  against  the  outcast  people,  and  that 
some  of  them  took  advantage  of  this  alteration  in  public 
sentiment,  and  settled  in  England.  Had  it  not  been  for  the  Civil 
War  in  the  first  half  of  the  seventeenth  century,  it  is  more 
than  likely  that  an  attempt  would  have  been  made  to  obtain 
a  national  recognition  of  their  presence  in  this  country. 

Afteranexpatriationof  nearly  400  years,  their  re-settlement 
was  brought  about  by  a  Dutch  Jew — Menasseh  Ben  Israel. 
His  history  is  briefly  this  :  In  1605  ^  family  of  Spanish  Jews, 
Ben  Israel  by  name,  left  the  inhospitable  and  cruel  land 
of  Spain  for  Holland,  the  land  of  freedom.  Menasseh  was 
then  an  infant  in  arms.  At  the  early  age  of  eighteen  he  was 
appointed  rabbi  to  the  Amsterdam  congregation.  In  order 
to  supplement  his  slender  stipend  he  took  to  printing,  and 
published  a  prayer-book  in  Hebrew.  He  afterward  became 
a  voluminous  writer.  The  Conciliator^  and  T/u  Hope  of  Israel^ 

*  History  of  the  /ews  xxviii.  p.  355.         t  Genius  of  Judaism  ^  p.  24. 


being  his  best  known  works.  The  aim  of  his  h'fe  was 
to  secure  for  his  co-religionists  another  such  asylum  as  they 
had  found  in  Holland.  Consequently  he  forwarded  to  Crom- 
well, in  1650,  a  copy  of  his  Hope  of  Israel^  with  petitions  for 
the  re-admission  of  Jews  to  England.  He  also  wrote  a 
pamphlet  entitled  Vindicice  Judceorum,  In  1655  he  arrived  in 
England  in  order  to  have  a  personal  interview  with  the  Pro- 
tector, who  received  him  in  a  kindly  manner.  The  Council, 
however,  rejected  Menasseh's  appeal ;  but,  by  the  help  of 
Cromwell,  the  way  was  prepared,  or  rather  connived  at,  for  the 
Jews  to  return  to  England.  Two  years  later  they  obtained 
for  a  synagogue  a  piece  of  ground  in  Stepney  which  still 
belongs  to  them. 

It  was  said  that,  in  order  to  flatter  the  Protector,  the  Jews 
affected  to  believe  that  he  was  their  Messiah,  and  they  even 
carried  the  farce  so  far  as  to  send  a  deputation  to  Huntingdon 
to  search  into  his  pedigree.  Another  strange  report  was  that 
the  Jews  offered  half-a-million  of  money  for  St.  Paul's  Cathedral 
and  the  Bodleian  Library  for  their  synagogue  !  *  Harrington, 
writing  in  his  Oceana  about  this  time  (1656)  proposed  that 
Ireland  should  be  sold  to  the  Jews,  and  the  government  thus 
relieved  of  that  "  burdensome  stone." 

It  was  reserved  for  Charles  II.  to  give  formal  permission  to 
the  Jews  to  reside  in  Great  Britain.  The  first  community  to 
assemble  in  London,  as  might  have  been  expected,  was  the 
Sephardim,  or  Spanish  and  Portuguese  Jews,  most  of  whom 
came  over  from  Holland,  though  their  numbers  were  reinforced 
to  some  extent  from  Portugal  and  Italy.  As  early  as  1662 
they  had  improvised  a  synagogue  in  King  Street,  Aldgate, 
which  about  100  Jews  attended.  They  were,  probably,  men 
of  means  and  education.  In  1663  the  conversion  of  an  Italian 
rabbi,  Moses  Scialitti,  to  Christianity,  and  his  baptism  in  St. 
Margaret's  Church,  Westminster,  caused  considerable  stir. 
He  was  followed  by  some  of  his  co-religionists,  the  most  note- 
worthy of  whom  was  one  Dupass.  In  1664  the  number  of 
Jews    in    England    increased    considerably.     They  were   not 

*  Jost,  Geschichte  der  IsraelitcHy  vol.  viii.  p.  253. 

28  JEWS    IN    ENGLAND 

regarded  with  any  favour,  though  with  a  certain  amount  of 
curiosity,  and  were  made  to  feel  that  they  were  strangers  in  a 
strange  land.  Indeed,  there  was  talk  of  again  banishing  them, 
and  seizing  their  property.  Charles  II.,  however,  who  had 
probably  been  "  assisted  "  by  the  Jews  to  return  to  England, 
discountenanced  the  idea.  In  1676  a  new  and  large  synagogue 
was  opened  in  Heneage  Lane;  and  in  1699  the  present  building 
in  Bevis  Marks  was  erected. 

James  II.  granted  Jewish  traders  special  advantages,  which 
favour  was  greatly  resented  by  British  merchants.  William  1 1 1., 
who  had  personal  experience  of  the  benefits  accruing  to  his 
own  country  from  the  presence  of  Jews,  was  inclined  to  treat 
them  with  partiality  ;  but  eventually  they  were  placed  under 
severe  disabilities  by  the  Alien  Duties. 

During  the  reigns  of  William  and  Anne  attention  was 
turned  to  the  conversion  of  the  Jews,  and  with  some  success. 
By  the  end  of  the  centur}^  the  Jewish  population  had  risen 
greatly,  owing  to  the  immigration  of  Jews  from  Germany  and 
Poland.  The  presence  of  these  Ashkenazim  was  regarded 
with  much  disdain  and  jealousy  by  the  more  aristocratic 

Since  the  commencement  of  the  eighteenth  century  the 
position  of  the  Jews  in  England  has  undergone  a  complete 
change.  In  1722  a  German  synagogue  was  opened  in  Duke's 
Place,  and,  in  1726,  a  second  in  Fenchurch  Street.  Congrega- 
tions of  Jews  were  also  formed  at  Birmingham,  Bristol, 
Cambridge,  Canterbury',  Chatham,  Edinburgh,  Exeter,  Fal- 
mouth, Glasgow,  Ipswich,  Liverpool,  Manchester,  Penzance 
and  Plymouth.  In  the  time  of  George  II.  there  were  from 
6,000  to  8,000  Jews  in  the  country. 

In  1723  and  1740  two  minor  acts  of  religious  tolerance 
were  passed,  which  were  the  precursors  of  the  Jewish  Natu- 
ralization Act  of  1753.  By  this,  Jews  received  all  the  rights 
of  British  subjects.  The  country^  was  not  yet  ripe  for  such 
toleration.  A  storm  of  fierce  fanaticism  arose,  and  swept 
away  the  obnoxious  act  in  the  following  year.  The  number 
of  Jews  had  then  risen  to  12,000. 

In  1754  the  conversion  of  Sampson  Gideon  (Abudiente),  a 


great  financier,  and  ancestor  of  the  Eardley  family,  produced  a 
great  stir  in  Jewish  circles.  Nor  was  this  a  solitary  instance. 
A  Jewish  writer,  recording  the  fact  of  the  diminution 
of  the  Sephardic  community,  has  been  forced  to  admit 
that  "some  of  the  most  ancient  families  have  wandered 
from  the  pale  of  Judaism,  and  now  rank  among  the  untitled 
nobility  of  Great  Britain...."  Again  he  speaks  of  this 
circumstance  as  "  a  fact  which,  however  painful  it  may  be  to 
Jewish  ears,  must  be  held  to  be  historically  true."  * 

When  Queen  Victoria  ascended  the  throne  in  1837,  certain 
minor  Jewish  disabilities  had  been  removed.  In  1835  the 
office  of  the  shrievalty  for  London  was  thrown  open  to  Jews, 
and  likewise  that  for  Middlesex ;  David  Solomons  being 
elected  to  the  former,and  another  Jew,  Francis  Goldsmid, admit- 
ted to  the  Inns  of  Court.  This  was  about  all ;  although  a  Bill  for 
the  total  removal  of  Jewish  disabilities  had  passed  the  Com- 
mons in  1833,  1834,  and  1836,  only  to  be  thrown  out  each 
time  by  the  Lords. 

Eventually,  in  1858,  a  bill  was  passed  rendering  Jews  eligible 
for  Parliament.  Thus  ended  the  long-continued  struggle  for 
Jewish  emancipation  in  England. 

When  His  Majesty  King  Edward  VII.  came  to  the  throne 
in  1 901,  his  proclamation  to  the  Privy  Council  was  attested  by 
Jews  as  well  as  Christians,  the  first  time  an  English  monarch's 
proclamation  had  been  so  attested. 

From  the  foregoing  summary  of  the  history  of  Jews  in 
England  it  will  be  seen  that  English  Judaism  is  of  compara- 
tively recent  date.  Even  then,  it  would  probably  have  died 
out  again  and  again  had  it  not  been  for  continual  re- 
inforcement by  the  foreign  element.  Jews  resident  in  England 
have  a  tendency  to  become,  in  the  third  or  fourth  generation. 
Englishmen,  losing  both  their  old  nationality  and  their  old 
religion.  Judaism  is,  however,  preserved  by  the  new  arrivals, 
who  come  over  in  a  ceaseless  stream  from  Russia,  settling  at 
first  in  the  East  End,  but  after  a  time  developing  into  English 
Jews  of  Highbury,  or  Maida  Vale.     There  is  always  a  levelling 

*  Picciotto  Sketches  of  Anglo- Jewish  History ^  pp.    161,   196,  cf.  Jewish   Year 
Book^  1907— 1908,  sub.  *•  Celebrities  of  Jewish  Birth  or  Descent,"  p.  289. 

30  JEWS    IN    ENGLAND 

up  going  on.  The  new-comers  naturally  settle  in  a  particular 
district  of  the  East  End — it  is  in  the  neighbourhood  of  the 
docks,  it  is  the  cheapest  locality,  and  has  long  been  regarded 
as  the  Jewish  quarter.  The  Ghetto,  roughly  speaking,  is  the 
block  compressed  within  Bishopsgate  Street,  Shoreditch, 
Bethnal  Green  Road,  Brick  Lane,  Hanbury-  Street,  White- 
chapel  Road,  and  Houndsditch.  This  is  quite  a  foreign 
land.  Foreign  names  abound,  a  foreign  tongue  is  spoken  on 
all  sides.  Although  old  Petticoat  Lane  has  given  place  to 
Middlesex  Street,  this  district  is  still  "  Palestine  in  London  " — 
as  Oriental,  and  as  Jewish  as  ever.  Of  course,  all  the  Jews  are 
not  confined  within  the  limits  named,  or  to  the  parishes 
of  Spitalfields  and  Whitechapel.  They  swarm  into  the 
neighbouring  localities  of  Aldgate,  Mile  End,  Stepney, 
Limehouse,  &c.  The  Anglicised  Jews — "  the  grandchildren 
of  the  Ghetto,"  *  go  as  far  afield  as  Highbury,  Kilburn,  and 
even  Kensington,  and  every  London  suburb. 

In  status^  the  Jews  of  London  range  from  merchant  princes 
to  peddlers  and  hawkers.  As  to  numbers,  it  is  most  difficult 
to  speak  positively,  owing  to  the  absence  of  all  particulars  as 
to  religion  from  the  census  returns.  This  applies  also  to  the 
number  of  Jews  in  the  provinces  as  well  as  in  the  metro- 
polis. According  to  the  Jewish  Year  Book  (1907-8)  there  are 
'  now  220,304  Jews  in  the  British  Isles,  of  whom  142,000  or 
so  are  in  London.  As  to  language,  the  Jews  speak  a  jargon, 
called  Yiddish,  a  mixture  of  German,  Hebrew,  Polish,  and 
English.  As  to  religion,  the  great  majority  of  London  Jews 
adhere  to  the  orthodox  Ashkenazic  ritual.  A  good  proportion, 
however,  continually  growing  in  numbers,  especially  amongst 
the  Anglicized  Jews,  belong  to  what  is  called  the  **  Reform  " 
Synagogue,  rejecting  the  Talmud  altogether,  and  holding 
some  portion  of  their  ser\dces  in  English.  There  is  also  the 
Sephardic,  or  Spanish,  community,  a  small,  but  influential 
and  wealthy  body,  a  sur\^ival  of  the  immigration  from  Holland. 
There  are  altogether  some  20  synagogues  in  London. 

*  See  The  Children  of  the  Ghetto^  by  I.  Zangwill,  for  an  excellent  description 
of  London  Judaism. 

THE      SIX      YEARS. 

0c  strong,  all  i>r  people  of  t^e  lanti,  saitb  t^e  XoxXt,  anti  tooifc ;  for  3  am 
iDtt^  pou,  saiti)  tbe  Horti  of  i)osts. 

Haggai  II.  4. 

FIRST    PERIOD,    18094815. 
THE    SIX    YEARS.    ' 



Preceding:  Events— J.  5.  C.  P.  Prey  aod  the  Loodon  Missioiiary  Society- 
Separate  Orsranlzation  needed— Precursor  of  the  Society— Lectures  to  Jews  in 
Bury  Street— Actuai  Poundatioa  of  the  Society  in  1809— *'  Utopian  Expectations** 
—Reasons  for  Undenonlnatioaal  Basis— Honorary  Officers— ComiBittee—H.R.  If. 
Dulce  of  Kent,  first  Patron— Lord  Barhan,  elected  President— Vice- Presidents - 
Corresponding  Members  —  Country  Directors  —  Rules  —  Secretaries — Trustees — 
Treasurers— Physicians— Scope  of  Work— Sermons  in  Spitalflelds— Lectures  In  Ely 
Place— Schools  and  Industrial  Institutions— Magazines  and  Library— **  Palestine 
Place*'  acquired— Opening  of  the  Episcopal  Jews*  Chapel— Baptisms— Anniversary 
Sermons  — Thomas  Scott  — Meetings— Associations— Deputatlonal  Expenses- 
Difficulties  of  the  Dual  Basis— Theological  Differences— Financial  Position— 
Separation— Sir  Thomas  Baring.  President— Munificence  of  Lewis  Way— Increased 
clerical  support. 

IN  1 801  a  Christian  Jew,  of  the  name  of  Joseph 
Samuel  Christian  Frederick  Frey,  came  to  England 
from  Berlin,  with  two  other  missionary  students, 
Palm  and  Ulbricht,  to  enter  the  service  of  the  London 
Missionary  Society.  "  The  Missionary  Society,"  as  it  was  then 
called,  had  been  founded  in  1795,  on  an  unsectarian  basis. 
In  course  of  time  it  was  called,  as  to-day,  "  The  London  Mis- 
sionary Society,"  to  distinguish  it  from  the  Scotch  Societies, 
and  it  became  practically  a  Nonconformist  organization.  Frey, 
struck  with  the  spiritual  condition  of  the  Jews  of  London, 
made  known  his  desire  to  remain  here  and  devote  himself  to 
preaching  the  Gospel  to  his  brethren.  His  request  was 
granted,  and  he  pursued  a  course  of  preparation  for  his  work 
until  May  1805,  when  he  entered  on  his  duties  as  a 
missionary  to  the  Jews,  under  the  auspices  of  the  London 
Missionary  Society.  The  efforts  made  consisted  of  little  more 
than  the  delivery  of  sermons  and  addresses  in  Bury  Street, 
specially  to  Jews,  and  the  establishment  of  a  free  school  for 
Jewish  boys  and  girls. 


34  FORMATION    OF    THE    SOCIETY  [1809 

It  was  very  soon  discovered  that  this  work  required  a 
separate  organization  of  its  own,  and  could  not  possibly 
be  conducted  merely  as  the  appendage  to  a  general  mission- 
ary society.  Consequently,  on  August  4th,  1808,  at  Artillery 
Street  Chapel  in  the  East  End,  a  small  and  unpretending 
association,consistingof  a  few  influential  men,  was  formed  under 
the  title  of  "The  London  Society  for  the  purpose  of  visiting  and 
relieving  the  sick  and  distressed,  and  instructing  the  ignorant, 
especially  such  as  are  of  the  Jewish  nation,"  with  Mr.  Frey  as 
President.  The  benefits  offered  appear  to  have  been  of  a 
spiritual  and  temporal  character,  operations  amongst  the 
Jews  being  undoubtedly  the  most  prominent,  though  not  the 
exclusive,  objects  of  the  Society.  Religious  publications,  cal- 
culated to  remove  Jewish  prejudices  and  objections  to  Christ- 
ianity, were  issued,  and  lectures  given  to  Jews  in  Bury  Street. 

A  very  short  experience  sufficed  to  demonstrate  that  a 
wrong  beginning  had  been  made.  The  union  of  Gentile  and 
Jewish  work  proved  to  be  impracticable,  and  well-nigh  impossi- 
ble. History  had  repeated  itself.  The  Apostolic  arrangement, 
that  some  should  go  to  "  the  Circumcision,"  and  others  to 
"  the  Uncircumcision,"  was  found  to  be  the  best  even  in  the 
nineteenth  century.  And  so  it  was  deemed  expedient  to 
remodel  the  Society,  and,  in  fact,  to  make  a  new  start.  This 
was  all  the  more  necessary  as  the  formation  of  this  Society 
had  called  forth  a  protest  from  "  The  Missionary  Society,"  as 
being  an  invasion  of  their  field.  The  new  Society,  however, 
held  its  ground.  The  Committee,  persuaded  of  "  the  declining 
state  of  the  Jewish  affairs  under  the  Missionary  Society, 
arising  as  they  conceive  from  the  multiplicity  of  the  objects," 
and  from  the  fact  that  the  members  were  "  either  professedly, 
or  by  reputation.  Dissenters,"  resolved  on  February  isth,  1809, 
"That  in  future  this  Society  shall  be  denominated  the 
London  Society  for  the  Promotion  of  Christianity  amongst  the 
Jews,"  subsequently  modified  into  "for  Promoting  Christianity 
amongst  the  Jews."  The  title  is  indeed  a  lengthy  one,  and 
has  often  been  felt  to  be  unwieldy,  although  it  exactly  formu- 
lates the  objects  of  the  Society,  as  being  for  the  extension 
and  diffusion  of  Christianity  amongst  this  ancient  people,  and 

i8i5]  NO    SPECIAL    PROPHETICAL     VIEWS  35 

not  the  conversion  of  the  entire  race — a  consummation  not  to 
be  expected  during  this  dispensation.  It  is  doubtful,  hgwever, 
if  the  founders  restricted  the  title  to  this  sense.  For,  whilst 
noting  that  there  were  "  not  less  than  thirty  converted  Jews 
and  Jewesses  in  His  Majesty's  Dominions,"  they  added,  "these 
we  consider  as  the  earnest  of  that  great  harvest  of  Israel 
which  the  prophets  have  predicted."  And  they  asked, 
referring  to  Missions  to  the  Heathen,  "Should  not  similar 
efforts  be  made  that  all  Israel  may  be  saved  ?  " 

It  was,  however,  fully  recognized  that  the  duty  of  support- 
ing Missions  to  the  Jews  was  altogether  a  thing  apart  from 
the  necessity  of  holding  any  special  views  on  prophecy.*  The 
Second  Report  contained  these  words  : 

A  charge  of  enthusiasm  has  been  made  by  some  persons  concerning  the  views  of 
the  Society  ;  and  it  has  been  asserted  that  your  Committee  are  influenced  by  foolish 
and  Utopian  expectations.  Your  Committee  have  already  expressed  their  senti- 
ments in  respect  of  the  present  circumstances  and  events  of  the  world.  They 
certainly  consider  the  occurrences  of  a  few  years  past  as  peculiarly  awful  and  sur- 
prising, and  are  roused  to  exertion  by  the  signs  of  the  times.  Nevertheless,  they 
are  not  determined  to  any  measures  which  they  adopt  by  visionary  and  uncertain 
calculations.  They  wish  to  distinguish  between  the  restoration  of  Israel  to  their 
own  country,  and  the  conversion  of  Israel  to  Christianity.  If  nothing  peculiar 
appeared  in  the  aspect  of  the  times — if  neither  Jews  nor  Christians  believed  the 
future  restoration  of  Israel — if  no  exposition  of  prophecy  had  awakened  attention 
or  excited  expectation  in  men's  minds — if  it  were  possible  to  place  things  as  they 
stood  many  centuries  ago — still  your  Committee  would  urge  the  importance  and  pro- 
priety of  establishing  a  Jewish  Mission.  They  cannot  conceive  any  just  reason  why 
the  Jews  should  be  wholly  neglected,  and  no  means  employed  for  their  conversion.! 

Unfortunately,  one  mistake  was  to  be  perpetuated  in  the 
new  Society  ;  not,  indeed,  in  its  objects,  henceforth  limited  to 
Jews,  but  in  its  very  constitution. 

The  reasons  which  led  to  the  formation  of  this  separate 
and  unsectarian  Society  are  set  forth  at  length  in  the  Report 
presented  at  the  meeting  held  at  the  end  of  the  first  half-year. 
This  Report  is  strangely  entitled  "  Report  of  the  Com- 
mittee," as  also  the  nine  following  Reports,  after  which, 
"  Report  of  the  London  Society  "  became  the  title.  Some  of 
its  words  may  be  quoted  : 

*  See  also  pages  71  and  211. 
iSecoftd  Report  (1810),  p.  23. 

D  2 

36  FORMATION    OF    THE    SOCIETY  [1809 

We  have  thought  it  proper  and  suitable,  to  the  glor}*  of  God,  to  establish  a 
Society  for  the  SOLE  purpose  of  exciting  the  attention  of  the  Jews  to  the  words 
of  eternal  salvation  ;  and  when  we  consider  the  various  objects  which  present 
themselves,  as  needful  to  be  attended  to,  we  feel  the  propriety  of  a  complete  union 
of  prayer,  talents  and  exertions ;  and  it  is  our  earnest  desire  that  the  word 
dtnomination  may  be  lost  in  that  of  Christianity^  in  support  of  an  institution  of 
such  great  importance. 

Consequently  it  was  formed,  after  the  model  of  the  British 
and  Foreign  Bible  Society,  on  a  dual  basis — Church  of  Eng- 
land and  Dissent— and  it  necessarily  contained  within  itself  the 
germs  of  decay  and  dissolution,  as  will  be  evident  hereafter. 
Unbounded  praise,  however,  and  all  credit  and  honour  must  be 
given  to  the  zeal  of  its  founders,  who  declared  themselves 
anxious  to  avoid  all  appearance  of  party  spirit,  and  invited 
the  co-operation  of  Christians  of  every  denomination.  They 
conceived  that  no  jealousy  or  suspicion  of  each  other  could 
exist  in  the  minds  of  good  men,  when  the  one  supreme 
object  of  the  Society  was  properly  understood— namely,  to 
teach  Jews  that  Jesus  Christ  is  the  true  Messiah.  It  seems, 
however,  incredible  to  us,  with  our  knowledge  of  the  difficul- 
ties that  must  surely  arise  in  undenominational — or,  shall 
we  say,  inter-denominational? — organizations,  that  a  little 
more  discretion  was  not  exercised  in  the  formation  of  the 
Society,  and  allowed  to  temper  the  early  zeal  and  love  which 
were  lavished  on  the  cause  in  no  stinted  measure.  However, 
experience  has  to  be  gained  in  spiritual  as  well  as  in  worldly 
enterprises.  Difficulties  arose  which  eventually  led  to  disin- 

The  first  published  list  gives  the  names  of  seven  Vice- 
Presidents,  and  nineteen  members  of  Committee,  of  whom  only 
two  were  clergymen — the  Rev  William  Gurney,  rector  of 
St.  Clement  Danes,  Strand,  and  the  Rev.  J.  Wilcox,  minister 
of  Ely  Chapel,  and  lecturer  at  St.  George's,  Southwark — two 
Nonconformist  ministers,  and  fifteen  laymen.  Subsequently 
the  names  of  William  Goode,  vicar  of  St.  Anne's,  Blackfriars, 
William  Mann,  vicar  of  St.  Simon's-in-the-Borough,  and  Basil 
Wtxxid,  minister  of  Bentinck  Chapel,  Marjlebone,  appear  on 
the  list.  The  Committee  were  divided  into  four  sub-Commit- 
tees, for  ( i"^  Religious  affairs,  (2)Temporal  concerns,  (3)  Literarj- 

H.R.H.   The    Duke    of    Kent. 

i8i5]  DUKE    OF    KENT,    PATRON  37 

objects,  (4)  Charity  and  Free  Schools  and  Industrial  Schools. 
A  Finance  sub-Committee  was  subsequently  added,  and  a 
Ladies'  Committee  for  "superintending  all  the  household 
concerns,"  presumably  of  the  schools.  The  Committee  met 
at  various  places  :  Sion  College  Gardens,  the  King's  Head  in 
the  Poultry,  and  afterward  in  the  vestry  of  the  Jews'  Chapel, 
Spitalfields,  which  we  shall  see  was  soon  acquired. 

His  Royal  Highness  the  Prince  Regent,  afterward 
George  IV.,  was  invited  to  become  the  first  Patron  of  the 
Society.  This  invitation  not  being  accepted,  his  Royal 
Highness  the  Duke  of  Kent,  grandfather  of  King  Edward  VII., 
was  elected  to  the  position,  holding  it  from  181 3  to  1815. 

Lord  Barham  was  elected  President  of  the  Society  in  18 10, 
and  again  in  181 1,  and  is  so  announced  in  the  third  and 
fourth  Reports.  Amongst  the  Vice-Presidents  within  the 
next  few  years  appear  the  names  of  the  Duke  of 
Devonshire  ;  the  Earls  of  Bessborough,  Crawford  and  Lindsay, 
Egmont,  Grosvenor,  and  Stamford  and  Warrington ;  Viscount 
Northland,  Lords  Calthorpe,  Dundas,  Erskine,  and  Robert 
Seymour ;  the  Hon.  Charles  Noel  Noel,  subsequently  Lord 
Barham  and  first  Earl  of  Gainsborough ;  three  Irish  Bishops, 
Bennett  of  Cloyne,  Lord  Tottenham  of  Killaloe,  and 
O'Beime  of  Meath  ;  Dr.  Ryder,  Dean  of  Wells,  subsequently 
Bishop  of  Gloucester,  and  of  Lichfield  and  Coventry  ;  the 
Rt.Hon.  Nicholas  Vansittart,Chancellor  of  the  Exchequer,  sub- 
sequently Lord  Bexley ;  Lewis  Way,  William  Wilberforce, 
and  his  intimate  friend,  Thomas  Babington,  both  Members 
of  Parliament,  Thomas  Read  Kemp,  M.P.,  Sir  George 
Leith,  Bart,  Sir  T.  Bernard,  Bart.  (Treasurer  and 
Vice-President  of  the  Foundling  Hospital),  George 
Freke  Evans,  John  Louis  Goldsmid  and  William  Henry 

Several  country  friends  consented  in  18 10  to  become  "Cor- 
responding members "  to  the  Society,  amongst  them  the 
following  well-known  Evangelical  clergy  : — T.  Robinson  of 
Leicester,  T.  T.  Biddulph  of  Bristol,  Charles  Simeon  of 
Cambridge,  T.  Scott  of  Aston  Sandford,  Dr.  Hawker  of  Ply- 
mouth, and  W.  Marsh  of  Basildon.    Shortly  afterward,  Simeon 

38  FORMATION    OF    THE    SOCIETY  [1809 

formed  a  foreign  corresponding  Committee  at  Cambridge 
consisting  of  himself,  Dr.  Jowett,  Mr.  Lowe,  Mr.  Charkson 
(Trinity  College),  Mr.  Preston  and  Mr.  Hodson  (Magdalen). 

In  18 1 3  an  order  of  Country  Directors  was  created,  con- 
taining three  names  :  the  Rev.  T.  S.  Grimshawe,  rector  of 
Burton  Latimer,  William  Marsh,  rector  of  Basildon,  and  Legh 
Richmond,  rector  of  Turvey. 

The  Second  Report  contains  the  original  Rules  of  the 
Society  to  the  number  of  xvi.,  which  were  re-issued  two  years 
later  in  a  modified  form.  It  is  not  necessary  to  give  them  in 
detail.  The  Society  was  to  consist  of  a  Patron,  a  President, 
Vice-Presidents,  a  Treasurer,  and  Life  and  Annual  Members. 
Every  person  subscribing  a  guinea  annually  became  a  mem- 
ber, and  subscribing  ten  guineas,  a  life  member.  The  Com- 
mittee were  to  consist  of  thirty-six  members,  clerical  and  lay, 
and  there  was  provision  for  Secretaries.  The  early  Reports 
were  very  brief  A  minute  of  Committee  in  1810  decided 
that  they  were  to  be  "  made  agreeable  to  all  parties." 

A  word  or  two  ought  to  be  said  about  the  Secretariat. 
The  early  holders  of  the  office  were  honorary.  The  first 
Secretary  was  Mr.  Joseph  Fox,  who  held  office  from  1809  to 
181 1.  In  1810  he  was  joined  by  the  Rev.  Thomas  Fry.  In 
18 1 2  the  Rev.  Dr.  Collyer  became  the  latter*s  colleague.  Both 
retired  in  18 14,  and  were  succeeded  by  the  Rev.  Charles 
Sleech  Hawtrey.*  Mr.  Judah  Uzielli  was  Foreign  Secretary 
from  1809  to  18 1 2,  when  the  post  was  abolished,  and  in  181 1 
Mr.  M.  Collin  was  appointed  Travelling  Secretary.  There  were 
five  successive  assistant  Secretaries  during  the  Period — Mr. 
John  Cherry,  Mr.  John  Neele,  Mr.  John  Simonds,  the  Rev, 
John  Ousby,  and  Mr.  James  Millar, who  also  acted  as  collectors, 
receiving,  in  addition  to  their  salary,  a  "  poundage "  on  all 
contributions  paid  direct,  and  five  per  cent,  of  the  pew  rents 
in  the  Chapel.  The  first  Trustees  were  the  Earl  of 
Crawford  and  Lindsay,  J.  L.  Goldsmid,  Fry  and  Frey. 
The  first  Treasurers  were  Samuel  Fearn  and  Thomas  Charteris, 
who  were  succeeded  by  the  Hon.  Simon  Eraser  in  18 10,  with 

*  See  Appendix  I. 

i8i5]  WORK    IN    LONDON  39 

Mr.  Benjamin  Shaw,  M.P.,  as  sub-Treasurer.  The  latter  was 
Treasurer  from  i8ii  to  1815.  Mr.  Weston  was  appointed 
Surgeon  and  Apothecary  in  1804  \  and  an  honorary  Physician 
in  1 8 14,  in  the  person  of  Dr.  Tempest  Coulthurst, 
and  also  an  "  Apothecary,"  Mr.  Brown. 

The  work  was  conducted,  as  we  have  seen,  on  impracticable 
lines,  and  although  temporal  relief  appears  to  have  still  been  a 
foremost  object,  nevertheless,  earnest  efforts  resulted  in  bring- 
ing the  subject  of  Christianity  prominently  before  the  Jews, 
and  arousing  a  spirit  of  enquiry  amongst  them.  Lectures 
were  given  in  Mr.  Beck's  Meeting  House  in  Bury  Street  by 
Frey,  every  Sunday  evening,  and  "  a  clerk  for  singing  "  was 
engaged.  A  lease  of  the  old  French  Protestant  Church  in 
Brick  Lane,  Spitalfields,  re-named  "  The  Jews'  Chapel," 
was  acquired,  and  sermons  and  lectures  were  given 
therein  to  Jews  on  Sunday,  Wednesday  and  Friday  by 
ministers  of  the  various  denominations.  Quarterly  "  Demon- 
stration Lectures"  were  also  given — t.e,,  demonstrating  our 
Lord  Jesus  Christ  to  be  the  true  Messiah — the  first  being 
delivered  by  the  Rev.  Andrew  Fuller,  of  Kettering,  on  No- 
vember 19th,  1809.  It  is  an  excellent  exposition  of  Messianic 
prophecies,  and  might  serve  as  a  model  even  in  the  present 
day.  Courses  of  sermons  to  the  Jews  were  also  delivered  by 
clergymen  in  the  Episcopal  Chapel,  Ely  Place,  and  other 
Church  of  England  places  of  worship  in  London,  and  also  at 
Bristol,  Chatham  and  Sheerness.  Amongst  the  preachers  we 
find  the  following  noted  Evangelicals  of  the  day  : — B.  W^oodd 
J.  W.  Cunningham  (rector  of  Harrow),  T.  S.  Grimshawe,  W. 
Gurney,  W.  Marsh,  Legh  Richmond,  Thomas  Scott, 
Charles  Simeon,  and  Daniel  Wilson,  afteru'ard  Bishop  of 
Calcutta.  A  dinner  was  given,  to  celebrate  the  success  of 
the  first  year's  work,  in  the  City  of  London  Tavern,  on 
December  27th,  1809,  tickets  being  issued  at  twelve 
shillings  per  head.  They  were,  however,  widely  given 
to  friends,  and  the  Committee  acted  as  stewards.  It 
seems  that  a  "  half-yearly  dinner  "  was  held  for  some 

A  free  school,  established  in  the  Jewish  quarter,  which  had 

40  FORMATION    OF    THE    SOCIETY  [1809 

for  a  time  the  large  attendance  of  from  300  to  400  children, 
attracted  but  a  very  few  Jewish  children.  Another  school  was 
more  successful,  and,  in  the  4th  Report,  issued  in  May  18 12,  the 
Committee  stated  that  83  Jewish  boys  and  girls  had  been  ad- 
mitted. The  same  Report  recorded  41  baptisms  of  adult  Jews. 
Twenty-four  children  and  adults  were  baptized  on  one  day, 
perhaps  the  largest  number  of  Jews  received  into  the  Church 
of  Christ  on  one  occasion  since  Apostolic  days.  Tracts  and 
other  missionary  publications  were  published  and  distributed. 
In  order  to  meet  the  poverty  of  the  Jews,  and  the  opposition 
shewn  to  all  who  wished  to  receive  Christian  instruction, 
small  Labour  Homes  of  Industry  were  tried.  Manufactories 
of  candle-wicks  and  baskets  were  established,  only  to  be 
given  up  after  a  time.  A  Home  for  Jewesses  shared  the 
same  fate.  A  printing  office  for  the  employment  of  converts 
was  the  most  successful  undertaking  of  the  kind,  but  even  this 
was  abandoned  in  18 18,  though  not  before  a  number  of 
missionary  publications  had  been  issued,  including  a  specimen 
of  an  intended  translation  of  the  New  Testament  in  Hebrew, 
and  an  edition  of  Van  der  Hooghfs  Hebrew  Bible. 

The  first  periodical  of  the  Society  was  called  The  Instructor^ 
no  copy  of  which  appears  to  be  extant.  A  larger  publication  in 
which  to  convey  information,  and  arouse  and  sustain  interest 
in  the  work,  was  soon  found  necessary,  and  in  January  1813 
a  new  magazine  was  issued,  entitled  "  The  Jewish  Repository^ 
or  monthly  communications  respecting  the  Jews,  and  the 
proceedings  of  the  London  Society,"  the  publication  of  which 
was  continued  for  three  years. 

In  181 1  the  collection  was  commenced  of  a  Library 
consisting  of  standard  works  on  Hebrew  literature  held 
in  high  repute  among  the  Jews,  and  those  connected  with 
the  Jewish  and  Christian  controversy.  This  was  a  difficult 
undertaking,  for  most  of  the  books  were  scarce,  and  rarely  to 
be  met  with ;  indeed  it  would  appear  from  Bishop  Kidder, 
and  others,  that  Jews  had  spared  no  pains,  in  former  times, 
to  remove  them  out  of  the  reach  of  Christians.  A  good 
start  was  made,  and  there  was  evidently  no  sparing  of 
expense,  as   may  be  seen   from    the    extensive   catalogue, 

i8i5]  FOUNDATION    OF    CHURCH    AND    SCHOOLS  41 

giving  the  dates  of  all  the  purchased  works.  These  were 
deposited  in  the  Jews'  Chapel,  Spitalfields,  and  formed  the 
nucleus  of  the  excellent  Library  now  shelved  in  the  Society's 

The  great  work  of  this  Period  was  the  commencement  of 
the  church  and  schools  in  "Palestine  Place,"  a  ground  acquired 
by  the  Society  in  Bethnal  Green,  on  a  gg  years*  lease.  The 
foundation  stone  of  these  buildings,  wherein  subsequently  so 
much  work  was  accomplished  to  the  glory  of  God  and  the 
salvation  of  many  Jews,  was  laid  by  His  Royal  Highness  the 
Duke  of  Kent,  on  April  7th,  18 13,  in  the  presence  of  nearly 
20,000  spectators,  including  the  Lord  Mayor  and  Sheriffs  of 
London ;  the  Earls  of  Bessborough  and  Crawford  and  Lindsay ; 
Lords  Dundas  and  Erskine  ;  William  Wilberforce,  Thomas 
Babington  and  Lewis  Way.  It  must  have  been  a  gratifying  and 
inspiring  spectacle,  to  judge  from  the  account  of  the  proceedings. 
We  are  amazed  at  the  length  of  the  prayer  then  offered  up  by 
the  Rev.  H.Atkins,  which  occupies  just  five  long  pages  of  closely 
printed  matter!  On  the  conclusion  of  the  ceremony,  the  company 
*'  returned  "  to  the  London  Tavern  to  dine.  The  Duke  presided, 
and  after  the  health  of  His  Majesty, King  George  HI., the  Prince 
Regent,  the  Queen  and  the  Royal  Family  had  been  drunk,  the 
Duke  made  an  interesting  speech  worthy  of  the  great  occasion, 
and  was  followed  by  Mr.  Stevens,  a  member  of  the  Building 
Committee,  and  the  two  Secretaries  of  the  Society.  The 
Jewish  children  were  then  introduced  to  the  Duke,  and  one 
recited  an  appropriate  poem  composed  for  the  occasion.  Three 
of  the  Jewish  boys  sang  Isaiah  ix.  6,  7,  in  Hebrew,  and  after 
the  hymn,  "Not  all  the  blood  of  beasts,"  Dr.  Collyer  announced 
to  the  company  that  His  Royal  Highness  had  become  Patron 
of  the  Society.  Lord  Dundas  then  proposed  his  health,  which 
toast  having  been  acknowledged,  Wilberforce,  the  Bishop  of 
Cloyne,  J.  L.  Goldsmid,  Lewis  Way,  Benjamin  Shaw, 
and  others  addressed  the  assemblage.  The  Duke,  before 
leaving,  announced  that  ;^  1,941  had  been  subscribed  to  the 
building  fund,  he  himself  giving  100  guineas. 

The  church  was  opened  on  July  i6th,  18 14,  and  was  the  first 
place  of  worship  set  apart  in  England  for  Christian  Jews.    Lord 

42  FORMATION    OF    THE    SOCIETY  [1809 

Eardley,  who  was  of  Jewish  descent,gave  100  guineas  to  build  an 
organ.  It  may  be  as  well  to  give  here  a  brief  description  of 
"Palestine  Place,"  as  the  group  of  institutions  within  the 
compound  were  collectively  called,  and  which  for  eighty  years 
formed  the  centre  of  missionary  work  in  London.  It  had  been 
proposed  to  call  one  part  "  Palestine  Buildings,"  another 
"Jerusalem  Place,"  and  a  third  "Kidron"— but  the 
collective  name  "  Palestine  Place "  was  eventually  selected. 
The  institutions  occupied  an  extensive  compound  about  five 
acres  in  area.  On  entering  the  lodge  gates,  which  were 
situated  in  Cambridge  Road,  and  opposite  to  which  the  Cam- 
bridge Heath  station  of  the  Great  Eastern  Railway  was 
afterward  erected,  one  passed  through  an  avenue  of  trees. 
On  the  left  hand  stood  the  Missionary  College,  the  Chaplain's 
residence,  and  several  private  residences ;  on  the  right  side 
the  "  Operative  Jewish  Converts'  Institution,"  and  more 
residences ;  at  the  end  of  the  avenue  stood  the  Society's 
Church,  with  the  Boys'  School  on  its  right,  and  the  Girls' 
School  on  its  left.  The  whole  space  formed  a  delightful  and 
tranquil  retreat  from  the  noise  and  bustle  of  the  busy  main 
thoroughfare,  which  ran  past  the  gates.  To  use  the  eloquent 
words  of  one  who  deeply  loved  the  Jews  : 

"  It  is  a  harbour  of  refuge  to  many  of  *  the  tribes  of  the  wandering  foot.'  Here 
the  friendless  have  found  a  friend,  the  weary  rest,  the  forlorn  comfort,  the  persecuted 
for  righteousness'  sake  a  pause  from  their  trouble,  and  an  opportunity  of  gaining 
power  to  go  forth  again  and  engage  with  some  heart  and  some  hope  in  the  struggle 
of  life."* 

Palestine  Place  is  a  thing  of  the  past  and  to  the  rising  genera- 
tion only  a  name.  They  may,  perhaps,  be  interested  in 
the  following  description  from  the  pen  of  a  German  clergyman, 
Dr.  C.  G,  Barth,  of  Stuttgardt,  who  visited  our  country  in 
1850,  and  spoke  at  the  Annual  Meeting  in  that  year  : 

"  Amongst  the  immense  number  of  the  inhabitants  of  London,  few  are  acquainted 
with  the  miracle  which  is  being  performed  in  the  midst  of  them.  They  scarcely 
know  that,  at  one  of  the  extremities  of  this  vast  city,  there  exists  a  place  called 
Palestine  Place^  nor  do  they  know  what  passes  there.     For  one  who  has,  like 

•  Prebendary  Gordon  Calthrop,  in  the  Home  Visitor ^  quoted  in  Jewish 
Itttellisence^  1874,  p.  213. 





i8i5]  PALESTINE    PLACE  43 

myself,  contemplated  with  my  own  eyes  this  wonderful  work  of  God,  it  is  impossible 
to  conceive  the  objections  that  can  be  made  to  the  conversion  of  the  Jews.  The 
place,  surrounded  by  a  fence,  seems  like  a  small  town,  entirely  separated  from  the 
immense  metropolis,  of  which  it  forms  a  part.  In  the  middle  stand  the  church 
and  the  schools,  and  on  each  side  are  neat  houses  and  their  gardens  ;  at  a  little 
distance  it  looks  like  a  country  seat.  A  Hebrew  inscription  on  the  front  of  the 
church  informs  you  that  it  is  consecrated  to  the  Christian  worship  of  Israel.  The 
service  is  performed  in  Hebrew  and  in  English,  and  the  psalms  are  there  sung  in 
their  own  sacred  tongue  as  of  old  on  Mount  Moriah.  In  the  boys*  school  there 
were  fifty  boys  on  whom  the  influence  of  the  Gospel  was  in  some  measure  visible ; 
and  in  the  other  thirty  (now  fifty)  girl^,  amongst  whom  I  could  also  see  that  the 
heart  as  well  as  the  head  was  the  objeet  of  instruction.  In  the  building  prepared 
for  the  proselytes  I  saw  eighteen  or  twenty  of  these  young  Christians,  busy 
at  different  works,  some  from  Morocco,  some  from  Tunis.  In  a  fourth  establish- 
ment were  the  missionaries,  to  the  number  of  six.  .  .  Such  a  building,  in  such 
a  city,  is  a  miracle  of  God  manifested  before  our  eyes." 

The  number  of  baptisms  through  the  instrumentality  of 
the  Society,  in  different  churches  in  London,  before  the  open- 
ing of  the  chapel  for  Divine  Service,  amounted  to  79. 

The  first  exclusively  Hebrew  Christian  Association  was 
formed  in  the  Jews'  Chapel  on  September  9th,  181 3.  It  was 
entitled  Dm3«  ^33  "  The  Children  of  Abraham,"  and  consisted 
of  forty-one  members,  who  undertook  to  meet  for  prayer  every 
Sunday  morning  and  Friday  evening :  to  attend  Divine 
worship  at  the  chapel,  and  to  visit  daily,  two  by  two  in  rotation, 
any  sick  member,  to  pray  with  him,  and  read  the  Bible  to  him  ; 
and  on  Sunday,  all  who  could  were  to  visit  the  sick  one ! — 
a  proceeding  not  exactly  calculated  to  help  on  his  recovery  ; 
evidently  the  members  were  anxious  to  carry  out  St.  James, 

From  the  first,  Anniversary  Sermons  were  preached  each 
year.*  Thus  two  sermons  were  preached  in  1809,  and  up 
to,  and  including,  18 14.  We  find  the  names  of  the  Revs.  J. 
Wilcox  and  Thomas  Scott,  Dr.  Randolph,  Prebendary  of  Bristol 
and  Chaplain  to  the  Duke  of  York,  Charles  Simeon,  William 
Marsh,  and  Dr.  Ryder,  Dean  of  Wells,  amongst  the  church 
preachers  in  St.  Lawrence  Jewry,  St.  Antholin,  Watling 
Street,  and  St.  Clement  Danes  churches  ;  whilst  the 
Nonconformist    brethren    had   another   anniversary  sermon 

•  A  complete  list  of  Anniversary  Sermons  is  published  in  the  Annual  Reports. 

44  FORMATION    OF    THE    SOCIETY  [1809 

in  the  Jews'  Chapel,  Spitalfields,  which  had  by  arrangement 
been  assigned  to  that  section  of  the  Society. 

The  infant  Society  was  fortunate  in  having  Scott  as  one 
of  the  preachers  in  18 10.  He  occupied  a  leading  position 
amongst  the  Evangelicals  of  the  day.  He  had  waded  in 
early  life  through  doubts  and  difficulties  and  Socinian  views, 
until  at  length  his  feet  were  firmly  fixed  on  the  Rock,  as  his 
Commentary  on  the  Bible,  The  Force  of  Truth,  Essays  and  other 
writings  testify.  It  was  to  these  that  John  Henry  Newman, 
who  was  of  Jewish  descent,  acknowledged  in  his  Apologia  pro 
Vitd  Sudy  "I  almost  owe  my  soul,"  saying  that  it  was  Scott 
who  first  planted  deep  in  his  mind  the  fundamental  doctrine 
of  the  Holy  Trinity.  For  thirteen  years  Scott  was  a  curate, 
successively  at  Stoke  Goldingham,  Ravenstone,  Weston,  and 
lastly  at  Olney,  the  living  erstwhile  of  John  Newton,  whose 
disciple  he  had  been  when  serving  his  curacies  in  the  ad- 
joining parishes,  and  who  was  the  spiritual  father  of  Claudius 
Buchanan,  William  Wilberforce,  Joseph  Milner,  as  well  as 
his  own.  For  the  next  seventeen  years  Scott  was  chaplain 
to  the  Lock  Hospital,  then  in  Grosvenor  Place,  and  he  was 
also  the  first  secretary  of  the  Church  Missionary  Society. 
In  1803  he  was  appointed  rector  of  Aston  Sandford,  where  he 
remained  till  his  death  in  182 1,  He  was  very  poor  through- 
out his  life,  and,  as  Sir  James  Stephen  says : 

He  died  neglected,  if  not  despised  by  the  hierarchy  of  the  Church  of  England, 
although  in  him  she  lost  a  teacher,  weighed  against  whom  those  most  reverend, 
right  reverend,  very  reverend  and  venerable  personages,  if  all  thrown  together  into 
the  opposing  scale,  would  at  once  have  kicked  the  beam.* 

The  sermons  were  not  then  published  in  the  Annual  Reports, 
as  subsequently,  but  separately  in  pamphlet  form.  We  can 
readily  believe  that  they  were  greatly  appreciated  at  the  time 
of  delivery  and  obtained  a  goodly  circulation  in  their  printed 
form.  We  do  not  think  that  many  people  could  or  would 
read  them  now,  although  to  some  few  who  could  give  the 
time  to  them,  and  plenty  of  time  is  needed,  they  might 
prove  very  interesting. 

•  Essays  in  Eccksiastical  Biography,  p.  80. 


The  first  two  Anniversary  Meetings  were  held  in  the 
City  of  London  Tavern,  the  Earl  of  Crawford  and  Lindsay 
presiding  at  both.  William  Wilberforce  presided  at  the 
meeting  in  i8i  i,  in  the  Freemasons*  Hall.  In  1812  the  Bishop 
of  Meath  (O'Beirne)  presided  at  the  Old  London  Tavern,  and 
in  1 81 3  Lord  Dundas  at  the  Freemasons'  Hall.  There  was  a 
goodly  array  of  well-known  speakers  at  this,  the  first 
reported  meeting,  namely,  Gerard  Noel,  Wilberforce,  Dean 
Ryder,  T.  Babington,  Lewis  Way,  Charles  Simeon,  and 
Henry  Thornton  (Treasurer  of  C.M.S.  and  the  Bible  Society), 
the  leader  of  "The  Clapham  Sect."*  In  i8i4the  Duke  of 
Kent  presided,  when  the  speakers  were  Simeon,  Gerard  Noel, 
Wilberforce,  Dr.  Randolph,  Grimshawe  and  Lewis  Way. 

Interest  was  aroused  throughout  the  country  by  means  of 
sermons  and  meetings.  The  following  Auxiliaries  were 
formed  :  Bedford,  Chester,  Dublin,  Edinburgh,  Glasgow,  Hali- 
fax, Hull,  Brighton,  Leicester,  and  York,  in  18 10— 11  ;  Bath, 
Colchester,  Kendal,  and  Shrewsbury  in  1811-12  ;  Cambridge, 
Chester  Ladies,  Liverpool,  and  Manchester,  in  181 2 — 13  ; 
Brighton  in  18 14;  Leeds  Ladies,  Norfolk  and  Norwich  Ladies, 
Yarmouth,  Bristol,  and  Weymouth  in  1815.  Our  Society 
appears  to  have  been  more  fortunate  than  the  C.M.S.  in  start- 
ing  Associations  early  in  its  career.  Mr.  Stock  tells  us 
that  the  first  provincial  association  of  the  C.M.S.  was 
organized  at  Dewsbury  in  181 3,  that  is,  fourteen  years 
after  its  foundation ;  although  a  joint  association  of  the 
C.M.S.  and  the  Jews'  Society  had  been  previously  started 
at  Hatherleigh  in  Devonshire,  t  "  Penny  Societies "  also 
were  established  in  various  parts  of  the  country.  The 
"  Westminster  Auxiliary  Committee,"  composed  of  the  Non- 
conformist section,  rendered  much  help  in  the  way  of  funds 
and  counsel,  and  was  regarded  as  the  premier  Auxiliary 
"  both  from   its  contiguity    and  superior   importance." 

In  many  cases  Associations  were  not  formed  without  great 

•  A  company  of  choice  spirits,  Evangelical  Churchmen,  who  periodically  met  at 
Thornton's  house  on  Clapham  Common. 

^  History  of  the  CMS,  vol.  i.  pp.  1 29,  130. 

46  FORMATION    OF    THE    SOCIETY  [1809 

expense,  incurred  by  coach  travelling  and  hotel  charges.  Thus, 
in  two  years,  from  March  181 1  to  March  181 3,  ;^  1,602  was 
spent;  in  181 1  a  tour  in  Ireland,  lasting  seven  months,  cost 
£2%^  ;  in  October  181 3  a  journey  to  Yorkshire  and  Scotland 
cost  £2y6  ;  in  1814  a  journey  to  Ireland,  ;^i82  ;  and  another 
to  Derby  and  Lancaster,  ;^I23!  The  Income  for  1814-15 
amounted  to  ;^9,S46  14J.  6^.* 

The  opening  of  the  Society's  church  naturally  brought  to 
the  front  some  of  the  difficulties  inseparable  from  a  dual  basis. 
Nonconformists  could  not  officiate  in  the  sacred  building. 
Within  a  very  little  time  these  difficulties  could  no  longer 
be  ignored,  and  they  proved  insurmountable.  The  question 
of  Baptism  alone  was  a  rock  sufficiently  dangerous  to  wreck 
the  Society,  to  say  nothing  of  other  theological  differences. 
So  great,  indeed,  were  the  inconveniences  of  the  double 
constitution  that  it  was  resolved  that  "  the  spiritual  concerns 
of  the  Society,  connected  with  the  chapels,  the  schools,  and 
the  education  of  missionaries,  be  henceforth  separately  con- 
ducted by  the  Churchmen  and  Dissenters  respectively." 
Two  Committees  of  one  Society  "  made  confusion  worse 
confounded."  Moreover,  many  Churchmen  who  had  desired 
to  help  in  the  work  were  unable  to  do  so,  and  stood  aloof, 
on  account  of  their  objections  to  its  constitution. 

There  was  also  the  difficulty  as  to  ways  and  means.  The 
raising  of  funds  was  a  formidable  task.  Churchmen  could  not 
advocate  the  new  Society's  claims  in  dissenting  pulpits, 
neither  could  dissenters  occupy  those  of  the  Church.  And  a 
great  deal  of  money  was  required,  for  the  Society  had  become 
involved  in  a  heavy  debt  Extensive  buildings  had  been 
commenced,  as  we  have  seen,  in  the  shape  of,  church  and 
schools.  How  were  they  to  be  paid  for?  It  was  decided 
that,  as  the  first  step,  the  sum  of  ;^4,ooo  should  be  raised 
by  Churchmen,  and  ;^2,ooo  by  the  Dissenters.  This  was 
more  easily  resolved  than  accomplished.  The  latter  found 
the  task  beyond  their  power,  and  so,  on  February  14th,  1815, 
they  shewed  their  wisdom  in  determining  **  to  withdraw,  in 

*  See  Appendix  II.  for  Income  of  each  year. 


favour  of  such  of  their  brethren  of  the  Estabh'shed  Church  who 
testify  a  lively  zeal  in  this  grand  cause,  possessing  also  means 
of  prosecuting  it"  To  use  the  forcible  language  of  Charles 
Simeon, "  The  dissenting  part  of  the  managers  then  took  to 
the  long  boat,  and  the  Churchmen  set  to  work  at  the  pumps."* 
Thus  Churchmen  became, the  sole  managers  of  the  Society. 

The  necessary  alterations  were  made  in  the  Rules, 
in  order  to  adapt  them  to  the  new  constitution,  and  the 
Society,  at  a  General  Meeting,  on  March  14th,  1815, 
was  declared  to  be  exclusively  a  Church  of  England 
Institution,  "  To  carry  it  out  successfully,  it  will  require  more 
than  the  faith  of  Abraham,  the  perseverance  of  Moses,  and 
the  patience  of  Job,"  said  Lewis  Way.  This  early  friend  of 
the  Society,  and  practically  its  reformer,  was  a  barrister  and 
Fellow  of  Merton  College,  Oxford. f  We  shall  see  in  our  next 
chapter  how  greatly  he  was  aided  by  Charles  Simeon,  who 
had  also  taken  a  leading  part  in  the  formation  of  the  Church 
Missionary  Society,  when  a  few  clergymen  from  1796  onward 
determined  on  the  erection  ot  a  new  Church  missionary 
oi^anization  distinct  from   the    London  Missionary   Society. 

Sir  Thomas  Baring,  Bart.,  M.P.,  became  President  of  the 
Society  in  181 5,  under  the  following  conditions  : 

**  What  was  my  surprise  when,  at  our  first  meeting,  I  found  the  S(x:iely's  debts 
and  liabilities  exceeded  £10^^000,  I  told  him  (Mr.  Way),  on  this  discovery,  that 
I  must  withdraw  myself  from  it,  that  I  never  could  consent  to  connect  myself  with 
a  society  in  debt,  and  that  I  saw  no  remote  probability  of  its  relieving  itself  from 
its  difficulties.  Now  mark  what  this  great  and  goo<l  man  did.  He  put  a  draft  for 
;f  10,000  into  my  hand.  The  other  ;{^4,ooo  was  soon  raised,  and  the  debts  of  the 
Society  were  at  once  discharged." 

That  this  was  not  the  effect  of  a  mere  momentary  impulse 
of  benevolence,  but  of  mature  deliberation,  is  evident  from  the 
fact  that  Sir  Thomas  Baring  refused  to  accept  it  until  Way 
had  shewn  him  that  he  had  left  in  his  will  a  bequest  to  that 
amount.  "  Let  me,"  he  said,  "  have  the  privilege  in  my  life- 
time of  giving  the  money,  and  thus  stepping  forward  to  assist 
the  Society  in  this  hour  of  its  extremity."  He  had  come  in 
unexpectedly  for  a  fortune  from  a  stranger  named  John  Way. 

•  Speech  at  Norwich,  quoted  in  Annual  Report^  1818,  p.  45. 

t  The  story  of  the  awakening  of  his  interest  in  the  Jews  is  narrated  on  page  151. 

48  FORMATION    OF    THE    SOCIETY  [1809—15 

The  benefits  of  a  single  basis  were  soon  apparent.  Under 
the  original  circumstances  of  the  Society,  unity  of  design, 
principle  and  operation  was  utterly  impossible,  but  now, 
being  free  from  internal  discord  and  theological  differences, 
its  management  was  a  matter  of  comparative  ease. 
Toward  the  end  of  the  Period,  when  it  was  seen  how  things 
were  going,  some  more  well  known  clergymen  had  been 
gradually  rallying  to  the  Committee.  In  addition  to  the  few 
names  mentioned  on  page  36,  we  find  W.  Marsh,  Dr.  F. 
Randolph,  Charles  Simeon,  Legh  Richmond,  John  J.  Sargent, 
Isaac  Sanders,  and  other  well  known  Evangelicals  attending 
the  meetings,  and  a  strong  Committee  of  "  Ways  and  Means  " 
was  formed,  amongst  whom  were  the  following  clergymen : 
J.  Haldane  Stewart,  J.  W.  Cunningham,  W.  Dealtry,  Josiah 
Pratt  (Secretary  of  the  C.M.S.),  and  Daniel  Wilson  the  elder. 
With  the  help  of  these  and  other  like-minded  and  faithful 
men,  a  successful  future  seemed  in  store  for  the  Society,  and 
in  our  next  chapter  we  shall  see  how  they  thoroughly  re- 
organized it  on  Church  lines. 

Seconb    ipertob, 



Sft  tt^e  scctr  mt  in  tl^e  barn  ?  Qca,  as  Qct  ti)c  bmc,  antr  ti)e  fig  tree,  ano 

i^c  pomegranate,  antr  ti)e  olibc  utt,  tiati)  not  brongtit  fortb^   from  tbis  Tiat) 
iDtU  S  blesft  Qon. 

Haggai  II.  T9. 

SECOND  PERIOD,  18154819. 



Increase  of  Church  support— Episcopal  Patronage— New  order  of  Vice-Patrons 
—Trustees -The  numbering  of  the  Report*— Revised  Rules— Reduced  Connittee— 
The  Qrants— Honorary  Life  Members— Charles  5lnieon— Treasurers— Production  of 
the  New  Testament  In  Hebrew— Other  works— 5plrlt  of  enquiry  amongst  Jews  on 
the  Continent  —  Ambitious  plans  —  Palth  In  their  accomplishment  —  Tlu  Jewuh 
Expositor  and  Jnvish  AVct^rt^r— Missionary  Work  In  London— Lewis  Way  visits 
Holland,  Oermany,  and  Russia— Missions  contemplated— School  Work— Secretariat 
•Annual  Sermons  and  Meetings— Hopeful  prospects— New  Associations— Friend- 
liness of  the  Church  Missionary  Society— Committee  of  Correspondence— 5oclety*s 
first  House— Mrs.  Adams*    History  of  the  Jews. 

THE  Society  entered  upon  its  reformed  existence  unen- 
cumbered and  free  from  debt.  The  extraordinary  way 
in  which  its  difficulties  had  been  removed  was  regarded 
as  an  indication  of  the  Divine  Will  that  it  should  prosper, 
and  be  a  great  instrument  for  good  to  the  house  of  Israel. 
An  enlarged  support  from  Church  people  was  naturally  ex- 
pected after  the  disruption  ;  although  with  the  withdrawal  of 
the  dissenting  element  the  income  fell  to  ;^7,S88  in  1815-16, 
and  still  further,  to  £fi^l^g  in  1816-17,  but  as  the  Church 
principles  of  the  Society  began  to  be  understood,  it  rose  in 
18 1 7-1 8  to  ;^9,S02,  and  soon  after  to  five  figures. 

In  1 8 16  the  Duke  of  Kent,  who  recommended  that  the 
Society  on  its  reconstruction  should  be  placed  under  Epis- 
copal patronage,  was  succeeded  by  two  Patrons,  the  Bishop 
of  St.  Davids  (Dr.  Burgess),  who  subsequently  became 
Bishop  of  Salisbury,  and  the  Bishop  of  Gloucester  and  Bristol 
(Dr.  Ryder),  who  subsequently  became  Bishop  of  Lichfield 
and  Coventry,  Both  prelates  took  an  earnest  and  decided 
part  in  the  Society's  work.  Dr.  Burgess  was  deeply 
interested  in  the  translation  of  the  New  Testament  into 
Hebrew,  and  continued  Patron  till  1836.  Dr.  Overton  says 
that,  "he  of   all    others  made    his   mark  on  the  Church  in 

E  2 


Wales,"  and,  though  not  strictly  an  Evangelical,  sympathized 

with  this  party.     Bishop  Ryder,  who  regularly  attended  the 

Annual  Meetings,  and  frequently  the  Committee  Meetings, 

continued  Patron  until  1835. 

Another  important  change  in  the  Patronage  took  place  at 

this  juncture.      At   a   meeting   of  the   Committee  held   at 

Millington's   Coffee    House   on  April     nth,  181 5,  with    the 

President,  Sir  Thomas  Baring,  in  the  Chair,  it  was  resolved  : 

"  That  the  Noblemen  and  Bishops  who  are  now  Vice-Presidents  shall  in  future 
be  Vice-Patrons  of  this  Society." 

Consequently,  in  the  Annual  Report  for  the  same  year 
we  find  a  new  order  of  Vice-Patrons,  to  the  number  of 
fourteen  ;  to  the  remaining  sixteen — Vice-Presidents — the 
Hon.  George  Vernon  was  added,  and  later,  Dr.  Francis 
Randolph,  Sir  George  Rose,  Minister  Plenipotentiary  at  Berlin, 
Sir  Digby  Mackworth,  Admiral  Sir  James  Saumarez,  W.  T. 
Money,  M.P.,  and  Sir  Montagu  Cholmeley,  Bart. 

Admiral  Lord  Gambier,  President  of  the  Church  Missionary 
Society,  and  the  Bishop  of  Ossory  (Fowler)  were  added  to  the 
Vice-Patrons  in  18 17,  and  the  Bishop  of  Limerick  (Warburton) 
in  1819. 

The  Trustees  are  first  mentioned  in  the  Report  for  1816. 
They  then  were  Sir  Thomas  Baring,  T.  Babing^on,  Basil 
Woodd,  Charles  Simeon,  Marsh,   Hawtrey,  and  G.  T.  King. 

The  Report  presented  at  the  General  Meeting  held  on 
May  Sth,  181 5,  bears  on  the  title  page,  after  the  name  of  the 
Society,  the  words  **  Conducted  on  the  Principles  of  the 
Established  Church."  This  placed  the  constitution  of  the 
reformed  Society  beyond  doubt,  but  it  was  thought  necessary 
to  repeat  this  only  in  the  following  Report. 

Attention  may  here  be  drawn  to  what  might  otherwise 
appear  an  anomaly.  The  Report  alluded  to  above  is  called 
"  The  Seventh  Report,"  instead  of,  as  we  should  have  expected, 
"  The  Sixth."  This  arose  from  the  fact  that  the  first  Report 
was  issued  during  the  first  year,  1809,  ^^^  "o^  ^n  1810.  The 
Second  Report  was  issued  in  18 10,  and  so  on.  Consequently 
the  Report  issued  in  the  present  year,  1908,  is  the  One 
Hundredth,  and  not,  as  we  should  expect,  the  Ninety-ninth. 

i8i9]  JOULES    ALTERED  53 

The  Rules  underwent  alteration  to  suit  the  new  condition 
of  things  on  February  28th.  New  rules  were  added,  or  old  ones 
modified,  to  read  as  follows : 

"  VIII.  That  the  children  under  the  charge  of  the  Society  shall  be  instructed 
in  the  principles,  and  according  to  the  formularies  of  the  United  Church  of  Eng- 
land and  Ireland. 

**  IX.  That  public  worship  in  the  future  operations  of  the  Society  shall  be 
conducted  in  strict  conformity  to  the  liturgy,  and  formularies  of  the  Church  of 
England,  as  by  law  established. 

**  X.  That  if  at  any  lime  a  Jew  professing  faith  in  Christ,  and  seeking  for  the 
patronage  of  this  Society,  should  entertain  conscientious  scruples  in  respect  of 
conformity  to  the  rites  of  the  Church  of  England,  he  shall  not  thereby  be  deprived 
of,  or  precluded  from,  temporal  aid  from  the  Society,  if  he  shall  in  other  respects, 
be  deemed  a  fit  and  proper  object  of  the  patronage  of  this  Society. 

**XV.  Two  Anniversary  Sermons  shall  be  preached  at  such  times  and  at  such 
places  of  worship  connected  with  the  Church  of  England,  as  the  Committee  may 
think  proper.     The  Committee  to  appoint  the  preachers." 

But  it  was  not  until  18 19  that  the  following  words  were 
added  to  Rule  i,  declaring  that  all  officers  of  the  Society 
were  to  be  "  Members  of  the  United  Church  of  England  and 
Ireland,  or  (if  foreigners)  of  a  Protestant  Church." 

It  was  also  enacted  at  the  same  time  that  clergymen  sub- 
scribing half-a-guinea  should  become  members  of  the  Society, 
and  a  new  rule  was  added  to  the  effect  that  it  was  not  the  object 
to  grant  temporal  aid  to  adult  Jews,  but  solely  to  promote 
their  spiritual  welfare. 

The  Committee  were  reduced  to  twenty-four  members,  all 
elected  laymen;  all  clergymen  who  were  members  of  the 
Society,  or  its  Auxiliaries,  having  a  title  to  attend  the  meetings. 
The  members  already  numbered  nineteen,  amongst  whom  we 
see  the  well-known  names  of  Robert  Henry  Inglis  (afterward 
Sir  Robert),  and  Zachary  Macaulay,  Governor  of  Sierra 
Leone.  The  number  had  increased  to  twenty-one  in  18 16, 
and  amongst  them  we  find  the  eminent  Robert  Grant 
(afterward  Sir  Robert  Grant,  Governor  of  Bombay),  and  a  Mr. 
Joseph  Goodhart.  Robert  Grant,  the  son  of  Charles  Grant, 
Chairman  of  the  Directors  of  the  East  India  Company,  was 
third  Wrangler  in  1801,  and  author  of  the  beautiful  hymns 
"  Saviour !  when  in  dust  to  Thee,"  and  "When  gathering  clouds 


around  I  view."  His  younger  and  equally  famous  brother, 
Charles,  was  fourth  Wrangler  in  the  same  year,  and  afterward 
Lord  Glenelg,  Minister  for  India,  and  a  Vice-Patron  of  the 

A  list  of  "  Honorary  Life  Members  "  appears  in  the  Annual 
Report  for  18 16. 

In  1 8 17  the  name  of  John  Whiting,  M.D.,  appears  as  Hon. 
Physician  ;  in  1818,  that  of  David  Unwins,  M.D.,  with  T.  J. 
Armiger  as  Hon.  Surgeon. 

It  is  interesting  to  note  that  the  honoured  name  of 
Charles  Simeon  appears  for  the  first  time  in  the  list  of  officials 
as  a  Country  Director.  He  had  been  both  a  contributor  to, 
and  advocate  for,  the  Society  from  the  first,  but  he  now 
"  came  on  board."  *  He  had  been  very  active  in  recent 
events,  for,  on  reference  to  the  Minutes  of  Committee  of 
those  days,  we  find  that  he  was  present  on  December  27th 
1814,  and  in  1815  on  January  31st,  February  17th,  21st,  24th, 
28th,  March  ist,  and  again  on  the  14th  at  a  General  Meeting* 
when  the  minutes  of  the  General  Meeting  of  February  28th  were 
confirmed,  and  the  great  question  of  the  withdrawal  of  the 
Nonconformists  from  participation  in  the  Society  was  finally 
settled.  Two  of  Simeon's  letters,  December  29th,  18 14,  and 
January  loth,  1815,  within  this  period,  are  dated  from  Stanstead 
Park,  Emsworth,  the  residence  of  Lewis  Way.  We  can 
imagine  that  the  tangled  affairs  of  the  Society  at  this  juncture 
gave  the  two  friends  much  to  talk  about.  In  the  first  of 
these  letters  Simeon  says  :  "  The  whole  Society  is  placed  on  a 
firmer  basis  than  ever.  I  expect  now  that  some  of  our  higher 
Churchmen  will  come  in,  and  all  serious  clergy  through  the 
land."  t  The  word  "  serious  "  was  in  general  use  to  denote 
the  Evangelical  clergy. 

In  1815  Mr.  Richard  Stainforth  became  Treasurer,  and  in 
the  same  year  Thomas  Read  Kemp,  M.P.,  was  appointed 
"  Treasurer  for  the  Hebrew  New  Testament,"  in  which  office 
he  was  succeeded  in  1816  by  Thomas  Babington.  In  1819 
Robert  H.  Inglis  became  Treasurer. 

*  Tenth  Report  (18 18),  p.  44. 

t  Carus,  Memoir  of  the  Life  of  the  Rec,   Charles  Simeon^  p.  402. 

i8i9]  A^J?/r    TESTAMENT    IN   HEBREW  55 

One  of  the  chief  events  of  this  time  was  the  production 
of  the  New  Testament  in  Hebrew.  It  was  not  enough  that 
Jews  might  read  the  New  Testament  in  the  vernacular  tongues 
of  the  countries  in  which  they  lived  ;  a  far  greater  impression 
was  likely  to  be  made  upon  their  minds  by  the  sacred  book 
in  the  language,  character,  and  idiom  in  strict  accord  with 
their  own  venerated  Scriptures.     This  is  how  it  came  about 

In  1810  Dr.  Claudius  Buchanan,  formerly  minister  of 
VVelbeck  Chapel,  who  was  one  of  the  "  Five  Chaplains  "  of 
India,*  returned  with  a  Travancore  manuscript  translation  of 
the  New  Testament  by  a  Jew,  and  urged  upon  the  Society  the 
importance  of  issuing  a  version  of  their  own  in  the  same 
language.     These  were  his  forcible  words  : 

**  It  is  with  surprise  I  learn  that  as  yet  you  have  not  obtained  a  version  of  the 
New  Testament  in  the  Hebrew  language,  for  the  use  of  the  Jews.  It  is  surely  the 
very  first  duty  of  your  Society  to  execute  this  translation.  You  are  beginning  to 
work  without  instruments.  How  can  you  find  fault  with  a  Jew  for  not  believing 
the  New  Testament  if  he  has  never  seen  it  ?  It  is  not  to  be  expected  that  he  will 
respect  a  version  in  English  ;  but  give  him  the  New  Testament  in  the  language 
of  the  Old  Testament,  in  the  imposing  form  of  the  primxval  Hebrew,  the 
character  which  he  is  accustomed  to  venerate  and  admire,  and  then  you  do 
justice  to  his  weakness,  and  may  overcome  his  prejudice. 

••  How  strange  it  appears  that,  during  a  period  of  eighteen  hundred  years,  the 
Christians  should  never  have  given  the  Jews  the  New  Testament  in  their  own 
language  !  By  a  kind  of  infatuation  they  have  reprobated  the  unbelief  of  the 
Jews,  and  have  never,  at  the  same  time,  told  them  what  they  ought  to  believe.'* 

These  words  did  not  necessarily  imply  ignorance  of  the 
existence  of  Hutter*s  translation,  which  was  not  in  pure 
Hebrew,  or  Robinson's  edition  of  the  same,  which  was  very 
scarce,  or  Cradick's  partial  translation,  to  all  of  which  there 
were  valid  objections. 

The  argument  was  irresistible.  The  resolve  was  made 
at  once,  and  the  work  accomplished  by  two  men,  one  of 
whom  was  a  learned  Jew,  Mr.  Judah  d'Allemand,  from 
Germany.  The  Gospel  of  St.  Matthew  was  published  in 
1 8 14,  that  of  St.  Mark  in  181 5,  and  both  were  honoured  with 
the  approbation  of  some  of  the  first  Hebrew  scholars  in 
the  kingdom  ;  other  books  of  the  New  Testament  followed 
in  rapid  succession. 

*  See  note  on  page  69. 


These  were  circulated  to  a  limited  extent  at  home,  but 
more  largely  through  various  agencies  on  the  Continent.  The 
Moravian  Brethren  at  Hemhutt,  the  Bible  Society's  agents 
at  Frankfort-on-the-Maine  and  Gottenburg,  Prince  Galitzin 
at  Warsaw,  Dr.  Knappe  at  Halle,  the  Rev.  W.  Jowett  at 
Malta,  Dr.  Mcintosh  at  Amsterdam,  Dr.  Naudi  at  Malta, 
and  other  friends  elsewhere,  arranged  for  their  distribution 
amongst  the  Jews.  Some  were  even  sent  out  to  the  C.M.S. 
missionaries  in  India. 

In  18 17  the  complete  New  Testament  in  Hebrew  was 
issued  from  the  press.  Two  years  later,  in  18 19,  a  second 
edition  of  10,000  followed.  It  was  a  great,  if  imperfect, 
work,  and  served  its  purpose  for  a  time.  It  is  no  disparage- 
ment to  say  that  it  was  found  necessary  later  on  to  replace  it 
by  a  more  scholarly  production.  A  Hebrew-German  version, 
Luther's  translation  of  the  New  Testament,  was  completed 
in  1820,  and  a  Judaeo- Polish  translation  in  1821. 

Amongst  other  useful  works  published  by  the  Society  about 
this  time  were  editions  of  Leslie's  Short  and  Easy  Method 
with  the  Jews ^  and  Basnage's  History  of  tlie  Jews. 

These  facts  pointed  to  the  progress  of  a  spirit  of  enquiry 
amongst  Jews  in  many  countries.  Others  events  tended 
in  the  same  direction.  Five  Karaite  Jews  in  the  Crimea  were 
subscribers  to  the  Theodosian  Bible  Society.  The  Greek 
Archbishop  Anatole  reported  that  in  his  diocese  of  Minsk 
he  had  baptized  several  Jewish  families,  and  he  desired 
a  number  of  copies  of  the  Society's  Hebrew  New  Testament. 
Some  Jews  in  Hamburg  procured  copies  of  the  book.  If  we 
concentrate  these  scattered  rays  of  light  in  a  common  focus, 
and  view  at  the  same  moment  the  Jews  of  London,  Holland, 
Germany,  Russia  and  elsewhere,  beginning  to  manifest  a  desire 
to  possess  the  sacred  book,  we  see  what  encouragement  the 
Society  had  to  persevere  in  its  efforts  to  reach  the  Jews,  whose 
total  numbers  were  at  this  time  computed  at  four  millions. 

Ambitious  schemes  b^an  to  be  formulated,  namely,  the 
establishment  of  a  college  of  truly  learned  and  Christian 
Jews  in  the  metropolis,  to  assist  in  preparing  a  second  edition 
of    the    Hebrew    New    Testament ;     to    prepare    Hebrew 


tracts  and  translate  the  Liturgy  of  the  Church  of  England 
into  Hebrew  ;  and  to  educate  Jewish  missionaries.  In  answer 
to  the  question,  "Where  are  the  necessary  funds  to  be 
obtained  ?  "  the  Committee  in  faith  asked  in  return : 

**  Where  does  the  Bible  Society  obtain  its  ;i 90,000,  and  from  what  source  does 
the  Church  Missionary  Society  draw  an  annual  supply  of  ;£'20,ooo?  The  answer 
must  be,  these  Societies  have  aimed  at  great  things  and  undertaken  great  things, 
and  the  liberality  of  the  Christian  public  has  been  in  proportion  to  the  magnitude, 
and,  we  will  add,  the  wisdom  of  their  plans.  If  we  also  would  achieve  great  things, 
we  must  aim  at  great  things,  and  if  we  attempt  them  with  humility  and  wisdom, 
with  prudence  and  faith,  He  who  hath  said,  *  The  silver  and  the  gold  are  Mine,* 
will  not  suffer  our  undertaking  to  be  starved." 

In  this  spirit  of  faith  all  obstacles  were  overcome,  and  the 
plans  were  eventually  carried  into  effect. 

On  January  ist,  18 16,  the  Society's  magazine  appeared 
under  a  slightly  altered  title.  The  Jewish  Expositor  and  Friend 
of  Israel,  At  the  same  time  efforts  were  made  to  render  it 
a  more  interesting  and  scholarly  medium  of  information  on 
all  matters  connected  with  the  Jews  and  their  evangelization, 
as  well  as,  though  to  a  limited  degree,  on  the  proceedings  of 
the  Society.  A  little  paper,  Jewish  Records,  was  issued  half- 
yearly,  at  Midsummer  and  Christmas,  from  18 18  to  1821. 
Another  interesting  publication  was  a  Selection  of  Psalms 
and  Hymns,  compiled  by  the  Rev.  C.  S.  Hawtrey,  for  use  in 
the  Society's  church,  and  suitable  for  a  composite  congrega- 
tion of  Hebrew  and  Gentile  Christians. 

As  regards  missionary  work  in  London  during  this 
Period  we  find  that  the  lectures  to  the  Jews  and  also  to 
Christians  on  Jewish  subjects,  were  continued  in  Ely  Place 
Chapel,  St  Swithin's,  London  Stone,  Bentinck  Chapel  and* 
elsewhere.  The  Expositor  of  this  time  occasionally  had  a 
sermon  or  address  in  its  pages.  The  Jews'  Chapel,  Spitalfields, 
had  to  be  given  up  in  18 16,  as  the  minister  refused  his 
consent  to  its  being  licensed  as  a  place  of  worship  of  the 
Church  of  England,  Prey's  connexion  with  the  Society 
ceased  in  the  same  year,  and  he  left  for  America.  His  work 
was  carried  on  by  the  Chaplain  and  the  Secretaries. 

A  Society,  whose  aim  is  to  promote  Christianity  amongst 
the  Jews,  could  not  be  long  content  with  such  a  restricted 


field  as  our  own  country  offers,  with  its  mere  handful  of  a  few 
thousands  of  the  scattered  race.  The  Home  field,  and 
especially  the  metropolis,  must  indeed  ever  remain  the  first 
consideration  of  a  London  Society,  but  only  one  of  a  number 
of  others.  Wherever  the  Jews  are,  there  lies  the  Society's  work. 
Moreover,  the  Jews  abroad  are  not  surrounded  by  the  same 
pure  and  sound  Christian  principles  and  life  as  those  in 
England,  and  their  spiritual  need  is  proportionately  greater. 

Consequently,  we  are  not  surprised  to  find  that  our  fore- 
fathers in  the  work  very  soon  cast  their  eyes  abroad  to  see 
what  could  be  done  there  in  the  way  of  evangelizing  the  Jews. 
The  end  of  the  disastrous  Napoleonic  wars,  and  the  restoration 
of  peace,  in  1 8 1 5,  to  the  long  troubled  nations  of  the  Continent, 
had  opened  doors  of  usefulness,  and  given  free  access  to  many 
countries.  "  What  can  be  done  ?  and  where  ?  "  these  were 
two  questions  which  the  Committee  set  themselves  to  answer. 
They  very  naturally  decided  upon  a  mission  of  enquiry. 
That  eminent  friend  of  Jewish  Missions,  the  Rev.  Lewis 
Way,  practically  the  founder  of  the  Society  as  we  know  it, 
once  more  came  to  its  aid.  At  his  own  cost,  in  company  with 
two  friends,  he  undertook  a  tour  of  inspection  on  the 
Continent  during  18 17-18,  visiting  Holland,  Germany,  and 
Russia.  Apart  from  the  actual  circulation  amongst  the  Jews 
of  copies  of  the  New  Testament,  and  the  diffusion  of  Christ- 
ianity during  the  journey  itself,  great  and  lasting  results 
were  destined  to  flow  from  this  preliminary  enquiry,  into 
which  Lewis  Way  threw  all  the  ardour  of  his  loving  soul. 
He  everywhere  met  with  a  kind  and  encouraging  reception 
and,  in  most  cases,  with  candid  attention  from  the  Jews  to 
whom  he  addressed  himself.  His  letters,  written  to  the 
Committee,  are  brimful  of  encouraging  accounts,  eager  hope 
and  expectation  of  success  in  mission  work,  if  attempted. 
There  was  found  to  be  an  open  door  in  Holland  ;  the  Jewish 
students  in  the  University  of  Berlin  offered  a  promising  field  ; 
whilst  the  vast  Jewish  population  of  Russian  Poland  seemed 
ripe  for  an  evangelizing  effort  Mr.  Way's  experiences  and 
hopes  were  laid  before  the  Committee,  who,  at  a  special  meeting 
held  on  July  loth,   181 8,  resolved  to  establish  a  mission  in 

I8i9]  SCHOOL     WORK  59 

Poland.     Of  the  three  countries,   Holland,  as  will  be  seen 
in  the  next  chapter,  was  the  first  to  be  actually  occupied. 

The  education  of  Jewish  children  in  the  faith  of  our  Lord 
Jesus  Christ  has  ever  been  one  of  the  foremost  objects  of  the 
Society,  and  one  of  the  most  encouraging  features  of  its  work 
Not  only  are  numbers  of  the  rising  Jewish  generation  brought 
into  the  Church,  but  their  parents  are  likewise,  in  many  in- 
stances, influenced  to  follow  their  children.  The  value  which 
Jewish  parents  attach  to  a  good  education  for  their  children 
is  a  factor  which  greatly  aids  the  Society  in  this  Christian 
and  beneficent  work.* 

Jewish  children  had  been  admitted  into  the  Society's 
Schools,  in  East  London,  as  we  have  seen,  in  1809,  but  their 
numbers  were  materially  increased  when,  in  18 19,  the  Boys' 
School  in  Palestine  Place  was  opened,  and  still  more  so  when 
the  Girls'  School  was  completed  two  years  later. 

In  addition  to  Mr.  Hawtrey,  two  further  Secretaries  were 
appointed  in  181 5,  the  Revs.  Basil  Woodd  and  David  Ruell. 
The  first  two  remained  in  office  till  1827;  whilst  Mr.  Hawtrey, 
who  became  the  first  salaried  Secretary  in  1824,  held  office 
till  his  death  in  1831.  In  1818  the  Rev.  Peter  Treschow  was 
appointed  Foreign  Secretary,  resigning  this  post  in  1825. 

A  word  must  be  said  about  the  Annual  Sermons  during 
this  Period.  In  1815  J.  W.  Cunningham,  vicar  of  Harrow, 
preached  in  St  Lawrence  Jewry,  and  Dr.  William  Dealtry, 
Fellow  of  Trinity  and  rector  of  Clapham  (afterward  Arch- 
deacon), in  St.  Anne's,  Soho.  In  18 16  Legh  Richmond,  then 
rector  of  Turvey,  preached  in  St.  Bride's,  Fleet  Street,  and 
Daniel  Wilson,  incumbent  of  St.  John's  Chapel,  Bedford 
Row,  afterward  vicar  of  Islington  and  Bishop  of  Calcutta,  in 
St.  Anne's,  Soho,  each  preaching  from  Rom.  xi.  In  18 17 
Basil  Woodd  preached  in  St.  Peter's,  Cornhill,  and  Lewis 
Way,  who  had  been  ordained  in  1816,  and  was  now  curate 
of  Stoughton,  Sussex,  in  Tavistock  Episcopal  Chapel,  Long 
Acre.  In  181 8  Charles  Simeon  preached  in  St.  Paul's,  Covcnt 
Garden,  and  R.  Beachcroft  in  St.    Anne's,  Blackfriars,  more 

*  See  Mission  Schools  of  the  Society  y  by  the  author. 


properly  called  St.  Andrew  by  the  Wardrobe,  In  18 19 
Edward  Cooper,  a  well-known  country  rector,  preached  in 
SL  Paul's,  Covent  Garden,  and  Edward  Cox,  in  St.  Anne's, 
Blackfriars.  The  most  noteworthy  of  these  sermons  were 
naturally  those  of  Way  and  Simeon,  who  were  so  intimately 
acquainted  with  the  work,  and  whose  hearts  were  aglow  to 
forward  the  cause.  Simeon's  was  thought  worthy  to  be 
printed  in  the  Expositor,  an  unusual  distinction. 

The  five  Annual  Meetings  during  this  Period  were  held  in 
the  Freemasons'  Hall,  Sir  Thomas  Baring  presiding  on  each 
occasion.  We  find  the  following  well-known  names  amongst 
the  speakers :  William  Wilberforce,  and  Charles  Simeon 
(four  times  each) ;  Lord  Gambier,  the  Bishop  of  Gloucester, 
the  Revs.  J.  W.  Cunningham  and  Lewis  Way,  Thomas 
Babington,  and  Robert  Grant  (three  times) ;  the  Revs.  Edward 
Cooper,  William  Marsh,  the  Hon.  Gerald  Noel,  Daniel 
Wilson  and  Basil  Woodd  (twice) ;  whilst  the  following  spoke 
once  ;  Admiral  Sir  J.  Saumarez,  Lord  Calthorpe,  William 
Parish  (Tutor  of  Magdalen,  and  Jacksonian  Professor  of 
Chemistry,  Cambridge,  and  formerly  Senior  Wrangler),  the 
Revs.  Edward  Bickersteth,  minister  of  Wheler  Chapel  (St. 
Mary's,  Spital  Square),  John  Owen, rector  of  Paglesham,  Essex 
D.  Ruell.and  J.Haldane  Stewart.  In  1 817  the  Sultan  Katagary 
was  amongst  the  speakers.  The  meetings  were  principally  for 
the  purpose  of  presenting  the  Report  and  transacting  business. 
The  speeches  were  short  and  to  the  point.  Gradually  they 
increased  in  length  and  became  more  missionary  in  tone. 

The  Period  closed  with  hopeful  prospects.  The  Society 
received  increased  support  and  co-operation,  both  at  home 
and  abroad,  affording  renewed  encouragement  and  additional 
incentives  to  exertion.  Many  new  Auxiliary  Associations 
were  formed,  at  Birmingham,  Norwich,  Sheffield,  Ipswich, 
Newcastle,  Carlisle,  Hereford,  Exeter,  Lancaster,  Plymouth, 
Tunbridge  Wells,  Amsterdam,  Brussels,  Frankfort  and 
elsewhere.  Charles  Simeon,  William  Marsh,  Lewis  Way, 
Basil  Woodd,  Legh  Richmond,  and  others  travelled  about 
the  British  Isles  and  Ireland,  arousing  much  interest  and 
obtaining  considerable  support  on  behalf  of  the  Society. 


A  large  deputation  consisting  of  Simeon,  Basil  Woodd, 
Hawtrey,  Ruell,  Marsh,  Way  and  Grimshawe  paid  a  visit 
to  Bristol  in  1815.  Churches  were  open  to  them,  and  there 
was  a  meeting  in  the  Guildhall,  and  a  Ladies'  Association  was 
formed.  At  Frome,  Simeon  preached  to  5,000  people  on  one 
Sunday.  In  1817  Simeon,  Marsh  and  Hawtrey  took  a  tour 
of  800  miles  in  East  Anglia  and  elsewhere. 

The  journey  of  Simeon  and  Marsh  to  Scotland  in  18 19 
also  is  noteworthy.  They  preached,  or  spoke,  at  Leicester, 
Lutterworth,  Derby,  Hull,  Berwick,  Edinburgh,  Falls  of  the 
Clyde,  Carlisle,  Preston,  Liverpool  and  Manchester.  The 
tour  realized  800  guineas  in  five  weeks,  free  of  expense  to  the 
Society,  which  has  never  since  had  such  advocates  as  those 
just  mentioned.  Lord  Derby  became  President  of  the  re- 
organized Association  at  Liverpool,  and  Mr.  John  Gladstone, 
M.P.,  one  of  the  Vice-Presidents.* 

It  is  interesting  to  find  amongst  the  general  body  of  sub- 
scribers at  this  time  the  names  of  the  Rev.  Josiah  Pratt, 
and  Miss  Hannah  More.  The  former,  indeed,  shewed  himself 
a  ver>'  faithful  friend,  for  it  was  when  he  was  Secretary  of 
the  Church  Missionary'  Society,  that  our  Committee  gener- 
ally met,  during  the  years  1815  to  1818,  at  the  Church  Mis- 
sionary House  in  Salisbury  Square.  Mr.  Stock  alludes  f  to 
this  act  of  friendship  on  the  part  of  the  elder  Society,  which 
was  thus  placed  on  record  by  a  resolution  of  our  Committee 
on  May  26th,  181 8. 

That  this  Committee  desire  to  offer  their  most  grateful  acknowledgments  to 
the  Church  Missionary  Society  for  the  important  accommodation  to  the  London 
Society,  by  permitting  the  members  of  this  Committee  to  hold  their  meetings  at 
the  Church  Missionary  Society's  House,  and  request  that  they  will  accept  their 
very  best  thanks,  the  only  return  they  have  in  their  power  to  make. 

Josiah  Pratt  frequently  attended  the  meetings  of  Committee, 
and  several  other  clergymen  whose  names  we  need  not  mention. 
The  correspondence  relating  to  the  Society's  affairs  evidently 
increased  during  this  Period,  for  in  1819a  new  sub-Committee 
was   formed,   called    the   "Correspondence   Committee,"   the 

*  Cams,  Memoir  of  the  Life  of  Charles  Simeon^  pp.  412,  470,  51 1  ff. 
^History  of  the  CM.S,^  vol.  i.  p.  154. 

62  RECONSTRUCTION    ON    CHURCH    LINES  [1815-19 

duties  of  which  were  to  inspect  the  letters  received  previously 
to  their  being  laid  before  the  General  Committee.  They  were 
"  empowered  to  reply  to  such  letters  as  are  of  trivial  importance, 
or  require  immediate  attention,  and  also  to  select  such  part  of 
the  correspondence  as  they  consider  necessary  for  the  attention 
of  the  General  Committee,  rejecting  those  parts  which  are 
superfluous  and  irrelevant."  The  functions  of  the  Correspon- 
dence Committee  to-day  are  altogether  different,  they  merely 
dealing  with  specified  matters  referred  to  them  by  the  General 

The  Committee  occasionally  assembled  during  this  Period 
at  the  Prayer  Book  and  Homily  Society's  House,  which  also 
was  generously  placed  at  their  disposal.  In  the  month  of  June 
18 1 8  the  Society  acquired  new  offices,  situated  at  10,  Ward- 
robe Place,  Doctors'  Commons,  and  ceased  to  be  dependent 
on  the  kindness  of  others,  as  it  had  been  since  the  relinquish- 
ment of  the  Jews'  Chapel.*  Wardrobe  Place  remained  the 
headquarters  of  the  Society  until,  in  1832,  Exeter  Hall  offered 
more  suitable  accommodation,  f 

In  order  to  arouse  interest  in  the  Jews  the  Committee 
obtained  permission  from  Mrs.  Hannah  Adams,  of  Boston, 
U.S.A.,  to  publish  an  edition  of  her  History  of  the  Jcws^ 
which  was  issued  in  181 8  at  the  expense  of  the  Society. 

*  See  page  57. 
t  See  page  277. 

Zbitb    petlob, 


<SnIiiige  tf^e  place  of  t\)^  tent    .    .    .    lengthen  ti^c  corlrs,  anlr  strengif^en 
tf)p  stakes ;  for  tiyon  sf^alt  break  fortfi  on  t^e  rig^t  t^anlr  anD  on  t(e  left. 

Isaiah  liv.  a,  3. 

THIRD    PERIOD,    18204829. 



Exiwnslon  hoped  for— New  Associations— England,  Scotland,  Ireland,  Ouemsey 
—Stationary  Income— Paid  help  necessary— Visitor  off  Associations— Patronage 
—Honorary  Liffe  Oovemors— Committee  and  Trustees— Secretariat— Annual  Ser- 
■Kins  and  Meetings— Publications— Dlssatisffactlon  with  Prophetical  views- 
Home  Missions— London— Schools— Society's  Hebrew  Old  Testament— Criticisms 
•n  the  Hebrew  New  Testament— Lectures— Appeal  by  Dr.  Wolffff  to  Jews— The 
Provinces— Parochial  Clergy  exhorted  by  the  Committee— Training  off  Mission- 
aries—The  Seminary— Students— Operative  Jewish  Converts*  Institution- 
Mistakes  and  attacks— Judgment  off  contemporaries— inffirmitles  off  Committees. 

THE  Society  entered  upon  the  Period  which  we 
are  now  to  consider  assured  of  the  progress  of  the 
cause.  As  its  principles  and  objects  became  better 
known  and  understood,  it  received  additional  countenance 
and  support  from  the  Church  at  home  and  abroad.  The 
balance  sheet  for  the  year  ending  March  31st,  1820,  shewed 
that  ;^i  1,285  iss,  id.  had  been  available,  an  increase  of  more 
than  £2,000  over  the  income  of  the  previous  twelve  months. 
There  was  every  reason,  therefore,  to  hope  for  great  expan- 
sion and  development  of  the  work  in  the  near  future.  Whilst 
Christians  upheld  the  efforts  of  the  Society,  Jews  invited 
them  by  their  accessibility  and  willingness  to  hear. 

In  1820  many  new  Associations  were  formed.  The 
Ladies'  Associations  contributed  largely,  principally  through 
sales  of  work.  Charles  Simeon,  Lewis  Way,  Legh  Richmond, 
and  William  Marsh  were  at  work  again  to  arouse  or  increase 
interest  in  the  Society's  proceedings,  north  and  south,  east 
and  west — in  England,  Scotland,  and  Ireland.  In  the  last- 
named  country  especially,  great  success  was  achieved. 
Way  and  Marsh,  having  attended  the  Annual  Meeting  of  the 
Auxiliary  at  Dublin,  went  on  to  Limerick,  where  the  Bishop 

66  HOME    MATTERS  [1820 

of  the  diocese  presided,  and  also  to  Charleville,  Fermoy,  Cork, 
Kilkenny  and  Drogheda,  at  each  of  which  places  meetings  were 
held.  An  "  immense  assembly  "  met  together  at  Cork,  where 
an  Auxiliary  was  formed.  Way  and  a  new  recruit,  the  Rev.  G. 
Hamilton,  rector  of  Killermogh,  in  the  diocese  of  Ossory,  next 
proceeded  to  the  west  and  north  of  Ireland.  At  Athlone  the 
deputation  were  most  hospitably  entertained  by  the  Earl  of 
Castlemaine.  Archbishop  Power  Trench  opened  both  his 
palace  and  cathedral  at  Tuam  to  them.  Lord  Leitrim  received 
them  into  his  mansion  at  Boyle,  and  presided  at  a  public 
meeting.  At  Armagh  they  were  kindly  entertained  by  the 
Dean,  Lord  Lifford.  They  next  preached  at  Galway,  Coleraine, 
Antrim,  and  Sligo.  The  interest  aroused  pervaded  all  classes, 
and  these  and  earlier  efforts  laid  the  foundation  for  that 
generous  and  intelligent  support  which  has  ever  since  been 
accorded  to  the  Society  by  the  warm-hearted  people  of  the 
sister  isle. 

We  find  Simeon,  Marsh,  and  Legh  Richmond  at  work 
again  in  1 821,  assisted  by  John  Sargent,  the  father-in-law  of 
Bishop  Samuel  Wilberforce,  and  the  friend  and  biographer  of 
Henry  Martyn.  Simeon  established  an  Association  in  the 
University  of  Cambridge.  The  friends  in  England  multiplied 
apace, thosein  Scotland  continued  steadfast  in  theirattachment, 
and  liberal  in  their  contributions.  The  generous  ardour  with 
which  the  cause  was  espoused  in  Ireland  experienced  no 
'  abatement.  The  Secretary  of  the  Irish  Auxiliary,  which  had 
been  founded  in  1810,  said: 

Wc  have  inscribed  upon  our  standard  that  the  cause  of  the  Jews  is  the  cause  of 
the  Bible,  and  we  have  made  many  willing  captives  by  our  sword  and  our  bow. 

A  few  years  later,  in  1827,  Joseph  Wolff,  who,  on  his 
return  from  the  East,  landed  in  Ireland,  visited  many  of  the 
principal  towns  therein  and  aroused  great  interest  by  the 
romantic  narrative  he  was  able  to  give  of  his  experiences  and 
missionary  labours.* 

In  1822  new  Associations  were  formed  at  Derby,  Portsea, 
Clapham,  and  Gloucester,  and  at   the   last-named  place  a 

*  Sec  page  pp.  10 1  seq. 


Ladies*  Branch,  with  the  Duchess  of  Beaufort  as  Patroness, 
and  the  Hon.  Mrs.  Ryder,  the  wife  of  the  Bishop,  as  President 
The  same  year  Simeon  was  here,  there,  and  ever>'where  !  at 
Norwich,  Bristol  (with  Marsh  and  Hawtrey),  Gloucester  and  in 
Ireland.  He  preached  in  St.  George's,  Dublin,  to  a  congrega- 
tion of  twelve  hundred,  and  spoke  at  the  meeting  following, 
when  the  Archbishop  of  Tuam  presided.  Describing  this 
visit,  Simeon  said :  "  Tuesday  was  the  Jews'  Society  day. 
This  Society  in  Ireland  takes  the  lead,  and  is  carried  on  with 
surprising  spirit."  * 

In  1823  an  Association  was  established  in  Guernsey,  under 
the  patronage  of  Admiral  Sir  James  Saumarez,  a  very  gratify- 
ing event,  as  it  occurred  at  the  close  of  the  Anniversary  of  the 
Church  Missionary  Society,  whose  representatives,  indeed, 
joined  in  the  formation  of  the  Auxiliary.  We  cannot  forbear 
quoting  an  aspiration  in  the  Annual  Report  (1824),  which 
has  been  abundantly  fulfilled  by  the  friendly  relations  which 
have  ever  been  maintained  between  the  two  Societies  through- 
out the  many  years  that  have  since  passed  away : 

Long  may  the  friends  of  the  Gentile  and  Jew  regard  each  other  as  brothers^ 
And  their'respective  Institutions  as  sisters — labouring  in  one  common  cause,  knit 
together  by  bonds  of  union  to  one  common  Hea(i,  knowing  no  other  rivalry  but 
that  of*  provoking  to  love  and  to  good  works,*  claiming  no  other  priority  than 
that  of  being  foremost  in  the  march  of  Christian  benevolence. 

We  have  already  mentioned  an  earlier  instance  of  friend- 
ship on  the  part  of  the  C.M.S.,  the  House  in  Salisbury 
Square  being  lent  to  the  Society  for  its  Committee  meetings 
in  the  last  Period,  f 

Simeon  visited  Paris  in  1823,  and  preached  in  Way's  Chapel 
there  for  the  Society,  before  some  very  distinguished  people, 
including  the  Duchess  de  Broglie,  the  mother  of  Madame  de 
Stael.  He  also  attended  a  Jews'  meeting  where  he  met  Merle 
d*Aubign^  of  Brussels,  the  historian  of  the  Reformation. 

Although  new  Associations  continued  to  be  formed  almost 
every  year,  the  Society's  income  declined  toward  the  end 
of  this  Period,  and   that  for  the   year  ending  March    31st, 

*  Carus,  Memoir  of  Simeon^  p.  564. 
t  See  page  61. 

F  2 

68    '  HOME    MATTERS  [1820 

1830,  amounted  only  to  ;f  1 2,14s  Vy  almost  the  same  as  at 
the  end  of  the  previous  decade.  This  unsatisfactory  state 
of  things  was  attributed  to  the  want  of  sufficient  aid  in  visiting 
and  forming  Associations.  Some  of  the  once  active  friends 
had  been  called  to  their  rest,  others,  from  age  or  other  causes, 
were  no  longer  able  to  engage  in  deputation  work.  The  Clerical 
Secretary  could  not  do  everything,  so  in  1829  the  Rev.  Thomas 
Mortimer  was  appointed  "  Visitor  of  Associations,"  for  the 
time  for  Association  Secretaries  was  not  yet. 

Two  new  Vice-Patrons  were  appointed  in  1823,  Lord 
Barham,  formerly  the  Hon.  Charles  Noel  and  subsequently 
Earl  of  Gainsborough,  and  Lord  Bexley,  formerly  the  Hon. 
Nicholas  Vansittart,  Chancellor  of  the  Exchequer ;  in  1826, 
the  Earl  of  Rocksavage,  afterward  Marquis  of  Cholmondeley, 
and  the  Earl  of  Roden  ;  and  in  1829,  Lord  Vernon,  formerly 
Sir  George  Vernon.  In  1823  the  Bishop  of  Limerick  dis- 
appears from  the  list  of  Vice-Patrons,  and  in  1824  the  Bishop 
of  Meath,  Dr.  O'Beirne,  died  ;  and  for  many  years  no  Bishop 
is  to  be  found  thereon,  in  fact,  not  until  1842,  when  there  was 
a  very  large  accession  of  Episcopal  patronage. 

During  the  decade  under  review  the  following  well-known 
friends  of  the  Society  were  elected  Vice-Presidents  : 
Sir  Claudius  Stephen  Hunter,  Bart.,  in  1822;  Sir  Matthew 
Blakiston,  Bart,  William  Morton  Pitt,  M.P.,  and  Henry 
Drummond,  in  1823  ;  the  Dean  of  Salisbury  (Hugh  Nicolas 
Pearson)  and  Sir  Oswald  Mosley,  Bart,  in  1824.  In  1829 
their  total  number  was  eighteen.  • 

In  1827  the  distinction  of  "  Honorary  Life  Governors"  was 
created,  in  order  to  recognize  eminent  services  rendered  to 
the  Society,  and  Charles  Simeon,  B.  Woodd,  W.  Marsh  and 
D.  Ruell  were  appointed. 

In  this  decade  we  find  the  following  amongst  the  prominent 
new  lay  members  of  Committee  ;  William  Lardner,  M.D., 
General  Neville,  Captain  G.  Gambier,  William  Grane,  William 
Leach,  Francis  Paynter,  and  Colonel  Latter ;  and  Francis 
Close,  afterward  Dean  of  Carlisle,  amongst  the  new  clerical 
members.  The  Trustees  elected  in  18 16  held  office  throughout 
the  Period. 


From  the  year  1823  to  the  end  of  the  Period,  the 
General  Committee  were  divided  into  "Foreign  and  Spiritual" 
or  "  Literary  Foreign  and  Spiritual,"  "  Temporal "  and 
"  Special "  sections.  The  division  of  labour  allotted  to  each 
is  not  apparent  from  the  minutes.  In  1833,  however, 
the  sections  were  absorbed  into  one  Committee  as 

In  the  early  years  of  the  Society,  as  already  stated  on 
page  38,  and  up  to  1824,  the  duties  of  the  Secretaries,  not 
being  very  heavy,  were  performed  gratuitously ;  but,  when 
the  Society  extended  its  operations  at  home  and  abroad,  un- 
divided attention  was  required  and  salaried  officers  were 
appointed.  In  1824  the  Rev.  Charles  S.  Hawtrey  became  paid 
Secretary,  continuing  also  his  duties  as  Chaplain,  and  Joseph 
Gibbs  Barker  was  appointed  Lay  Secretary.  In  1826  the 
Rev.  J.  B.  Cartwright  was  added  to  their  number.  Hawtrey 
held  the  post  till  his  death  in  1831. 

The  Annual  Sermons  (only  one  in  each  year  from  1820 
onward  to  1856)  were  preached  in  St.  Paul's,  Covent  Garden, 
during  this  decade,  and  do  not  require  detailed  mention.  The 
preachers  were :  the  Hon.  Gerard  Noel,  incumbent  of  Percy 
Chapel,  1820;  William  Bushe,  rector  of  St.  George's,  Dublin, 
and  Secretary  to  the  Irish  Auxiliary  Society,  182 1  ;  George 
Stanley  Faber,  1822  ;  W.  Thistlethwaite,  minister  of  St. 
George's,  Bolton,  1823;  Legh  Richmond,  1824;  G.  Hamilton, 
rector  of  Killermogh,  1825;  Hugh  McNeile,  1826;  William 
Marsh,  1827;  Thomas  Thomason,  minister  of  the  "Old 
Church,  Calcutta,  and  one  of  the  "  Five  Chaplains  "  of  India,* 
1828  ;  and  Charles  Jerram,  vicar  of  Chobham,  1829.  The 
last  but  one  had  been  fifth  Wrangler,  Fellow  and  Tutor  of 
Queen's  College,  Cambridge,  and  curate  to  Simeon. 

In  the  same  decade  (1820-29),  the  Annual  Meetings 
were  rendered  important  by  reason  of  the  well-known  speakers 
advocating  the  cause,  and  we  can  but  regret  that  no  record  of 

*  The  other  four  were,  David  Brown,  Claudius  Buchanan,  Henr>'  Martyn,  and 
Daniel  Corrie.  They  were  appointed  by  the  East  India  Company  between  the 
years  1793  ^'^^  ^813,  when  the  C.M.S.  began  to  send  out  missionaries. 

70  HOME    MATTERS  [1820 

their  speeches  remains.  Bishop  Ryder  and  Charles  Simeon, 
nine  times  each,  that  is  in  every  year  except  one  during  the 
Period  ;  the  Right.  Hon.  Sir  George  Rose,  K.C.B.,  M.P., 
seven  times ;  Lord  Calthorpe  and  the  Hon.  and  Rev.  Gerard 
Noel,  five  times  ;  Lord  Bexley,  the  Revs.  J.  W.  Cunningham, 
William  Marsh  and  Daniel  Wilson,  four  times;  Lord  Gambier, 
Robert  Grant,  Hugh  McNeile,  Legh  Richmond,  Lewis  Way, 
and  William  Wilberforcei  three  times  ;  W.  Jowett,  first  Cam- 
bridge missionary  of  the  C.M.S.,  and  Haldane  Stewart,  twice  ; 
and  the  following  once :  the  Earl  of  Rocksavage,  Sir  Montague 
Cholmeley,  Sir.  R.  H.  Inglis,  Sir  Claudius  Hunter,  Admiral 
Sir  James  Saumarez,  Sir  Gregory  Way,  the  Hon.  and  Revs. 
Baptist  Noel,  who  had  succeeded  Daniel  Wilson  as  incumbent 
of  St.  John's,  Bedford  Row,  Francis  Noel,  and  Captain  Noel, 
Thomas  Babington,  Edward  Bickersteth,  Henry  Drummond, 
Edward  Irving  (then  at  the  very  height  of  his  fame),  Professor 
Parish  of  Cambridge,  and  Professor  Tholuck  of  Berlin.  It 
will  thus  be  seen  how  widely  the  Society  enjoyed  the  advocacy 
of  the  foremost  Evangelical  Churchmen  of  the  day. 

In  1820  the  Annual  Meeting  was  held  in  the  Freemasons' 
Hall,  and  also  from  1823  to  1829.  In  1821  it  was  held  in  the 
King's  Concert  Room,  Haymarket ;  at  all  of  which  Sir 
Thomas  Baring  presided.  The  meeting  in  1822  is  dis- 
tinguished as  the  only  one  ever  held  in  the  Mansion  House, 
when  the  Lord  Mayor  was  in  the  Chair.  The  meeting  in 
1828  stands  out  as  the  first  public  meeting  opened  with  prayer, 
an  example  followed  the  next  year  by  the  C.M.S.  Mr.  Stock, 
in  his  book,  says  :  "  Apparently  the  Jews'  Society  led  the  way 
in  introducing  an  opening  prayer."  ♦  But  it  was  not  until  the 
passing  of  Lord  Shaftesbury's  Religious  Worship  Bill  in  1856^ 
that  it  was  legal  to  hold  a  religious  meeting  in  an  unlicensed 
place.  The  old  Conventicle  Act  was  probably  regarded  as 
obsolete  before  it  was  repealed. 

The  monthly  issue  of  the  Jeivish  Expositor  was  continued 
throughout  the  Period,  with  the  desire  that  it  might  be  "  the 
compendious  common-place  book  of  all  pious  Christians  who 

*  History  of  the  C.M,S.^  vol.  i.  280. 

1829]  ISSUE    OF    THE    OLD     TESTAMENT  71 

feel  an  interest  in  the  conversion  of  Israel  and  the  spiritual 
treasur>'  into  which  each  should  cast  his  mite,"  and  mission- 
ary- news  was  increasingly  inserted. 

Some  dissatisfaction  was  caused  by  certain  prophetical  views 
attributed  to  the  Society,  and,  on  a  remonstrance  from  the 
Patrons,  the  Committee,  on  October  27th,  1823,  disclaimed  all 
intention  of  promulgating  any  particular  views  as  to  the 
nature  of  the  Millennium,  their  object  being  the  conversion  of 
the  Jews  to  vital  Christianity,  and  they  undertook  that  in  the 
Jewish  Expositor,  a  neutrality  should  be  maintained  on 
disputed  prophetical  points.  This  is,  of  course,  the  only 
possible  attitude  that  a  missionary  society  can  take  up.* 

The  Jewish  Records  were  issued  quarterly  from  Lady  Day, 
1822,  throughout  the  Period. 

It  is  time  that  we  turned  to  Home  missionary  efforts  during 
this  Period.  The  work  was  somewhat  circumscribed  in  Eng- 
land, both  in  London  and  in  the  Provinces.  In  these  indeed 
nothing  was  done  beyond  an  occasional  effort.  To  take 
London  first. 

The  Girls'  School  in  Palestine  Place  was  opened  in  1821, 
when  44  girls  were  admitted.  The  expenses  attending  the 
erection  of  this,  as  well  as  the  Boys*  School,  were  fully  met 
By  the  end  of  1822  nearly  300  Jewish  children  had  enjoyed 
the  benefit  of  Christian  instruction  given  by  the  Society. 

In  1823  the  Society  issued  the  octavo  Old  Testament  in 
Hebrew.  This  was  most  necessary,  as  missionaries  found  the 
Jews  so  ignorant  of  their  own  Scriptures  that  appeals  to  the  Old 
Testament  were  useless.  They  could  not  prove  to  the  Jews, 
from  the  evidence  of  the  printed  pages  of  their  own  Scriptures, 
that  Jesus  is  the  Christ.  The  prices  were  such  that  only 
the  well-to-do  could  afford  to  purchase  them.  A  single  copy 
of  Van  der  Hooght's  Bible  cost  six  guineas.  The  Society 
was  able  to  purchase  large  quantities,  in  sheets,  of  the 
octavo  edition  of  this  Bible,  at  the  reduced  price  of  lis. 
per  copy,  and,  later,  at  the    further  reduced  price  of  ys.  6d,  ; 

•  See  pages  35  and  211. 

72  HOME    MATTERS  [1820 

it  also  eventually  acquired  the  stereotype  plates,  which  long 
remained  in  use.  The  i2mo  edition  of  the  Old  Testament 
was  completed  in  1827,  and  the  Pentateuch  in  Judaeo-Polish 
the  same  year. 

We  spoke  in  Chapter  IV.  of  the  issue  of  the  Hebrew  version 
of  the  New  Testament  During  the  early  years  of  this  Period 
opinions  and  criticisms  as  to  its  merits  were  obtained  from  the 
following  eminent  scholars  and  Professors — Lee  of  Cambridge, 
Gesenius  of  Halle,  Rosenmiiller  and  Tholuck  of  Berlin,  and 
Neumann  of  Breslau,  and,  as  a  result,  on  July  12th,  1825,  the 
Committee  came  to  the  conclusion  that  no  entirely  new 
translation  was  necessary,  but  that  various  alterations  should 
be  made  in  the  next  edition. 

The  Holy  Scriptures — Old  and  New — had  thus  been  provided 
and  put  into  the  hands  of  Jews  by  the  Society,  and  freely 
though  not  wastefully  circulated.  This  is  one  of  the  greatest 
and  most  important  branches  of  its  work.  We  can  fully 
endorse  to-day  the  words  of  the  early  Committee,  whose 
privilege  it  was  to  initiate  the  same,  whilst  we,  in  our  turn, 
are  allowed  to  reap  the  fruit  of  their  labours  : 

The  free  circulation  of  the  Scriptures  among  the  Jews  is,  of  all  measures,  the 
most  important.  Among  a  people  who  cannot  come  to  hear  a  Christian  preacher 
without  danger,  even  when  he  is  within  their  reach,  and  of  whom,  by  reason  of 
their  boundless  dispersion,  very  few  can  enjoy  that  privilege,  the  Word  of  God, 
issued  from  various  stations,  by  judicious  missionaries,  may  be  extensively 
circulated.  For  this  there  are  peculiar  facilities  among  a  people,  not  more 
distinguished  for  their  dispersion  through  all  the  countries  under  heaven,  than  for 
a  close  and  constant  connexion  and  intercourse  amongst  themselves.  The  written 
Word  of  God,  too,  circulates  silently  and  without  offence ;  it  penetrates  where 
the  missionary  could  find  no  access,  it  is  concealed  in  the  bosom  and  read  in  the 
closet,  and  he  who  has  the  fears  and  the  scruples  of  Nicodemus,  may  enjoy  his 
privilege,  and  converse  in  secret  with  "  Him  of  whom  Moses  in  the  Law,  and  the 
Prophets  did  write.* 

In  addition  to  the  Holy  Scriptures,  tracts  continued  to  be 
issued  from  the  press,  and  were  widely  circulated. 

The  religious  world  was  startled  in  1828  by  the  History  of 
the  Jews,  by  Henry  Hart  Milman,  Dean  of  St.  Paul's,  a  book, 
which,  treating  of  the  human  side  of  sacred   history,  created 

*  Seventeenth  Report  (1825),  p.  28. 


some  alarm.  Still  it  undoubtedly  aroused  sympathy  with 
this  wonderful  people  and  so  indirectly  helped  on  the  cause. 

The  satisfactory  attendance  of  Jews  and  Jewesses  at  the 
"  Typical  Lectures "  given  on  Sunday  evenings  by  the 
Chaplain,  the  Rev.  C.  S.  Hawtrey,  caused  a  second  lecture  to 
be  started  on  occasional  Wednesdays.  This  was  taken  by 
Simeon,  Marsh,  John  Sargent,  and  others.  These  eflPorts  were 
not  without  success.  On  Easter  Day,  1828,  the  baptism  of  a 
Jew  in  the  Society's  church  attracted  a  very  large  congregation. 

Dr.  Wolff,  in  1827,  as  the  "missionary  for  Palestine  and 
Persia,"  issued  a  most  earnest  and  characteristic  "  Appeal  to 
his  brethren  the  Jews  of  Great  Britain,"  to  acknowledge  our 
Lord  as  their  Messiah.* 

To  turn  to  the  Provinces,  where  as  yet  no  missionaries 
were  stationed. 

The  celebration  of  anniversaries  of  Associations,  as,  for 
instance,  at  Norwich,  Liverpool,  and  Plymouth,  was  sometimes 
made  the  occasion  on  which  to  arouse  the  Jews,  and  that 
successfully,  for  we  read  that 

great  interest  was  excited  at  several  of  the  sermons,  by  the  attendance  of  a 
number  of  Jews,  who  heard,  with  respectful  attention  and  lively  interest,  what 
was  delivered  to  themselves,  and  respecting  their  nation,  t 

At  Plymouth  a  rich  harvest  was  reaped  in  the  conversion 
and  baptism  (see  page  208)  of  the  officiating  Reader  of  the 
synagogue,  Michael  Solomon  Alexander. 

Apart  from  these  isolated  instances,  few  and  far  between,  it 
is  quite  evident  that  the  Committee  acted  upon  their  own 
axiom  : — *•  The  chief  field  for  exertion  was  not  to  be  looked 
for  in  England."!  The  success  achieved  abroad,  to  which  we 
shall  refer  in  subsequent  chapters,  led  them  to  this  conclusion. 

They  were  not,  however,  unconcerned  for  the  Jews  in 
England,  but  rather  sought  to  arouse  the  parochial  clergy 
to  a  sense  of  their  duty  to  them  as  their  parishioners.  Their 
weighty  words  are  well  worth  reproducing  : 

*  Jewish  Expository  1827,  p.  95.  t  Sixteenth  Report  (1824),  p.  5. 

X  Seventeenth  Report  (1825),  p.  24. 

74  HOME    MATTERS  [1820 

While  it  is  their  earnest  desire  that  the  water  of  life  may  flow  forth  to  every 
desert  spot  where  the  lost  sheep  of  Israel  are  scattered,  it  has  also  been  tlieir 
prayer  that  it  may  not  flow  as  waters  from  a  smitten  rock,  carrying  life,  health, 
and  blessing  to  distant  regions,  while  the  source  remains  barren  and  unblest.  It 
has  indeed  been  their  endeavour,  as  much  as  possible,  to  promote  Christianity 
among  the  Jews  of  England,  not  only  on  this  account,  but  because  they  consider 
them  as  that  part  of  the  dispersed  house  of  Judah  which  it  has  pleased  God  to 
place  under  the  care  of  this  Christian  country.  Viewed  in  this  light,  they  are 
objects  not  only  of  interest,  but  of  deep  responsibility,  and  your  Committee  would 
avail  themselves  of  the  present  occasion  to  solicit  the  assistance  of  all  the  friends  of 
the  Society  in  the  performance  of  this  part  of  their  duty.  Especially  they  would 
ask  the  co-operation  of  their  clerical  friends— to  some  of  these  they  may  perhaps 
say  (and  they  trust  without  offence),  **  Have  you  not  Jews  resident  within  the 
limits  of  your  cure  whom  you  have  scarcely  been  accustomed  to  consider  as 
parishioners  ? — who  have  not  shared  your  pastoral  care  with  the  rest  of  that  flock 
over  whom  the  Holy  Ghost  hath  made  you  overseers?"  We  are  not  inviting  you 
to  enter  into  controversy  with  those  who  differ  in  discipline,  or  err  slightly  in 
doctrine — we  speak  of  those  who  openly  reject  your  Redeemer,  who  **  tread  under 
foot  the  Son  of  God,  and  count  the  blood  of  the  covenant,  wherewith  they  were 
sanctified,  an  unholy  thing."  When  the  synagogue  rises  beside  your  church,  and 
the  outcast  of  Israel  is  your  parishioner,  we  ask  that  the  same  prayers  should  rise 
to  God,  and  that  the  same  tender  grief,  and  pity,  and  love,  should  be  called  forth 
toward  His  fallen  creature,  as  if  the  blind  worshippers  of  Brahma  had  raised  his 
temple  in  your  streets.  We  ask  the  same  feelings  toward  the  Jew — long 
acquaintance  may  have  familiarized  you  with  his  person,  his  creed,  and  his  ritual, 
until  you  have  ceased  to  consider  that  he  is  in  the  same  circumstances  as  the  pagan 
idolater,  or  that,  if  he  differe  in  possessing  more  knowledge,  he  knows  only  to  his 
condemnation.  It  is  asking  much  from  your  faith,  your  charity,  your  patience — 
but  we  ask  it  in  behalf  of  those  for  whom  Christ  died— we  ask  it  of  the  successors 
of  His  apostles,  who  ever>'where  within  the  sphere  of  their  labours  preached  both 
to  Jew  and  Gentile  the  unsearchable  riches  of  Christ — we  ask  it  for  the  sake  of 
Ilim  whose  dying  prayer  was  offered  for  this  unhappy  race,  and  we  are  confident 
that  we  shall  not  ask  in  vain. 

No  doiibt  the  above  sets  forth  the  ideal  state  of  things,  a 
state  which  can  hardly  ever  be  attained.  The  average  paro- 
chial clergyman  is  not  fitted,  either  by  education  or  experience, 
to  deal  with  the  Jews  in  his  parish.  He  does  not  know  their 
language,  he  does  not  understand  the  habits,  ideas,  or  modes 
of  thought  of  these  strangers  within  his  gates.  He  is  unversed 
in  the  Jewish  controversy,  and  he  has  not  the  necessary  tools  for 
the  work.  And  the  result  generally  is  that  request  is  made  to 
the  missionary  society,  which  is  expected  to  supply  its  trained 
and  experienced  men,  and  its  extensive  missionary  literature. 
We  shall  return  to  this  subject  later  on. 


During  this  Period  a  very  important  branch  of  the  work, 
the  training  of  missionaries,  was  commenced  by  the  establish- 
ment, in  1 82 1,  of  a  training  institution.  Whilst  the  services 
of  graduates  of  the  Universities  and  English  clergymen  have 
ever  been  eagerly  welcomed,  the  linguistic  exigencies  of  the 
mission  field,  and  the  essential  knowledge  of  Jewish  modes 
of  thought,  learning  and  controversy,  render  it  imperative 
that  the  Society  should  have  an  able  body  of  Hebrew  Christ- 
ian missionaries  in  the  field.  Therefore  the  special  training 
of  suitable  men  has  ever  been  regarded  as  one  of  the  most 
important  branches  of  the  work,  and  one  which  has  called  for 
the  utmost  patience  and  been  productive  of  the  greatest 
anxiety.  Various  plans  have  been  tried  with  more  or  less  suc- 
cess ;  they  have  been  altered,  modified,  and  re-modelled, 
as  circumstances  seemed  to  require.  A  perfectly  satisfactory 
system  of  training  has  yet  to  be  found,  perhaps  it  never  will 
be  ;  for  the  chief  difficulties  lie  in  the  material  out  of  which 
the  future  missionaries  of  the  Society  have  to  be  developed. 
For  the  most  part  they  are  foreign  Jews,  unaccustomed  to 
English  ways,  manners  and  ideas,  and,  owing  to  their  recent 
conversion,  only  "  babes  in  Christ."  When  we  remember  all 
this,  we  are  indeed  thankful  for  what  has  been  done,  and  for 
the  many  excellent,  godly  and  able  Hebrew  Christian 
missionaries  whom  the  Society  has  sent  forth.  No  system  of 
training  can  be  perfect  and,  considering  the  difficulties  of  the 
task,  the  Society  has  perhaps  succeeded  as  well  as  could  have 
been  expected.  At  any  rate,  unlimited  pains  and  ever  watch- 
ful care  have  been  expended  in  order  to  achieve  this  purpose. 

To  mention  the  beginning  of  these  efforts — the  first  Insti- 
tution, called  the  Seminary,  was  located  at  Aldsworth  House, 
Stanstead,  in  Sussex,  placed  at  the  Society's  disposal  by 
Lewis  Way,  from  1821  to  1827,  with  the  Rev.  Edwin  Jacob, 
a  scholar  of  Corpus  Christi  College,  Oxford,  as  tutor,  and 
Judah  d'Allemand  as  teacher  of  Hebrew,  German,  and 
other  foreign  languages.  In  the  first  two  years,  of  the  eight 
students  received,  only  two  were  Jewish  converts,  its  primary 
object  being  the  training  of  Gentile  missionaries.  To  these 
were  added,  in  the  next  year,  five,  of  whom  four  had  been 

76  HOME    MATTERS  [1820 

undergoing  training  in  the  Berlin  Missionary  Seminary, 
under  the  teaching  of  the  Rev.  John  Jaenick6,  a  Lutheran 
pastor.  Indeed,  English  Missions — S.P.C.K.,  C.M.S.  and  our 
own — owed  much  in  their  early  days  to  the  Lutherans.  In  the 
Seminary  at  Stanstead  many  of  the  famous  early  missionaries 
of  the  Society  were  trained  for  their  future  work,  amongst 
whom  we  may  mention,  in  order  of  seniority,  F.  W.  Becker, 
Alexander  McCaul,  J.  O'Neill,  Joseph  Wolff,  W.  B.  Lewis, 
L.  Hoff,  G.  Wendt,  G.  E.  Dalton,  J.  G.  Wermelskirch, 
J.  J.  Banga,  J.  G.  Bergfeldt,  J.  C.  Reichardt,  J.  Nicolayson, 
W.  Ayerst  and  J.  Stockfeld. 

In  1827  a  change  became  necessary,  Lewis  Way's  house 
being  no  longer  available,  and  Jacob,  the  tutor,  having 
accepted  a  living.  Consequently  a  suitable  house  was  rented 
in  St.  Matthew's  Place,  Hackney  Road,  in  East  London, 
with  the  Rev.  Thomas  Boys  as  tutor. 

In  1829  the  students  were  removed  to  two  houses,  fitted  up 
for  the  purpose,  in  Palestine  Place,  so  that  they  might  be  in 
close  touch  with  the  Chaplain.  The  valuable  library  of 
Hebrew  and  other  Jewish  books,  so  liberally  presented  to  the 
Seminary  by  Lewis  Way,  was  transferred  to  the  new  premises, 
which  also  served  as  a  hostel  for  foreign  missionaries  visiting 
this  country.  From  these  walls  also  there  issued  forth  a  goodly 
number  of  excellent  missionaries,  amongst  them,  H.  Lawrence, 
C.  Hartmann,  J.  H.  Graf,  J.  G.  Lange,  J.  C.  Moritz,  J.  C.  H. 
West,  R.  Bellson,  and  F.  C.  Ewald.  In  1832  the  Institution 
was  closed.  It  had  not  been  found  easy  to  combine  efficiency 
with  economy  ;  and  there  were  other  difficulties,  fully  set  out 
in  the  Twenty-fourth  Report.  A  permanent  Seminary  there- 
fore was  discontinued  for  the  present. 

It  remains  now  to  notice  the  foundation,  in  1829,  of  a  most 
important  and  indispensable  adjunct  to  the  Society's  work — 
the  Operative  Jewish  Converts'  Institution  —  which  was 
situated  first  in  Hackney  Road,  but  came  subsequently  to  be  a 
very  prominent  feature  in  the  Palestine  Place  establishments. 

The  primary  and  immediate  object  of  this  Institution  is 
embodied  in  its  title,  and  was  thus  described  by  its  honoured 
founders,  Simeon,   Marsh,  Hawtrey,  and  Sir  G.  H.  Rose  : 


If  God  has  ordained,  that  "unless  a  man  work,  neither  shall  he  eat,"  two 
things  are  clear  ;  namely,  that  we  are  not  to  support  Jewish  converts  in  idleness  ; 
and  that,  if  they  are  incapable  of  working  for  want  of  instruction,  we  should,  if 
possible,  pronde  instruction,  that  they  may  work.  This  appears  to  be  the  bounden 
duty  of  the  Christian  world,  and  it  is  the  sole  end  of  the  Institution  now  established. 
Jewish  converts  will  be  admitted  into  it  only  for  a  given  time,  sufficient  for  the 
instruction  of  one  who  is  diligent  ;  and  then  they  will  be  dismissed,  to  make  way 
for  others,  who  may  in  succession  receive  the  same  benefit. 

To  promote  this  object,  the  inmates  were  to  be  received  for 
three  years  and  supplied  with  board,  lodging,  and  clothing,  and 
taught  the  trades  of  printing  and  bookbinding  in  their  various 
branches.  We  shall  return  to  this  Institution  later  on,  and  would 
now  only  say  that  its  Committee  have  always  been  deeply 
sensible  of  the  important  duty  of  making  it  instrumental  in 
promoting  God's  glory,  and  the  eternal  welfare  of  those 
committed  to  their  care.  To  this  end  the  inmates  assemble 
morning  and  evening  for  Bible  reading  and  prayer,  and  attend 
the  usual  public  services  of  the  Church.  They  are  subjected 
to  a  regular  course  of  Christian  training  and  discipline, 
and  receive  practical  religious  instruction.  In  1831,  after 
necessary  reconstruction,  the  Rev.  J.  C.  Reichardt,  one  of  the 
Society's  missionaries,  became  its  Superintendent. 

A  few  general  remarks  about  the  position  of  the  Society 
during  this  Period  may  be  permitted.  It  was  not  to  be 
expected  that  such  a  work  as  the  Society's  would  escape 
censure  and  misrepresentation.  The  early  constitution  of 
the  Society  created,  as  we  have  seen,  its  own  peculiar 
difficulties,  and  led  many  Churchmen  to  look  at  it  askance, 
and  to  regard  its  methods  with  suspicion,  and  the  results 
of  its  work  with  incredulity.  Mistakes  had  undoubtedly 
been  made,  mistakes  both  foolish  and  glaring  ;  ex- 
pectations had  been  aroused  which  had  not  been 
realized ;  some  of  the  converts,  and  even  two  or  three 
missionaries,  had  belied  their  profession,  and  by  their  life 
and  conduct  brought  disgrace  upon  the  cause.  Perhaps 
this  was  not  altogether  their  fault,  for  they  had  been  too 
prominently  brought  forward  and  unduly  petted  and  spoilt. 
Simeon,    a    mainstay   of    the    cause   in  its   early  years,  was 

78  HOME    MATTERS.  [1820 

alive  to  this  weakness,  and  wrote  in  1830 :  "It  was  the 
want  of  caution  in  the  Jewish  Society  at  first  which 
brought  such  odium  upon  all  its  plans  and  upon  all  its  pro- 
moters ;  and  I  would  very  earnestly  recommend  that  as 
little  as  possible  be  said  of  our  early  converts  ....  Pharaoh 
was  not  more  cruel  to  infant  Hebrews  than  we  are  to  adults. 
He  drowned  his  victims,  and  we  hug  ours  to  death."  * 

Amidst  a  great  deal  that  was  good,  there  was  much  that  was 
unsatisfactory.  But  when  all  this  is  admitted,  it  is  impossible 
not  to  be  amazed  at  the  vituperation  and  abuse  that  were 
heaped  upon  the  Society  in  certain  quarters  during  the  first 
twenty  years  of  its  existence.  Several  pamphlets,!  written 
with  an  unconcealed  desire  to  damage  the  cause  and  bring 
it  into  public  disrepute,  have  fallen  into  the  limbo  of  forgetful- 
ness  as  they  well  deserved  to  do.  As  much  may  be  said  for  a 
very  formidable  attack  \  upon  the  Society  by  one  who  occupied 
a  high  position  among  the  "Clapton  sect,"  so-called  in 
contradistinction  to  the  "  Clapham  sect."  The  Rev.  Henry 
Handley  Norris  was  perpetual  curate  of  St.  John's,  Hackney, 
Prebendary  of  Llandaff,  and  Chaplain  to  the  Earl  of 
Shaftesbury  (the  sixth  Earl)  and,  according  to  Dr. 
Overton,  "  a  great  power  in  the  Church,"  and  "  was  called  the 
*  Bishop-maker,'  because  Prime  Ministers  were  supposed  to 
consult  him  frequently  about  Episcopal  appointments."  § 
Bishop  Lloyd,  of  Oxford,  even  called  him  "  The  Patriarch."  || 
He  was  a  High  Churchman,  a  fact  which,  coupled  with  the  pro- 
pinquity of  the  Society's  chapel  to  his  church,  may  account  for 
his  animus  against  the  Society  ;  and  he  naively  admitted  that 
the  fact  that  the  Society  had  disbursed  ;^i 35,000  in  sixteen 
years,   whilst  there  were  "spiritual  necessities  amongst  our- 

*  Cams,  Memoir  of  Charles  Simeotty  p.  458, 

t  Such  as    The   London   Society   Examined^   by  B.   R.   Goakman,  18 16,  and 
The  Mystery  Unfolded^  by  Sailman. 

XThe  Origin,  Progress  and  Existing  Circumstames   of  the  L,S»I\C./.^  an 
Historical  Inquiry,  by  the  Rev.  H.  H.  Norris.     I-ondon.     1825. 

§  The  English  Church  in  the  Nineteenth  Century,  p.  36. 

11  Memoir  of  Joshua  Watson,  i.  279. 

1829]  ATTACKS    ON    THE    SOCIETY  79 

selves,  of  vital  importance  to  us,  pining  for  assistance^' 
had  provoked  his  enquiry.  This  plea  is  identical  with  that 
constantly  urged  by  Jews  against  the  Society.  Anyone  who 
has  waded  through  the  690  pages  of  Norris'  book — and  very 
few  living  can  have  done  so — must  have  felt  that  the  writer  is 
absolutely  self-condemned  by  his  furious  invective,  and  extra- 
ordinary variety  of  malignant  abuse,  expressed  in  such  a  way 
as  to  give  one  the  impression  that  he  rejoiced  in  this  attempt 
to  fasten  iniquity  upon  the  Society.  We  cannot  deny  the 
truth  of  some  of  his  statements ;  we  are  not  concerned  to 
defend  all  that  he  attacked.  We  merely  refer  to  the  matter 
because  it  is  a  part  of  the  history  of  the  Society,  and  caused  a 
great  deal  of  trouble  to  its  managers  on  account  of  the  high 
position  of  the  writer. 

After  this  lapse  of  time  we  are  quite  content  to  rest  upon  the 
judgment  of  his  contemporaries,  men  who  loved  the  Society 
and  supported  it  through  evil  report  and  good  report,  men  of 
influence  and  commanding  position,  such  as  the  Duke  of 
Devonshire,  the  Earl  of  Crawford  and  Lindsay,  Lord  Barham, 
Lord  Bexley,  Lord  Gambier,  and  many  other  leading 
noblemen,  who  rejoiced  to  countenance  and  help  it  on  by 
their  patronage  and  support.  Well-known  laymen,  such  as  Sir 
Thomas  Baring,  M.P.,  William  Wilberforce,  M.P.,  Thomas 
Babington,  M.P.,  Charles  Noel,  M.P.  (afterward  Earl  of 
Gainsborough)  Sir  Robert  Inglis,  Sir  Robert  Grant,  and  Sir 
G.  Rose  advocated  its  claims  on  the  platform.  The  fact  that 
the  foremost  of  the  Evangelical  clergy — Bishop  Ryder, 
Simeon,  Thomas  Scott,  T.  S.  Grimshawe,  W.  Marsh,  Legh 
Richmond,  Lewis  Way,  Haldane  Stewart,  Edward  Bickers- 
teth,  Basil  Woodd,  J.  W.  Cunningham,  Dr.  Dealtry,  Daniel 
Wilson  the  elder,  Gerard  Noel,  Hugh  McNeile  and 
others — spared  no  pains  to  commend  its  work  to  others, 
satisfies  us  completely.  They  were  not  so  foolish  as  to 
believe  that  when  the  good  seed  of  the  kingdom  was  sown,  the 
devil  would  abstain  from  sowing  tares,  but  they  did  not  there- 
fore want  to  uproot  the  whole  crop.  The  evil  was  either  of 
man's  or  the  devil's  making,  but  the  good  was  the  work  of  the 
Holy  Spirit.     These  holy  men  of  old  were  convinced  that  the 

80  HOME    MATTERS.  [1820-29 

good  far  outweighed  the  evil,  and  by  that  conviction  we 
cheerfully  and  thankfully  abide. 

Dr.  Overton,  summing  up  his  account  of  the  Evangelicals  in 
the  early  part  of  last  century,  says  :  "  They  were  the  salt  of 
the  earth  in  their  day,  and  the  Church  owes  a  debt  of  gratitude 
to  those  holy  men  ...  which  it  will  never  forget  so  long  as  per- 
sonal piety  and  the  spiritual  side  of  religion  are  valued  at  their 
proper  worth."  * 

We  may  appropriately  close  this  chapter  with  the  following 
remarks  by  Simeon  on  the  infirmities  of  Committees  in 
general : 

Societies  are  like  the  Cabinet  of  Ministers,  who  send  out  armies,  and  sit  at  home 
and  get  some  credit ;  but  it  is  the  armies  that  strike  the  blows,  and  that  are  God's 
instruments  to  us  for  good.     Yet  the  Cabinets  are  of  use  in  their  place,  though 

they  may  sometimes  be  wrong  in  their  judgment If  all  Committees  were 

more  earnest  in  prayer  to  God  for  direction,  they  would  do  better.  Still,  however, 
there  must  be  Committees,  as  well  as  Cabinets  ;  and  where  there  are  men,  there 
will  be  mistakes,  and  errors,  and  infirmities ;  and  if  we  expect  only  from  men 
what  savours  strongly  of  human  infirmity  we  shall  be  less  stumbled  by  their  errors,  t 

*  The  English  Church  in  the  Nineteenth  Century  (1800 — 1833),  p.   109. 
t  Cams,  Memoirs  of  Simeon^  L,  p.  601, 



J«w«  off  Holland— Visit  of  Lewis  Way  and  5olomon— Enquiries  by  Charies  51meon— 
Mission  established  at  Amsterdam— Thelwall  and  5lmon  the  first  missionaries- 
Notable  Converts— Isaac  da  Costa— Dr.  Abraham  Capadose— Joseph  Wolff- 
visits  Holland— Converts  at  Dusselthal— Other  missionaries. 

THIS  Period  was  characterized,  as  we  have  already  in- 
dicated, by  a  very  wide  expansion  in  the  Society's 
operations,  new  fields  being  occupied  on  the  Continent, 
in  the  Near  East,  and  also  in  India. 

Holland  has  the  honour  of  being  the  first  foreign  station  of 
the  Societ)'.  Before  we  enter  upon  the  first  beginnings  of 
missionar}'  effort  in  the  Netherlands,  a  few  words  must  be  said 
about  the  history  of  the  Jews  there.  This  naturally  divides 
itself  into  two  well-defined  periods.  The  earlier  settlement 
can  be  traced  back  to  the  ninth  century.  Jews  were  most 
numerous  in  Belgium  and  North  Holland,  especially  in  the 
provinces  of  Flanders,  Brabant,  and  Guelderland,  where  they 
almost  monopolized  the  commerce.  They  were  expelled  in  the 
twelfth  centur>'  from  Flanders,  readmitted  in  the  fourteenth, 
only  to  be  again  driven  out  in  1370.  The  Jewish  population 
was  considerably  reinforced  by  Jews  banished  from  France, 
but  in  course  of  time  their  numbers  dwindled  into 

The  second  Jewish  settlement  in  Holland  dates  from  the 
close  of  the  sixteenth  century,  when  the  newly  emancipated 
Dutch  Republic  offered  a  refuge  to  the  Jews  forced  to  leave 
the  mother  country  of  Spain,  owing  to  the  tyranny  of 
Philip  II.,  the  cruel  and  fanatical  husband  of  Queen  Mary  of 
England,  who  sought  to  enforce  the  Inquisition.  These  exiles 
were  known  as  Marranos*  or  New  Christians,  whose  forefathers 
had  remained  in  Spain,  when  the  bulk  of  their  co-religionists 
preferred   banishment   to  a  false   profession  of  Christianity. 

*See  page  139. 

82  HOLLAND  \\%7Q 

Their  turn  was  now  come.  Whither  should  they  flee  ?  Hardly 
any  country  in  Europe  offered  a  safe  asylum.  England  and 
France  were  closed  against  them.  In  Italy  and  Germany  the 
lot  of  the  Jews^  who  were  barely  tolerated  in  those  countries, 
was  well-nigh  unendurable.  These  Marranos  turned  their 
eyts  to  the  revolted  Netherlands,  and  the  first  batch  arrived 
there  in  1591.  They  at  once  threw  off  any  veneer  of  Christ- 
ianity that  still  remained,  and  resumed  their  Jewish  names 
and  religion.  In  1598  they  erected  a  synagogue  at  Amster- 
dam. Their  numbers  greatly  increased,  being  reinforced  by 
further  detachments  from  Spain,  and  "  Amsterdam,  with  its 
happy,  honoured,  and  rapidly  increasing  Jewish  colony,  came 
to  be  called  the  New  Jerusalem."  *  They  increased  the  trade 
of  the  country,  and  introduced  the  art  of  diamond  cutting  and 
polishing.  In  literature,  also,  their  adopted  country  gained 
greatly.  In  1619  they  secured  full  citizenship.  Amongst  the 
more  famous  of  these  Spanish  Jews,  the  names  of  Uriel  Da 
Costa,  Menasseh  ben  Israel,  and  Baruch  Spinoza  stand  out 
conspicuously.  It  is  said  that  another  Jew,  Baron  Suasso, 
offered  William  of  Orange  a  million  of  money  toward  the 
invasion  of  England. 

Many  of  the  Ashkenazic  Jews  of  Germany  likewise  sought 
a  refuge  in  Holland,  but,  as  elsewhere,  were  not  allowed  to 
intermingle  with  the  aristocratic  Sephardim. 

The  Jews  of  Holland  in  the  present  day  are  mostly  poor, 
though  a  considerable  minority  are  bankers,  stockbrokers, 
merchants,  and  of  various  professions.  Religiously  speaking, 
the  bulk  of  the  Jews  are  under  rabbinical  bondage,  and 
consequently  in  a  state  of  great  ignorance,  although  a  large 
minority  have  imbibed  modem  and  rationalistic  ideas.  Of 
recent  years  there  has  been  a  great  increase  of  Russian-Polish 
immigrants  into  Amsterdam  and  other  towns  in  Holland, 
the  total  Jewish  population  now  being  about  100,000,  of 
whom  7S,ooo  are  resident  in  the  capital. 

Holland  was  the  first  country  in  which  Lewis  Way  and  his 
fellow-travellers  pursued  their  investigations  of  the  religious 

*  Magnus,  Outlines  of  Jewish  History^  p.  234. 

iS29]  LEWIS    IVAY    AND    CHARLES    SIMEON  83 

condition  of  the  Continental  Jews,  and  the  chances  of  any 
organized  attempt  to  evangelize  them.  At  Rotterdam, 
where  these  pioneers  of  the  work  landed,  both  Way  and 
Solomon  preached  to  a  number  of  Jews  ;  and  the  former  had 
the  privilege  of  baptizing  a  young  Jew,  who  took  the  name  of 
Erasmus,  after  the  Dutch  Reformer.  This  circumstance  was 
a  good  augury  for  the  success  of  any  mission  that  might  be 
established  for  Dutch  Jews.  At  The  Hague,  Way  had  an 
encouraging  discussion  with  the  chief  rabbi,  who  accepted  a 
New  Testament,  which  his  brother  minister  at  Rotterdam, 
had  refused  as  an  "  unholy  thing."  It  was  at  Amsterdam, 
however,  that  prospects  were  brightest.  Here  were  25,000 
Jews,  amongst  whom  there  seemed  to  be  a  great  opening. 
Many  applied  for  Christian  books,  and  two  printers  offered  to 
reprint  the  Society's  tracts  at  their  own  risk  of  sale.  The 
travellers  officiated  several  times  in  the  English  EpiscoRal 
Chapel,  which  happened  to  be  without  a  resident  chaplain,  and 
several  Jews  were  amongst  the  large  congregations  attracted. 
A  request  was  forwarded  to  the  Committee  for  the  appoint- 
ment of  a  missionary  to  the  Jews,  who  might  also  act  as 
chaplain,  the  Society  to  pay  merely  the  moiety  of  his  stipend. 
Our  friend  Charles  Simeon  having,  in  company  with  Dr. 
Marsh,  followed  up  the  enquiries  of  Lewis  Way,  and  ascertained, 
to  his  own  satisfaction  and  at  his  own  generous  charges,  that  it 
was  most  desirable  to  enter  into  a  joint  arrangement  with  the 
congregation  of  the  above  named  chapel,  by  which  they  were 
to  defray  the  expenses  of  Divine  worship,  and  the  Society  to 
appoint  and  support  a  missionary  to  the  Jews  of  Amsterdam, 
who  should  also  be  minister  of  the  chapel,  the  Committee  in 
1820  appointed  the  Rev.  A.  S.  Thelwall  to  the  post.  He  was 
assisted  first  by  E.  H.  Simon,  a  convert  acquainted  with 
Dutch,  and  subsequently  by  two  others,  J.  Stockfeld  and 
Chevallier.  Thelwall's  efforts  were  chiefly  restricted  to  the 
Jews  of  Amsterdam,  though,  in  1822,  he  made  a  prolonged 
journey  of  six  weeks  in  the  provinces,  visiting  both  Jews  and 
converts.  By  the  medium  of  a  General  Tract  Society  much 
was  done  to  arouse  the  interest  of  English  and  Dutch 
Christians  at  Amsterdam  in  the  work,  an  interest  maintained  to 


84  HOLLAND  [1820 

the  present  day.  Some  of  the  converts  were  influential  and  of 
striking  personality,  amongst  them  being  Isaac  Da  Costa  and 
Dr.  Abraham  Capadose. 

Something  must  be  said  about  each  of  these  eminent  men. 
Isaac  Da  Costa  came  of  an  illustrious  Jewish  family,  which, 
owing  to  the  fierce  religious  propagandism,  and  the  terrors  of 
the  Inquisition  in  Portugal,  had  renounced  Judaism  in  favour  of 
Roman  Catholicism.  He  was  the  great-nephew  of  the  famous 
Uriel  Da  Costa,  or  Gabriel  Acosta  (1590-1640)  mentioned 
above,  who,  though  Chancellor  of  the  Cathedral  of  Oporto, 
secretly  leaned  to  the  old  Jewish  faith,  and  was  determined 
to  throw  off  Roman  Catholicism,  and  to  return  to  Judaism. 
Uriel  fled  from  Portugal  with  his  mother  and  brothers  in 
161 7,  and,  having  safely  arrived  at  Amsterdam,  this  entire 
Marrano  family  openly  embraced  the  religion  of  their  ancestors. 
Uriel,  however,  was  of  too  enquiring  a  turn  of  mind  to  rest 
satisfied  with  the  obscurities  of  the  Talmud.  The  ideal  which 
he  had  formed  of  the  Jewish  religion  was  not  realized.  It 
could  no  more  satisfy  his  mind  than  the  Roman  Catholic  faith 
had  done.  He  openly  disavowed  traditional  and  religious 
Judaism,  and  even  held  it  up  to  ridicule.  He  was  promptly 
excommunicated.  In  his  downward  grade  he  began  now  to 
doubt  the  truth  of  all  revealed  religion,  and  sank  into  philo- 
sophic infidelity.  When  advanced  in  years,  longing  for  the 
removal  of  the  ban  of  excommunication,  he  submitted  to  the 
ordeal  of  a  public  penance  and  recantation.  It  was  too  much 
for  him,  and  very  shortly  afterward  death  by  his  own  hand 
put  an  end  to  his  troubled  and  darkened  life. 

Isaac  Da  Costa,  the  grand-nephew,  found,  what  Uriel,  with 
all  his  learning  and  research,  never  was  able  to  do,  the  truth 
as  it  is  in  Jesus  Christ.  Brought  up  as  a  Jew,  with  the 
terrible  fate  of  Uriel  and  the  unhappy  history  of  his  nation 
ever  before  his  eyes,  he  turned  to  "the  fountain  of  living 
waters,"  as  revealed  in  the  Old  Testament,  which  both  his 
ancestors  and  his  ancestral  race  had  forsaken.  His  thirst  for 
the  truth  led  him  to  read  also  the  Defence  of  the  Faith  of 
Christians^  a  Spanish  work  by  Professor  Juan  Joseph  Heydek, 
which  influenced  him  greatly  ;  and  to  profit  by  the  acquaintance 

i829]  DA     COSTA    AND    CAPADOSE  85 

of  the  poet  Bilderdyk,  a  professor  at  the  University  of  Leyden, 
and  a  true  disciple  of  Jesus  Christ  Isaac  embraced  the  truth, 
and  was  baptized  with  his  wife,  and  two  of  her  relations. 
Wolff,  who  met  this  Hebrew  Christian  family  in  Holland,  said  : 

I  think  tliat  if  I  were  not  yet  converted,  the  wonderful  dealing  of  God  with 
the  family  of  Da  Costa  would  strike  me  with  amazement,  and  might  be  the  means 
of  my  conversion.  Uriel  da  Costa,  two  hundred  years  ago,  sought  the  truth,  but  did 
not  find  it ;  and  two  hundred  years  afterward  his  descendant  Isaac  Da  Costa, 
sought  the  truth,  and  found  the  truth  !  * 

Da  Costa  not  only  found  the  truth,  but  he  preached  it 
and  lived  it.  We  are  indebted  to  him  for  his  most  interesting 
and  trustworthy  contributions  to  the  history  of  the  Jews, 
published  under  the  title  of  Israel  and  the  Gentiles, 

Abraham  Capadose  was  the  second  eminent  Christian 
Israelite  referred  to  above.  He,  too,  was  a  Portuguese  Jew, 
and  intimately  acquainted  with  Isaac  Da  Costa  from  early 
childhood,  and  moving  in  the  same  wealthy  and  influential 
circles.  He  came  under  the  same  influences  as  Da  Costa,  and 
with  him  turned  from  darkness  to  light.  A  doctor  by 
profession,  he  spent  his  spare  time  in  enquiry  into  Christianity. 
He  was  much  influenced  by  Justin  Martyr's  Dialogue  with 
Tryphoy  and  still  more  by  the  fifty-third  chapter  of  Isaiah. 
His  experience  was  that  of  thousands  of  other  enquiring 
Israelites  who  have  drunk  in  that  marvellous  "  report "  of  the 
Messiah,  uttered  700  years  before  His  birth,  and  been  con- 
vinced. His  words  are  well  worth  reproduction,  not  only  for 
their  glowing  faith,  but  because  they  are  typical  of  the 
convictions  of  thousands  of  his  race,  who,  like  him,  have  sought 
and  found  the  Messiah  : 

One  night  I  was  reading  in  the  prophet  Isaiah  ;  on  arriving  at  the  fifty-third 
chapter,  I  was  so  much  struck  with  what  I  read,  and  clearly  perceived  in  it,  line 
for  line,  what  I  had  read  in  the  Gospel  about  the  sufferings  of  Christ,  that  I  really 
thought  I  had  got  another  Bible  instead  of  my  own.  I  could  not  persuade  myself 
that  this  fifly-third  chapter,  which  may  so  well  be  called  an  abstract  of  the  Gospel, 
was  to  be  found  in  the  Old  Testament.  After  so  reading  it,  how  was  it  possible 
for  an  Israelite  to  doubt  that  Christ  was  the  promised  Messiah  ?  Whence  could 
so  strong  an  impression  have  come  ?  I  had  often  read  that  chapter,  but  this 
time  I  read  it  in  the  light  of  God's  Spirit.     From  that  moment  I  fully  recognized 

*Nituteenth  Report  (1827),  p.  104,  Appendix. 

86  HOLLAND  [1820 

in  Christ  the  promised  Messiah,  and  now  our  meditations  on  the  Word  of  God 
assumed  quite  a  new  character.  It  was  as  it  were  the  beginning,  the  dawn  of  a 
magnificent  day  for  our  souls ;  the  light  shed  more  and  more  upon  us  of  its 
enlivening  influence,  enlightened  our  minds,  warmed  our  hearts,  and  even  then 
gave  unspeakable  comfort  I  began  to  perceive  the  reasons  of  the  enigmas  so 
often  occurring  in  life,  and  which,  till  then,  had  occupied  me  rather  in  the  way  of 
£Bitiguing  and  distressing,  than  of  tranquillizing  and  instructing  me.  All  things 
around  me  seemed  to  live  anew,  and  the  object  and  interest  of  my  existence 
underwent  a  total  change.  Happy  days,  blessed  by  the  consciousness  of  the 
Master's  presence  !  Never  shall  I  forget  you.  I  can  seldom  peruse  the  account 
of  the  two  disciples  going  to  Emmaus,  without  recalling  those  days  on  which  my 
friend  and  I  used  to  meet  and  walk  together.  Like  the  disciples  we  can  say, 
"  Did  not  our  hearts  bum  within  us  while  He  talked  with  us  by  the  way,  and 

while  He  opened  to  us  the  Scriptures? '*    It  was  then  that  the  rays  of  the  Sun 

of  Righteousness,  which  dawned  upon  us,  shed  upon  us  not  only  a  light  that 
illuminated,  but  that  life-giving  and  celestial  warmth  also,  which  made  us  live 
the  life  of  God.  I  saw  that  love  had  led  the  Saviour  to  seek  me  ;  I  began  also  to 
feel  my  sins,  or  rather,  let  me  say,  my  total  misery.  But  this  sentiment  was 
absorbed,  as  it  were,  in  a  sense  of  the  Divine  love.  I  had  experienced  it ;  I  had 
found  my  life  in  Christ ;  He  became  the  central  point  of  all  my  affections  and 
of  all  my  thoughts,  the  only  object  capable  of  filling  the  immense  void  in  my 
heart,  the  key  of  all  mysteries,  the  principle  of  all  true  philosophy,  of  truth— the 
truth  itself."* 

One  of  the  most  interesting  incidents  in  the  early  history 
of  this  mission  was  the  visit,  in  the  spring  of  1827,  of 
Joseph  Wolff,  who  had  been  the  great  pioneer  of  many  of  the 
Society's  missions  in  the  East.f  The  journal  in  which  he 
describes  this  visit  enchains  our  attention  from  beginning  to 
end.  It  bears  ample  evidence  of  the  consecrated  individuality, 
powerful  though  eccentric,  and  of  the  burning  zeal  of  this 
most  famous  of  missionaries.  Rotterdam,  The  Hague, 
Leyden,  Haarlem,  Amsterdam,  Zeist,  Dusselthal,  Barmen, 
and  Elberfeld  were  visited,  some  of  the  places  more  than  once. 
Wolffs  intercourse  with  individual  Jews  was  marked  with 
characteristic  zeal  and  discernment.  At  Amsterdam  he  was 
introduced  to  Mr.  Jeans,  and  Mr.  Mackintosh,  the  English 
chaplain  and  the  minister  of  the  Scotch  Church,  respectively, 
both  of  whom  were  very  active  in  diffusing  knowledge  in  the 
Jewish  schools  of  Amsterdam  ;  and  was  joined  by  the  Rev. 
J.   C.  Reichardt,  the  Society's  missionary,  in  company  with 

*  Cofwersion  of  Dr.  Capadose,  pp.  13,  15. 
t  See  Chapter  IX. 

i829]  WOLFF    AT   DUSSELTHAL  87 

whom   he  preached  the  Gospel  several  times  to  Jews   and 

Jewesses.     In  this  city  Wolff  met  the  Da  Costa  family,  and 

also  a  Christian  Jew  of  Paris,  and  learnt  about  the  descendants 

of  a  Swedish  nobleman,  a  Gentile,  who  had  embraced  the 

Jewish  religion  at  Amsterdam,  and  whose  son  Isaac  Ger,  />.. 

Isaac  "  the  Proselyte,"  became  Great  Rabbi. 

In   the   Institution  of  Count  Werner  von  der  Recke,  at 

Overdyk,  near  Dusselthal,  Wolff  had  an  affecting  interview, 

the  first   for   many  years,  with  his  mother  and  sister,  who 

were  still  Jewesses.      They  received  his  message,  but  refused 

to  eat  with  him.    Wolff  gave  the  following  account  of  this 

circumstance : 

I  preached  at  Dusselthal  in  the  chapel  of  the  Jewish  Institution  of  Count  von 
der  Recke,  at  the  Count's  request  My  mother  and  sister,  for  the  first  time  in 
their  life,  heard  the  Gospel  preached  :  and  my  mother  heard  her  son,  and  my  sister 
heard  her  brother,  preadi  that  Jesus  of  Nazareth  is  the  Messiah,  and  the  Son  of 
God  !  My  text  was :  "  But  we  preach  Christ  crucified."  Both  my  mother  and 
sister  wept  aloud,  so  that  the  whole  congregation  wept.  My  sister,  a  girl  of  extra- 
ordinary talent,  as  Reichardt  himself  found  her  to  be,  wished,  after  Reichardt  and 
myself  had  conversed  more  with  her,  to  be  instructed  further  in  the  way  of  salva- 
tion. My  sister,  however,  had  doubts  about  the  divinity  of  Jesus  Christ ;  but  she 
herself  remarked,  that  the  Lord  might  as  well  appear  in  a  human  body,  as  He  did 
in  the  thombush.  My  sister,  I  rejoice  to  say,  is  now  preparing  for  baptism, 
under  the  direction  of  the  pious  Dr.  Krummacher  at  Barmen.  * 

Wolff's  mother  confessed  she  could  no  longer  hate  Christ, 
but  the  thought  of  not  being  buried  with  Jews  made  her 
shrink  from  the  idea  of  becoming  a  Christian.  In  von  der 
Recke's  Industrial  Institution  mentioned  above  Wolff  found 
twenty-seven  Jewish  converts,  to  whom  he  preached  several 

An  amusing  incident  during  a  coach-ride  from  Elberfeld  to 
Dusselthal  must  not  be  omitted.  Wolff  had  for  his  com- 
panions two  students,  a  Romish  priest,  and  an  old  woman.  In 
the  course  of  conversation  one  of  the  students  remarked  that 
there  were  many  enthusiasts  in  the  world,  such  as  Tholuck,  at 
Berlin,  and  the  rascal  Count  von  der  Recke  ;  and  that,  in 
the  East,  one  Wolff  was  going  about,  who  was  the  greatest 
rascal  upon  the  face  of  the  earth  ;  he  made  a  row  in  a  place, 
and  then  ran  away.  Wolff  characteristically  remarks  on  this  : 
*  Nineteenth  Report  {i^Tj)^"^,  115.     Appendix. 

88  HOLLAND  [1820—29. 

"  I  took  the  part  of  Tholuck,  and  of  Count  von  der  Recke, 
but  did  not  take  the  part  of  Wolff." 

Thelwall  retired  in  1827,  owing  to  ill-health,  and  Stockfeld 
visited  the  Netherlands  from  Cologne,  where  he  was 
stationed  at  that  time.  A  missionary,  whose  name  has  not 
come  down  to  us,  was  in  charge  of  the  Amsterdam  mission 
for  some  months  in  1828,  during  which  he  found  continual 
employment  in  preaching  the  Gospel.  In  1829  J.  G.  Lange, 
and  J.  Waschitscheck,  who  had  been  trained  in  the  Society's 
Seminary,  were  appointed  to  what  appeared  to  be  a 
promising  field.  They  resided  in  Amsterdam,  from  whence 
they  occasionally  visited  other  parts  of  Holland.  They  en- 
gaged in  a  wide  tract  distribution  ;  their  presence,  however, 
was  needed  in  the  larger  field  of  Poland,  for  which  they 
departed  in  1830,  and  Amsterdam,  greatly,  we  may  be  sure,  to 
the  regret  of  both  Committee  and  missionaries,  was  left  un- 
occupied for  some  years. 



Jews  of  Central  Bnrope-A  Great  Problem— Old  Kingdom  of  Poland— History 
of  the  Jews  there—**  Privileges  of  Boleslaus"— Russian  Conquest— Jews  In 
Russia  Proper-  Peter  the  Great  admits  them— Pale  of  Jewish  5ettlement-JewUh 
larffons—Ylddlsh— Population. 

WHEN  we  approach  the  question  of  the  evangelization 
of  the  large  numbers  of  Jews  in  Central  Europe, 
within  the  limits  of  the  ancient  kingdom  of  Poland 
before  its  partition,  we  enter  upon  a  subject  of  the  utmost 
importance  to  all  who  are  engaged  in  Missions  to  Jews.  For 
here  are  over  five  millions  of  the  chosen  people ;  a  vast 
compact  mass  becoming  more  and  more  populous.  For 
example,  within  the  district  known  as  the  "  Pale  of  Jewish 
Settlement"  their  numbers  are  increasing  at  the  rate  of 
80,000  a  year.  The  Jews  may  be  described  as  a  Polish 
people.  Poland  has  been  their  home  for  many  centuries. 
There  they  have  been  bom  and  bred  ;  there  they  have  pros- 
pered and  multiplied  as  their  forefathers  did  in  Egypt. 
There,  too,  they  have  maintained  most  rigidly  their  isolated 
character,  and  their  national  rites  and  ceremonies.  There 
they  have  resisted  all  modern  innovations  ;  and  there  they 
still  present  as  firm  a  front  as  ever  of  orthodox  and  conserva- 
tive Judaism.  And,  notwithstanding  the  fact  that  Polish  Jews 
have  overflowed  from  Poland  in  large  numbers  into  other 
countries,  Judaism  still  finds  its  home  and  centre  in  Central 
Europe.  Now,  in  1908,  so  far  from  the  problem  of  the  effective 
evangelization  of  these  Jewish  millions  having  been  solved,  it 
is  to  be  feared  that  the  magnitude  of  the  undertaking  has  not 
even  yet  been  realized. 

It  must,  however,  ever  stand  to  the  credit  of  the  Society,  that 
very  early  in  its  career,  in  the  year  1821,  it  made  efforts, 
which   have   ever   since  been  consistently  and  continuously 

90  ISRAEL    IN   RUSSIA  [1820 

maintained,  as  far  as  circumstances  permitted,  to  grapple 
with  the  task.  The  chapters  dealing  with  this  mission  record 
what  has  been  attempted  and  accomplished,  in  the  face  of 
tremendous  difficulties,  and  with  inadequate  means.  Neverthe- 
less it  is  true,  that  Christian  missions  have  but  touched  the 
outskirts  and  fringe  of  this  compact  and  solid  mass  of  Judaism, 
however  much  they  have  followed  up  its  overflow  into  other 
parts  of  the  world.  For  what  they  have  already  done  we  are 
thankful,  and  we  regard  it  as  an  earnest  of  greater  results  yet 
to  follow. 

We  must  first  endeavour  to  gain  a  clear  view  of  the  extent 
of  the  mission  field  in  question,  and  a  knowledge  of  the  history 
and  character  of  the  Jews  within  its  limits. 

The  early  history  of  this  country,  like  that  of  most  other 
countries,  is  lost  in  obscurity.  Poland  was  a  part  of  the  ancient 
Sarmatia,  and  the  Poles  are  a  branch  of  the  great  Slavonic 
family.  The  word  '  Pole '  means  the  inhabitants  of  the  plain, 
or  low  lying  country.  Poland  became  a  semi-independent 
duchy  under  Lechas,  A.D.  550,  and  a  kingdom  under 
Boleslaus  in  992,  attaining  its  zenith  in  the  time  of  Stephen 
Batory,  1576-86.  The  country  then  extended  from  the  Baltic 
almost  to  the  Black  Sea,  and  from  the  Oder  to  the  Dnieper. 
In  the  sixteenth  century  Poland  was  the  greatest  power  in 
Eastern  Europe.  The  term  "  Poland  "  is  now  restricted  to  the 
particular  province  of  that  name  in  the  Russian  Empire,  and 
is  only  a  portion  of  the  once  vast  and  independent  kingdom. 
The  partition  of  Poland  between  Russia,  Prussia  and  Austria, 
was  finally  accomplished  in  1795,  there  having  been  two  prior 
partitions  in  1772  and  1793.  Russia  obtained,  besides  Poland 
itself,  the  eight  provinces  of  what  is  now  called  Western 
Russia,  namely  Vilna,  Kovno,  Vitebsk,  Grodno,  Minsk, 
Mohilev,  Volhynia  and  Podolia.  At  the  same  time  Prussia 
obtained  the  provinces  of  Posen  and  East  Prussia,  and 
Austria  the  province  of  Galicia  with  the  Bukowina. 

From  very  early  times  Jews  have  been  found  in  large 
numbers  in  the  large  tract  of  land  between  the  Vistula  and 
the  Volga.  They  probably  immigrated  from  Germany  toward 
the  end  of  the  ninth  century,  having  first  craved  and  obtained 

i829]  TREATMENT    IN    POLAND  91 

permission  from  Leshek,  King  of  Poland,  to  do  so.  They 
throve  and  prospered  greatly  in  their  new  country,  and  con- 
siderably added  to  its  wealth.  In  1288  King  Boleslaus  granted 
them  certain  Privileges,*  which  were  confirmed  in  1343  by 
Casimir  the  Great  (1337-70),  who  was  the  founder  of  Cracow, 
the  capital  of  the  province  of  Galicia,  Subsequent  monarchs, 
especially  Sigismund  I.  (1506-28)  and  John  Sobieski  (1674-97), 
maintained  them  in  their  rights,  notwithstanding  the  intrigues 
of  the  Jesuits.  Owing  to  their  industry,  the  Jews  gradually 
grew  into  the  great  middle  class  between  the  nobles  and  the 
serfs,  holding  the  commerce  of  the  country  exclusively  in  their 
hands.  Their  important  position  and  compactness  con- 
stituted them  a  state  within  a  state,  and  here,  as  elsewhere,  the 
Talmud  sufficed  as  a  wall  to  enclose  them  from  surrounding 
influences.  At  the  beginning  of  the  seventeenth  century  the 
study  of  the  Talmud  reached  a  standard  never  attained  in  any 
other  country.  Copies  of  this  wonderful  book  multiplied  at  a 
rapid  rate,  and,  in  proportion  as  its  teaching  was  exalted,  that 
of  the  Old  Testament  was  correspondingly  neglected. 

In  an  evil  hour  the  Jews  lent  a  hand  to  the  Poles  in  their 
oppression  and  enslavement  of  the  Cossacks  in  the  Ukraine 
and  Little  Russia.  This  gave  the  now  rapidly  rising  kingdom 
of  Russia  an  opportunity,  doubtless  long  sought,  to  interfere  in 
the  internal  affairs  of  Poland.  Boydan  Chmielnicki — in  Russian, 
Chmel  (1595 — 1657) — who  declared  "the  Poles  have  delivered 
us  to  the  cursed  breed  of  the  Jews,"  fanned  the  flame.  An 
invasion  of  Poland  followed,  thousands  of  Jews  were  massacred, 
and  many  were  deported  to  the  Crimea.  These  proceedings 
were  renewed  in  the  subsequent  Cossack  and  Tartar  invasions 
of  Poland,  during  the  ten  years'  war  from  1648  to  1658,  when 
the  slaughtered  Jews  amounted  to  at  least  a  quarter  of  a 
million.t  A  hundred  years  later,  that  is,  about  1764,  Russian 
Cossacks  once  more  invaded  Poland,  dealing  indiscriminate 
slaughter.       The  Haidamaks,  as  these  savages  were  called. 

•  At  Home  and  Abroad^  p.  96. 

tGraetz,  History  of  the  Jews  y  vol.  v.  p.  16. 

92  ISRAEL    IN    RUSSIA  [1820 

hung  up  together  a  nobleman,  a  Jew,  a  monk,  and  a  dog, 
under  the  superscription,  "  All  are  equal."  * 

Up  to  this  time  the  Russians  were,  to  use  the  words  of 
Creasey, "  a  feeble  mass  of  barbarism,"  t  and  the  leaders  of  the 
1 6th  and  17th  centuries,  Charles  V.,  Queen  Elizabeth,  Philip 
of  Spain,  Cromwell  and  William  of  Orange  thought  no  more 
of  the  Czar  than  we  do  of  the  King  of  Timbuctoo.  The  rise 
of  Russia  from  this  inferior  position  to  a  place  amongst 
the  Great  Powers  of  the  world,  dates  from  the  battle  of 
Pultowa,  1709,  when  Peter  the  Great  defeated  Charles  XII. 
of  Sweden,  who  had  conquered  Poland  on  his  way  to  the 
invasion  of  Russia.  Since  that  day  Russia  has  advanced  by 
leaps  and  bounds.  She  has  wrenched  vast  territories  from 
Sweden,  Poland,  and  Turkey  in  Europe,  and  in  Asia,  from 
Persia,  and  Tartary ;  and  has  extended  her  limits  west,  south, 
and  east,  attempting  to  unite  in  one  Slavonic  whole  other 
nations  beside  those  of  pure  Slavonic  origin.J 

For  centuries  Russia  was  practically  closed  to  the  Jews, 
probably  owing  to  their  all  too  successful  attempts,  from  1490 
onward,  to  proselytize  from  the  Greek  Church  ;  indeed,  a 
kind  of  secret  Judaism  long  lurked  within  the  Orthodox  fold.§ 

When  Russia  added  the  largest  of  the  three  slices  into 
which  the  kingdom  of  Poland  was  partitioned  to  its  dominions, 
it  acquired  what  was  considered  a  hereditas  damnosa  in  the 
shape  of  half  a  million  Jews.  But  as  to  Russia  proper,  Jews 
were  not  allowed  therein  until  the  eighteenth  century,  when 
Peter  the  Great  permitted  their  residence.  He  did  not  fear, 
he  said,  for  his  Russians,  the  **  cleverest  or  most  crafty  Israelite." 
Probably  he  was  right.  The  Russian  is  more  than  a  match 
for  the  Jew.  The  Empress  Elizabeth,  however,  in  1795, 
expelled  the  Jews  from  Russia,  because  of  an  alleged  intrigue 

*  Graetz,  History  of  the  Jews  y  vol.  v.,  p.  411. 

t  Fifteen  Decisive  Battles  of  the  Worlds  ch.  xiii.,  par.  i. 

X  See  very  expressive  statemrtits  in  Fifteen  Decisive  Battles ^  ch.  xii.  ;  and 
also  in  Progress  of  Russia  in  the  Easi^  p.  142 ;  and  Arnold,  Lectures  on 
Modem  History^  pp.  36-9. 

§  Karamsin,  History  of  Russia^  vol.  vi.,  p.  242  (French  translation). 

1829]  PALE    OF  JEWISH    SETTLEMENT  93 

with  the  exiles  in  Siberia ;  and  henceforth  they  have  been, 
theoretically  at  least,  confined  to  a  narrow  strip  of  territory 
reaching  from  the  Baltic  to  the  Black  Sea. 

The  Pale  of  Jewish  Settlement,  as  it  is  called,  comprises 
Poland  and  fifteen  Russian  Poland  provinces,  namely,  eight  in 
Western  Russia  (Vilna,  Kovno,  Vitebsk,  Grodno,  Minsk, 
Mohilev,  Volhynia  and  Podolia),  three  provinces  in  Little 
Russia  on  the  Ukraine  (Kiev,  Tchernigov  and  Poltava)  and 
the  four  divisions  of  South  Russia  (Ekaterinoslav,  Taurida, 
Cherson,  and  Bessarabia).  Within  this  Pale  the  ordinary 
Russian  Jew  must  live  and  die ;  it  is  the  enforced  home  of 
**  Israel  in  Russia,"  which  is  in  as  great  a  bondage  as  was 
"  Israel  in  Egypt."  As  an  example  of  Russian  cruelty  to 
Jews  forty  years  ago  or  so,  it  may  be  stated  that,  at  an  entrance 
to  a  public  park,  a  notice-board  was  placed,  **  No  Jews  or  dogs 
admitted  here."  This  particular  prohibition  may  not  be  in 
force  to-day,  but  it  illustrates  the  estimation  in  which  Jews 
are  held,  and  the  spirit  in  which  oppressive  and  restrictive 
laws  are  enacted  against  them.  In  the  reign  of  Alexander 
II.,  the  Czar-Emancipator,  brighter  days  dawned  upon  the 
Jews,  and  their  lot  was  ameliorated.  In  1882,  however,  the 
infamous  "  May  Laws  "  changed  all  that,  and  Israel  relapsed 
into  bondage.  A  full  description  of  their  misery  and  sufferings 
was  published  in  1890  by  the  Russo-Jewish  Committee,  under 
the  title  ol  Persecution  of  the  Jews  in  Russia. 

Polish  Jews  speak  a  jargon  variously  styled  Judaio-Polish, 
Jiidisch-Deutsch,  Jiidisch  or  Yiddish,  the  basis  of  which 
is  German  with  many  Hebrew  and  a  few  Polish  words. 
Into  the  composition  of  Yiddish  various  other  vernaculars 
enter,  according  to  the  country  in  which  the  Jews 
happen  to  be  residing.  The  result  is  a  strange  medley. 
Educated  Jews  regard  jargon  with  abhorrence,  especially 
German  Jews  ;  and  even  Russian  and  Polish  Jews  use  it  with 
reluctance  for  literary  purposes.  Still,  the  fact  remains  that 
Yiddish  is  the  colloquial  language  and  medium  of  communi- 
cation, often  the  only  one,  of  millions  of  Jews.  In  missionary 
circles  much  attention  is  being  given  to  the  problem  of  reach- 
ing the  Jews,  by  means  of  versions  of  the  Holy  Scriptures  and 

94  ISRAEL    IN    RUSSIA  [1820-29 

tracts,  in  what  may  be  regarded  as  their  present  "mother- 
tongue."  And  thus  Yiddish  is  becoming  less  of  a  sealed  book 
to  outsiders,  who  are  at  the  same  time  becoming  acquainted 
with  the  wide  extent  of  Yiddish  literature.  The  reader  is 
referred  to  a  work  published  in  1899,  where  the  subject  is  fully 
discussed.     The  author  says  : 

It  is  hard  to  foretell  the  future  of  Judsco-German.  In  America  it  is  certainly 
doomed  to  extinction.  Its  lease  of  life  is  commensurate  with  the  last  large  immi- 
gration to  the  new  world.  In  the  countries  of  Europe  it  will  last  as  long  as  there 
are  any  disabilities  for  the  Jews,  as  long  as  they  are  secluded  in  Ghettos  and  driven 
into  Pales.* 

Russia  is  a  long  way  behind  the  times  in  the  matter  of 
statistics.  In  fact,  the  first  complete  census  of  the  Empire  was 
not  taken  till  February  1897.  Consequently,  we  are  still 
dependent  upon  mere  estimates.  The  late  Sir  Robert  Morier, 
who  was  British  Ambassador  at  St.  Petersburg,  in  1891  esti- 
mated the  Jewish  population  of  Russia  at  five  and  a  quarter 
millions.  Taking  this  total  as  approximately  correct,  we  may 
sub-divide  it  as  follows : — Jewish  population  in  the  Province 
of  Poland,  i,ooo,cxxD;  in  the  rest  of  the  Pale  of  Settlement, 
3,500,000;   and  in  the  rest  of  the  Empire,  750,000. 

In  Warsaw,  the  capital  of  Poland,  the  Jews  are  said  to  be 
about  one- third  of  the  entire  population.  In  some  towns  of 
the  "  Pale  "  the  proportion  is  much  greater.  The  Pahlen  Com- 
mission of  1885  elicited  the  fact  that,  in  four  towns  the  Jews 
formed  over  80  per  cent,  of  the  entire  population  ;  in  fourteen, 
over  70  per  cent. ;  in  sixty-eight,  over  50  per  cent. ;  and  in 
twenty  eight,  over  20  per  cent. 

If  Mr.  Arnold  White  is  right  in  declaring  that  the  Jewish 
rate  of  increase  is  four  times  more  rapid  than  the  Christian, 
and  that  this  increase  amounts  to  80,000  a  year,  the  percentage 
of  Jews  in  the  "  Pale"  is  much  higher  now.f 

The  next  chapter  deals  with  the  Society's  efforts  to  reach 
this  great  mass  of  the  descendants  of  Abraham. 

♦  Wiener,  History  of  Yiddish  Literature^  p.  10. 

t  The  Modern  Jew  y  p.  51.     See  also,  Perseattion  of  the  Jews  in  Russia,  p.  34  ; 
and,  The  Evangelization  of  the  Jews  in  Russia,  by  Samuel  Wilkinson,  p.  2. 



Origin  off  tlie  Mission— Emperor  Alexander  I.  and  Lewis  Way— His  Majesty's 
letter  to  the  local  anttaorities— Prince  Oalitzin— Solomon,  Nitschke  and  Moritz, 
the  first  missionaries— New  Testament  in  Jargon- Warsaw  to  be  the  station- 
Alexander  McCaui— P.  W.  Becker— Widespread  distribution  of  the  New  Testament 
—Difficulties  overcome— Wendt  and  Hoff— Services— Wermelskirch  and  J.  C. 
Reichardt— *'The  Polish  Jerusalem  ''-Petrilcau- Concessions  by  Nicholas  I.— 
Growing  work— Old  Testament  In  Jargon— Independent  Testimony— Baptisms— 
Operative  Institution— Additional  missionaries— Lublin  a  mission  station. 

WE  have  already  spoken  of  Lewis  Way's  visit  of 
enquiry,  in  1817,  into  the  state  of  the  Jews  on  the 
Continent,  especially  in  Holland,  Germany,  and 
Russia.  At  St.  Petersburg,  the  Emperor  Alexander  I. 
graciously  accorded  him  an  interview,  and  gave  him  "  the 
warmest  assurances  of  zealous  support  and  co-operation  in 
all  measures  tending  to  the  promotion  of  Christianity  amongst 
his  Jewish  subjects."  The  Emperor  also  granted  the  Rev. 
B.  N.  Solomon,  a  Christian  Polish  Jew,  who  accompanied  Lewis 
Way,  a  letter  of  protection,  which  the  latter  designated  "  the 
most  extraordinary  licence  and  authority  ever  granted  since 
Nehemiah  received  his  letters  to  the  governors  beyond  the 
river."      The  letter   was   as  follows  : 

Ckrtificatb. — The  bearer  of  these  presents,  Benjamin  Nehemiah  Solomon, 
a  Hebrew  by  descent,  having  embraced  the  Christian  reh'gion  in  England,  and 
subsequently  admitted  into  Ecclesiastical  Orders,  at  present  sojourning  in  Russia 
by  Imperial  permission,  is  intrusted  to  me  by  his  Imperial  Majesty,  to  procure  for 
him  special  protection  in  every  place  of  his  residence. 

Wherefore  all  local  authorities,  Ecclesiastical  and  Secular,  are  to  afford  to  the 
said  B.  N.  Solomon,  as  a  preacher  of  the  Word  of  God  among  the  Hebrews, 
every  protection,  defence^  and  all  possible  assistance,  so  that  in  case  of  necessity, 
he  may  receive  from  the  authorities  in  all  places  due  co-operation  and  safeguard, 
in  the  free  exercise  of  his  official  duty,  without  any  impediment  whatsoever. 

In  witness  whereof  is  this  instrument  granted,  with  my  signature  and  the  arms 
of  my  seal  afiixed  thereto. 

The  Minister  of  Religion  and  National  Civilization. — Prince  Alex.  Galitzin. 

Moscow t  24/^  Feb,,  181 8. 

96  RUSSIAN    POLAND    AflSSION  [1820 

Prince  Galitzin,  at  that  time  Minister  of  Religion  and 
National  Civilization,  was  a  man  of  enlightened  Christian 
character,  and  deserves  to  be  held  in  lasting  honour  for  his  great 
senices  to  the  cause  of  true  religion. 

Lewis  Way  reported  that  the  Jews  were  willing  to  listen  to 
the  Gospel,  and  that  the  time  had  come  for  an  effort  to  evan- 
gelize them.  The  Committee  consequently,  on  July  20th  of  the 
same  year,  resolved  that  a  mission  should  be  established  in 
Russian  Poland,  where  there  then  were  400,000  Jews,  out  of 
a  total  of  two  millions  in  Russia.  As  a  preliminary  to  this 
measure,  Solomon  was  commissioned  to  continue  his  work 
amongst  the  Jews,  in  which  he  was  assisted  by  another 
Hebrew  Christian,  the  Rev.  J.  F.  Nitschke.  To  these  pioneers 
of  the  work  must  be  added  the  name  of  a  third  Hebrew 
Christian,  J.  C.  Moritz.  The  last  mentioned,  afterward  the 
Society's  eminent  missionary  in  Germany  and  Sweden,  was  at 
that  time  employed  by  the  Emperor,  and  made  an  extended 
missionary  journey  of  over  five  months  in  Russia.  Their  ex- 
periences amply  proved  that  there  was  a  great  field  for  the 
Christian  missionary,  who  should  simply  preach  and  circulate 
the  New  Testament  in  the  Jewish  jargon.  Subsequently 
Solomon  translated  the  New  Testament  into  this  dialect. 

Mohilev  had  been  originally  suggested  as  the  residence  of 
the  missionaries,  but  there  can  be  little  doubt  that  a  wise 
selection  was  actually  made  in  the  selection  of  the  capital, 
Warsaw,  with  its  thousands  of  Jews,  as  the  centre  of  the 
mission.  Equally  felicitous  was  the  choice  of  that  brilliant 
young  scholar,  and  future  able  missionary,  Alexander 
McCaul,  as  one  of  the  first  missionaries  to  Poland.  He  reached 
Warsaw  in  the  summer  of  1821,  and  at  once  set  about  the 
work  with  zeal  and  discretion.  He  found  the  Jews  most 
anxious  to  hear  what  he  had  to  say,  and  many  inclined  to 
Christianity,  although  afraid  to  declare  themselves  openly. 
In  one  week  McCaul  actually  distributed  as  many  as  868 
tracts,  and  in  three  days  received  about  400  Jews  at  his 
lodgings.  So  promising  did  the  opening  appear  that 
F.  W.  Becker,  also  a  student  in  the  Society's  Seminar>-,  was 
sent  out  to  join   him.     For   six    months   the   work   greatly 

1829]  IVARSAH^    THE    CENTRE  97 

flourished,  and  the  distribution '  of  New  Testaments  and 
tracts  seemed  to  make  the  mission  known  far  and  wide. 
Difficulties  with  the  authorities,  however,  were  at  hand,  and, 
in  order  to  avoid  possible  expulsion,  the  missionaries  thought  it 
wise  to  quit  Warsaw  in  1822,  for  a  time.  They  went  to 
Posen,  where  they  laid  the  foundation  of  a  future  mission, 
and  also  at  Cracow.  Meanwhile,  through  the  friendly  offices 
of  Sir  George  Rose,  a  recognition  of  the  mission  was  received 
from  the  authorities,  and  it  was  thus  placed  on  a  firm  basis, 
and  the  door  of  access  also  opened  to  the  many  thousands  of 
Jews  in  Poland.  The  Committee  took  immediate  advantage 
of  the  concession,  and  further  strengthened  the  mission  by 
sending  out  Messrs.  G.  Wendt  and  L.  Hoff,  both  of  whom 
had  been  trained  in  the  Society's  Seminary.  McCaul  now 
received  ordination  in  England,  and  the  other  three,  Becker, 
Wendt,  and  Hoff,  took  Lutheran  orders  in  Poland.  The 
Society  thus  had  four  ordained  missionaries  in  the  country ; 
each  had  been  in  the  Society's  Seminary,  and  we  may  be  sure 
that  the  Committee  watched  these  young  men  with  fatherly 
interest.  Moritz  at  the  same  time  was  working  independently 
in  the  Pale  of  Settlement  with  much  success. 

A  Church  of  England  service  was  commenced  in  Warsaw 
in  1823,  and  in  1824  a  German  service  on  Sunday  and 
Saturday.  As  many  as  thirty  Jews  at  first  attended  the 
Saturday  service.  On  Easter  Monday,  1825,  nearly  two 
hundred  Jews  attended  in  the  expectation  of  witnessing  the 
baptism  of  a  Jewess,  which,  however,  took  place  on  the 
following  Sunday,  at  the  palace  of  the  Grand  Duke  Con- 
stantine,  who  stood  godfather  to  the  Jewess  then  baptized. 
Several  other  Jewish  baptisms  took  place  that  year,  and 
McCaul  wrote,  **  The  cause  of  the  Society  is  now  advancing, 
not  merely  beyond  our  hopes,  but,  if  possible,  beyond  our 
wishes."  He  also  advocated  the  further  development  of 
the  Polish  Mission,  and  the  establishment  of  five  stations. 
In  addition  to  J.  O'Neill,  who  had  been  added  to  the 
missionary  staff,  J.  G.  Wermelskirch  and  J.  C.  Reichardt 
were  sent  out.  This  increase  of  the  staff  enabled  the 
missionaries   to  widen  the  sphere  of  labour.     Consequently, 


98  RUSSIAN    POLAND    MISSION  [1820 

Becker,  Reichardt,  and  O'Neill  visited  several  places. 
McCaul  went  to  Berditscheff,  "  the  Polish  Jerusalem,"  where  he 
found  the  Jews  "  most  hostilely  disposed  toward  all  mission- 
ary exertion  ; "  and  Lublin,  where  he  had  the  very  opposite 
experience ;  and  Wendt  and  Hoff  proceeded  to  Petrikau,  at 
which  place  they  eventually  took  up  their  residence.  In  1825, 
however,  Reichardt  left  for  Holland,  and  O'Neill  was  trans- 
ferred to  Hamburg. 

The  death  of  the  Emperor  Alexander  on  December  2nd,  1825, 
rendered  it  imperative  to  approach  his  successor,  Nicholas  I.,  for 
a  continuation  of  the  permission  which  had  been  granted  to 
the  Society's  missionaries.  This  was  conceded  as  regarded  the 
Jews  of  Poland,  but,  as  experience  proved  in  1827,  it  did  not 
cover  missionary  operations  in  Russia  proper.  Subsequent 
efforts  to  effect  this  inclusion  proved  unavailing.  In  1826, 
however,  McCaul  obtained  permission  from  the  Emperor  to 
employ  two  converts  of  Berditscheff,  Samson  J.  Meyersohn 
and  D.  Goldenberg,  in  the  mission. 

The  work  daily  grew  in  interest  and  importance.  More 
labourers  were  necessary  to  cope  with  it.  "  If  you  have  any 
missionaries  to  send,"  wrote  McCaul  on  January  iSth,  1827, 
"  send  them  to  Poland,  where  alone  the  Jews  appear  as  a 
nation,  and  where  so  much  is  to  be  done."  This  work  was 
the  breaking  down  of  Talmudism  and  rabbinism,  and  the  one 
weapon  to  be  used  was  the  Old  Testament,  of  which  the  Jews 
were  almost  entirely  ignorant.  "  Send  us,  not  merely  some 
hundreds,  but  some  thousands  of  Hebrew  Bibles,"  added 
McCaul.  He  anticipated  from  their  circulation  a  great 
sensation,  for  there  was  a  real  hunger  and  thirst  after  the  Old 
Testament.  "  F*or  four  weeks,"  he  added,  "  we  have  now  been 
employed  from  morning  until  night  with  crowds  of  Jews,  and 
have  had  comparatively  few  disputations  ....  It  appears  to 
us  as  if  we  had  now,  after  five  years'  trial,  found  out  the  true 
means  to  win  the  confidence  of  the  Polish  Jews."  During  the 
subsequent  three  weeks  the  missionaries  conversed  with  over 
1,500  Jews,  distributing  copies  of  the  Bible.  They  also  had 
the  encouragement  of  seeing  some  visible  fruits  of  their 
labours  in  the  baptism  of  several  converts  :  and  by  turns  made 

1829]  McCAUL    AT    IVARSAIV  99 

journeys  throughout  the  district,  generally  going  out  two  and 
two  together,  a  Jewish  convert  and  a  Gentile  missionary. 

McCaul  strongly  advocated  the  translation  of  the  Old 
Testament  into  Juda^o-Polish,  or  jargon,  and  shortly  afterward 
cc^mmenced  the  work,  with  the  aid  of  converts.  The  book 
of  Genesis  was  ready  in  1826,  and  the  four  other  books  of  the 
Pentateuch  followed  in  quick  succession,  being  published  in 
1827.  The  book  of  Isaiah  appeared  in  1828.  McCaul  visited 
England  in  1827,  to  confer  with  the  Committee  on  the 
prospects  of  the  mission. 

During  the  summer  of  1828  the  Rev.  S.  R.  Maitland  of 
Gloucester,  at  the  request  of  the  Committee  undertook  to 
visit,  at  his  own  expense,  several  of  the  most  important  mission- 
ary stations,  in  company  with  McCaul.  Mr.  Maitland  spent 
some  time  at  Warsaw,  and  reported  that,  if  he  had  not  been 
a  witness  to  it,  he  could  have  had  no  adequate  idea  of  the 
deep  and  extensive  spirit  of  enquiry  which  had  been  raised 
among  the  Polish  Jews.     He  thus  wrote  from  Warsaw  : 

As  to  the  stale  of  matters  in  this  place,  I  wish  the  Committee  were  here  to  see 
for  themselves.  As  to  whether  the  Jews  are  in  earnest,  and  in  very  great  numbers 
seriously  inquiring,  it  admits  of  no  doubt.  On  Saturday  week  the  missionaries 
were  actually  overrun  by  them.  I  found  the  house  full  when  I  went  up  in  the 
morning  ;  and  when  I  went  in  the  afternoon,  I  expected,  from  the  numbers  whom 
I  met  coming  down  the  street,  that  all  was  over  for  the  day  ;  but  when  I  came 
near  the  house,  I  saw  at  least,  I  think,  150  outside  the  gates,  who  could  not  get 
on  the  premises,  and  a  great  many  in  the  yard,  who  could  not  get  into  the  house. 
Those  I  had  met  were  probably  a  previous  set,  who  had  been  actually  (I  may  say, 
forcibly)  turned  out,  to  make  room  for  a  fresh  set  In  short,  the  eagerness  of  the 
Jews  has  stirred  up  the  rabbi  to  vigorous  measures.  He  has  prohibited  all  Jews 
from  sending  their  children  to  the  school,  or  even  entering  the  street  where  it  is  ; 
and  on  Saturday  a  notice  was  posted  in  the  synagogue,  prohibiting  all  intercourse 
with  the  missionaries.  This  damped  them  a  little,  yet  on  that  very  day  the  mis- 
sionaries had  forty-five  at  their  service,  and  crowds  were  about  the  premises,  who 
did  not  venture  in,  because  the  rabbi  had  spies.  Shortly  after  this  excitement, 
eight  Jews,  amongst  them  J.  F.  Rosenfeldt,  a  future  missionary  of  the  Society, 
were  baptized  at  Warsaw,  and  a  ninth  at  Kadom. 

At  this  time  an  institution  had  been  in  existence  for  about 
two  years  at  Warsaw,  for  the  purpose  of  providing  employment 
for  those  Israelites  who  had  become  exposed  to  privation  and 
want,  in  consequence  of  their  enquiring  after,  or  professing, 
Christianity.     The  liberality  of  Christian  friends  at  Warsaw 

H  2 

100  /RUSSIAN    POLAND    MISSION  [1820—29 

supplied  the  requisite  means  ;  and  an  appeal  was  also  made, 
not  without  effect,  to  friends  in  England.  The  Society  very 
materially  assisted  the  funds  of  the  institution,  by  allowing 
it  to  bind  the  books  required  for  the  Polish  mission. 

The  Rev.  R.  Smith  who,  since  1821,  had  laboured  in  the 
Society's  service  among  the  Jews  at  Leipzig  and  Breslau, 
and  H.  Lawrence,  were  stationed  at  Warsaw  in  1829,  the 
former  taking  the  pastoral  charge  of  the  institution.  Public 
services  in  connexion  with  the  mission  were  held  in 
the  English,  German,  Hebrew,  Judaeo-Polish,  and  Polish 
languages.  The  English  ser\'ice  was  conducted  by  McCaul 
until  he  left  Poland  in  the  early  part  of  1830,  assisted 
by  Smith  ;  in  addition  to  the  missionaries,  it  was  attended  by 
a  considerable  number  of  the  English  residents  of  Warsaw,  a 
few  of  whom  had,  with  great  liberality,  engaged  and  fitted  up 
a  suitable  room,  and  also  requested  the  Society's  acceptance 
of  an  annual  contribution,  as  a  thankful  return  for  the  pastoral 
offices  of  its  missionaries.  The  ser\'ices  in  German  were 
conducted  by  Becker.  There  were  services  also  for  Jews 
in  Hebrew  on  their  Sabbath.  A  Jewish  convert,  Czerskier 
by  name,  who  was  in  the  Society's  ser\'ice  as  a  translator 
and  corrector  for  the  press,  devoted  himself  particularly  to 
the  translation  of  the  Scriptures  into  Juda;o-Polish,  and  the 
Liturgy  of  the  Church  of  England  into  Hebrew.  In  1829 
a  new  station  was  established  at  Lublin,  a  town  in  the 
south-east  of  the  kingdom  of  Poland,  and  occupied  by  Wendt, 
Hoff,  and  Rosenfeldt. 



Joseph  Wolff— Birth  and  parentage— Early  life  and  baptism— Introduction  to  the 
Society— Proceeds  to  Gibraltar,  Malta,  and  the  East— At  Alexandria  and  Cairo- 
Jerusalem— 5yria— Cairo  again— Second  visit  to  Jerusalem— Meeting  with  Way— 
Way*  8  description  of  him— Damascus— Aleppo  again— Across  the  Euphrates— 
Orfa—Mardln—Mosnl— Bagdad  —  Bussorah —Jacobites  —  The  *'  Patriarch  Job  **— 
Wolff's  influence  on  the  future  of  the  Society. 

ABOUT   this   time    there   appeared    on   the   scene   the 
most  remarkable  missionary,  in  many  ways,  that  ever 
served  in  the  Society's  ranks,  who  must  indeed  be 
regarded  as  the  pioneer  of  its  Missions  in  the  East,  for  he 
was   the  first  in  the  field  in  Eg>'pt,  Palestine,  Syria,  Persia, 
Mesopotamia,  Arabia,  Abyssinia  and  India. 

Joseph  Wolflf  was  bom  at  Weilersbach,  a  small  village  in 
Bavaria,  in  1795  or  1796.*  His  father,  who  was  a  rabbi,  and 
of  the  tribe  of  Levi,  brought  him  up  as  a  strict  Jew.  His  early 
years,  his  conversion  to  Christianity  and  baptism  at  Prague, 
his  ambition  to  "preach  the  Gospel  in  foreign  lands,  like 
Francis  Xavier,"  his  abandonment  by  his  relatives,  his 
studies  and  wanderings  amongst  the  centres  of  learning  in 
Europe  were  related  by  himself  in  the  extremely  interest- 
ing book  from  which  the  above  quotation  is  taken.  Our 
interest  in  him  is  intensified  on  his  arrival  in  England  in 
1 8 19,  at  the  age  of  twenty-four.  It  was  at  the  Society's 
Chapel  in  Palestine  Place  that  he  first  attended  a  Church 
of  England  service,  conducted  by  the  Chaplain,  the  Rev. 
C.  S.  Hawtrey.  Wolff,  to  use  his  own  words,  was  "enchanted 
with  the  devotion  and  beauty  of  the  ritual,"  and  henceforth 
considered  himself  a  member  of  our  Church.  On  September 
2nd  of  the   same  year,  a  special  meeting  of  the  Committee 

*  Wolff  gives  both  dates.     See   Travels  and  Adventures ^  vol.   i.,  p.   2,  and 
Missionary  Journal  and  Memoir ^  p.  i. 

102  THE    PIONEER    MISSIONARY  [1820 

was  summoned  to  consider  his  application  to  be  employed  as 
a  missionary  to  his  brethren,  when  Mr.  Henry  Drummond 
attended  and  stated  that  he  had  first  met  him  at  Rome,  when 
studying  in  the  College  of  the  Propaganda,  for  he  had 
been  baptized  in  the  Church  of  Rome.  The  Committee 
resolved  that  he  should  go  to  Cambridge,  to  be  trained  as  a 
missionary  at  the  expense  of  the  Society,  and  to  study 
theology  under  Simeon,  and  Persian  and  other  Oriental 
languages  under  Professor  Lee.  Wolff  was  content  to 
remain  there  for  only  two  years.  So  ardent  was  his 
zeal  to  be  employed  in  active  missionary  ser\uce  amongst 
his  brethren,  that,  rather  than  wait  for  an  appointment 
from  the  hands  of  the  Committee,  he  secured  a  liberal 
patron,  in  the  person  of  his  friend  Mr.  Drummond,  who 
sent  him  forth  at  his  own  charges.  With  letters  of 
introduction  in  his  pocket  from  Sir  Thomas  Baring,  the 
President  of  the  Society,  Wolff  started  on  his  missionary 
career.  His  feverish  anxiety  to  be  employed  in  his  Master's 
service  may  be  detected,  even  after  this  lapse  of  time,  in  his 
selection  of  the  words  of  Francis  Xavier,  "  Who  would  not 
travel  over  sea  and  land,  to  be  instrumental  in  the  salvation  of 
one  soul ! "  as  the  motto  of  the  title  page  of  the  book  in  which 
he  described  his  travels.*  Leaving  England  on  April  17th, 
1 82 1,  Wolff  proceeded  by  way  of  Gibraltar,  Malta,  Alexandria, 
Cairo,   Jaffa,  Acre,  Tyre,  Sidon,  and  Beyrout,  to  Jerusalem. 

At  Gibraltar,  where  there  were  i,cxx)  Jews,  he  stayed 
for  two  months,  having  earnest  religious  conversations  with 
a  rabbi  and  the  presidents  of  the  three  chief  synagogues, 
and  many  other  Jews,  among  them  a  Mr.  Ben-Oliel,  consul- 
general  to  the  Emperor  of  Morocco  and  the  father  of  the  late 
Rev.  Maxwell  Ben  Oliel,  the  founder  of  the  Kilbum  Mission 
to  Jews.  Wolff  baptized  a  Jew  at  Malta,  and,  at  all  other 
places  which  he  visited,  he  left  no  stone  unturned  to  reach 
his  brethren,  t 

He  arrived  at  Alexandria  early  in  September    1821,  and 

♦  Travels  and  Adventures  of  Dr.  Wolff. 
t  Id,  vol.  i.  pp.   145 — 172. 

i829]  WOLFF    IN  JERUSALEM  103 

was  told  there  were  200  Jews  there.  The  number  at  Cairo 
was  variously  estimated  from  300  to  2,000,  with  sixty  families 
of  Karaites.  The  smallness  of  these  numbers  was  attributed  to 
the  prevalence  of  the  plague.  Of  the  Alexandrian  Jews,  Wolff 
said,  "they  are  the  most  honest  in  the  Levant,  they  are 
expecting  the  Messiah  very  much."  Wolff  had  interesting 
intercourse  with  them,  visiting  two  of  their  synagogues,  which 
were  at  least  600  years  old. 

At  Cairo  also  Wolff  visited  two  of  the  ten  Jewish  syna- 
gogues, including  that  of  the  Karaites.  He  distributed  a  great 
many  tracts  and  New  Testaments  amongst  the  Jews  generally. 
He  next  visited  the  convent  of  St.  Catherine,  on  Mount 
Sinai,  where  the  monks  solemnly  promised  him  that  they 
would  pray  for  the  conversion  of  the  Jews.  He  returned  to 
Cairo  on  November  27th,  leaving  there  on  December  1 3th,  on 
his  journey  through  the  desert  to  Jerusalem.  His  eyes  had 
been  fixed  on  the  Holy  City,  and  he  regarded  all  the  various 
incidents  of  his  journey  as  a  "  preparation  for  preaching  the 
Gospel  of  Christ  at  Jerusalem,  which  I  intend  to  make  the 
centre  of  my  public  pronouncing  the  name  of  Christ." 

On  March  8th,  1822,  Wolff  reached  Jerusalem,  where  his 
first  intercourse  with  Jews  was  with  some  Karaites,  of  whom 
only  three  families  were  then  residing  there.  On  March  14th 
he  preached  in  their  synagogue  on  Isaiah  xiii.  He  was  much 
struck  with  their  assertion  that  they  did  not  believe  in  the 
existence  of  the  devil,  or  in  the  inspiration  of  the  book  of  Job. 
He  asked  them  whether  they  acknowledged  the  Beni  Khaibr 
{i.e.,  Sons  of  Heber,  cf.  Jer.  xxxv.),  whom  Niebuhr  mentions 
in  his  travels,  as  their  brethren.  They  replied,  "God  forbid,  for 
those  never  came  to  Jerusalem  ;  they  remained  in  the  desert 
when  Joshua  brought  the  rest  of  the  people  of  God  into  the 
land  of  promise ;  and  thus  they  live  there  in  the  desert  near 
Mecca,  without  any  knowledge  of  the  law  or  the  prophets, 
wandering  about  as  robbers  and  enemies  of  mankind.  They 
call  themselves  the  Beni  Moshe  (children  of  Moses)." 

Wolff  was  told  that  there  were  700  families  of  Jews  in 
Jerusalem,  with  five  synagogues,  consisting  of  Sephardim, 
Ashkenazim,  Chassidim,  and  Karaites.      We   cannot   follow 


him  in  his  daily  efforts  to  reach  these  different  classes 
of  Jcu's.  His  zealous  endeavours  met  with  a  kind  and  en- 
couraging reception  from  all  ranks,  with  whom  he  freely 
and  fully  conversed,  and  amongst  whom  he  circulated 
numerous  copies  of  the  Hebrew  New  Testament  and  other 
Christian  publications.  He  remained  some  three  or  four 
months  in  Jerusalem,  and  went  dowTi  into  Egypt  in  October 
1822,  but  was  off  to  Antioch  and  Aleppo  in  November,  just 
before  the  disastrous  earthquake,  in  which  all  the  towns, 
villages,  and  cities  twenty  leagues  around  Aleppo  were 
utterly  destroyed,  and  many  thousands  of  lives  lost.  During 
his  visit  to  Aleppo  hundreds  of  Jews  called  upon  him,  and 
many  of  them  openly  confessed  that  the  truth  of  the  Gospel 
could  not  be  denied. 

Wolff  spent  the  early  spring  of  1823  in  Cairo,  where  he  dis- 
tributed 300  Bibles  and  3,700  tracts  to  Jews  and  others.  Then, 
leaving  Cairo  on  April  7th,  1823,  he  reached  Jerusalem 
on  the  25th  of  the  same  month,  in  company  with  Messrs. 
Fisk  and  King,  two  American  missionaries.  Wolff  laconically 
says,  "  I  met  immediately  in  the  street  Jews,  Christians,  and 
Mussulmans,  of  my  former  acquaintance,  who  saluted  me. 
Fisk  and  King  took  their  lodging  in  the  Greek  convent, 
and  I  took  mine  among  the  Jews,  upon  Mount  Zion  ! 
They  went  to  the  uncircumcision,  and  I  to  the  circumcision.*' 
Indeed,  one  of  the  chief  rabbis  himself  had  a  house  provided 
for  him.  He  reported  that  he  found  that  his  former  labours 
had  not  been  in  vain,  and  that  there  was  a  spirit  of  enquiry 
among  the  Jews  such  as,  even  according  to  their  own  rabbis' 
admissions,  had  never  existed  before.  On  one  occasion  several 
rabbis,  Spanish  and  Polish,  called  on  him,  and  wanted  to  know 
whether  good  Jews  or  good  Christians  were  the  best.  He  told 
them  that  it  was  impossible  to  be  a  good  Jew  without  believing 
in  Christ.  Wolff  vigorously  prosecuted  his  work  amongst  the 
Jews,  receiving  and  conversing  with  those  who  called,  preach- 
ing to  them,  and  reading  and  praying  with  those  who  appeared 
to  be  in  earnest.  He  wrote  thus  of  his  ceaseless  labours,  "  I 
ged  among  them,  and  was  engaged  in  preaching  to  them 
Gospel  from  morning  to  night,  and  often  all  night,  the 


1829]  LEWIS     IVAY    ON    WOLFF  105 

Lord  be  praised  for  it !  I  have  at  this  time  more  confined 
myself  to  labouring  amongst  the  Jews  than  I  ever  did  before." 
This  was  confirmed  by  Mr.  King,  who  predicted  a  breakdown 
in  WolfTs  health,  which  unfortunately  followed,  and  he  was 
obliged  to  leave  Jerusalem  on  July  17th,  for  the  Lebanon.  At 
Sidon  he  met  with  the  Rev.  W.  B.  Lewis,  who  had  been  sent 
out  by  the  Committee,  and  who  spoke  of  Wolff  as  a  warm- 
hearted missionary,"  by  whose  exertions  "  the  door  is  fully  open 
for  proclaiming  the  Gospel  in  Jerusalem  amongst  the  Jews." 
Dr.  Naudi,  the  C.M.S.  correspondent  at  Malta,  also  reported 
of  the  results  of  Wolff's  two  visits  to  Jerusalem  : 

Jerusalem,  until  lately,  was  thought  to  be  an  impracticable  place  for  missionary 
undertakings ;  and  the  Jews,  inhabitants  of  Palestine,  were  considered  as  an  in- 
accessible people  .  .  .  Mr.  Wolflf,  I  may  venture  to  say,  has  cleared  the  way 
to  these  modem  Jews,  and  himself  succeeded  in  great  measure  with  them. 

Wolff  had  a  happy  meeting  at  Antoura  with  Lewis  Way, 

who  gave  the  following  graphic  and  picturesque  description 

of  him  : 

Wolff  is  so  extraordinary  a  creature,  there  is  no  calculating  ti  priori  concerning 
his  motions.  He  appears  to  me  to  be  a  comet  without  any  perihelion,  and 
capable  of  setting  a  whole  system  on  fire.  When  I  should  have  addressed  him 
in  Syria,  I  heard  of  him  at  Malta ;  and  when  I  supposed  he  was  gone  to  England, 
he  was  riding  like  a  ruling  angel  in  the  whirlwinds  of  Antioch,  or  standing  un- 
appalled  among  the  crumbling  towers  of  Aleppo.  A  man,  who  at  Rome  calls  the 
Pope  **  the  dust  of  the  earth,"  and  at  Jerusalem  tells  the  Jews  that  **  the  Gemara 
is  a  lie  "  ;  who  passes  his  days  in  disputation,  and  his  nights  in  digging  the  Talmud  ; 
to  whom  a  floor  of  brick  is  a  feather-bed,  and  a  box  is  a  bolster  ;  who  makes  or 
finds  a  friend  alike  in  the  persecutor  of  his  former,  or  of  his  present  faith  ;  who  can 
conciliate  a  pasha,  or  confute  a  patriarch,  who  travels  without  a  guide,  speaks 
without  an  interpreter,  can  live  without  food,  and  pay  without  money  ;  forgiving 
all  the  insults  he  meets  with,  and  forgetting  all  the  flattery  he  receives ;  who 
knows  little  of  worldly  conduct,  and  yet  accommodates  himself  to  all  men 
without  giving  offence  to  any.  Such  a  man,  and  such  and  more  is  Wolff,  must 
excite  no  ordinary  degree  of  attention  in  a  country  and  among  a  people,  whose 
monotony  of  manners  and  habits  has  remained  undisturbed  for  centuries.  As  a 
pioneer  I  deem  him  matchless — *^  aut  inveniet  viam^  out  faciet^^ — but,  if  order  is 
to  be  established  or  arrangements  made,  trouble  not  Wolff.  He  knows  of  no 
church  but  his  heart,  no  calling  but  that  of  zeal,  no  dispensation  but  that  of 
preaching.  He  is  devoid  of  enmity  towards  man,  and  full  of  the  love  of  God. 
By  such  an  instrument,  whom  no  school  hath  taught — whom  no  college  could 
hold,  is  the  way  of  the  Judaean  wilderness  preparing.  .  .  .  Thus  are  his  brethren 
provoked  to  emulation,  and  stirred  up  to  inquiry.  They  all  perceive,  as  every  one 
must,  that  whatever  he  is,  he  is  in  earnest ;  they  acknowledge  him  to  be  a  sincere 

106  THE    PIONEER    MISSIONARY  [1820 

believer  in  Jems  of  Nazareth^  and  that  is  a  great  point  gained  with  them ;  for 
the  mass  of  the  ignorant  and  unconverted  Jews  deny  the  possibility  of  real  con- 
version from  Judaism.  * 

Wolff  reached  Damascus  in  October  1823.  He  found  the 
Jews  there  in  deep  distress,  for  the  chief  minister  of  the  Pasha, 
who  was  a  Jew,  the  chief  rabbi,  and  twenty  four  of  the  principal 
Jews  had  been  thrown  into  prison,  and  were  required,  under 
penalty  of  death,  to  pay  an  enormous  ransom  : 

I  went  this  afternoon  into  the  Jewish  street.  It  was  an  awful  sight  to  see 
weeping  women,  crying  children,  old  men  trembling  and  praying — in  short,  I  felt 
what  it  was  to  see  a  whole  congregation  in  mourning,  and  in  silent  mourning  and 
sorrow.  The  men  did  not  dare  to  express  the  sorrow  of  their  hearts,  lest  it 
might  cost  them  their  heads;  but  still  it  was  greatly  and  visibly  manifested. 
They  told  me  the  number  of  respectable  Jews  put  in  prison  amounted  to 
twenty-four.  I  shall  go  to-morrow  into  the  Jewish  street  and  distribute  the 
Word  of  God,  and  write  upon  the  title-page  the  words  of  the  prophet,  **  Comfort 
ye,  comfort  ye  My  people." 

There  was  reason  to  hope  that  this  period  of  distress  would 
really  prove,  through  the  providence  of  God,  a  season  of  much 
spiritual  benefit  to  the  Damascene  Jews.  Letters  were  received 
from  Lewis,  who  had  joined  Wolff  at  Damascus  about  a 
fortnight  after  his  arrival,  giving  a  very  interesting  account 
of  the  eagerness  with  which  the  Scriptures  were  received  by 
the  Jews  in  that  ancient  city.  He  thus  wrote,  under  date  of 
November  2Sth,  1823  : 

Being  aware  of  the  unpleasant  state  into  which  the  Jews  of  Damascus  had 
lately  fallen,  with  regard  to  the  government  of  the  country,  I  entered  the  city 
with  little  hopes  of  meeting  with  much  encouragement  for  the  objects  we  have  in 
view.  The  Chief  Rabbi  and  many  of  the  principal  Jews  were  in  prison ;  the 
houses  of  others  were  shut  up — some  had  fled  the  city  ;  all  were  in  anxiety — in 
confusion — in  silence !  However,  I  have  the  pleasure  of  communicating  to  you 
the  gratifying  intelligence,  that  although  the  heads  and  elders,  and  hundreds  of 
others  were  invisible  to  the  very  last,  yet  I  have  had  the  happiness  to  witness 
three  or  four  such  days  as  our  friends  in  Poland  and  elsewhere  have  enjoyed  in  their 
field  of  labour.  Mr.  Wolff  and  I  walked  the  Jewish  quarter,  talking  to  one  and 
another  of  the  Jews  we  met,  and  we  visited  one  of  their  synagogues  on  a  Sabbath 
(Saturday)  morning.  Next  day,  and  the  days  following,  Jews  were  to  be  seen, 
old  and  young,  from  morning  until  evening,  crowding  the  street  adjoining  the 
convents,  in  demand  of  books  for  themselves,  their  families  and  schools.  Many  of 
them  heard  the  word  of  eternal  life  read  and  preached  to  them  ;  and  we  continued 

*  Travels  and  Adventures  0/  Dr.    Wolff y  vol.  i.,  p.  287. 

1829]  WOLFF    AT    DAMASCUS  107 

to  supply  the  real  wants  of  this  suflfering  people  until  nearly  all  our  Testaments, 
as  well  as  Prophets  and  Psalms,  etc,  were  exhausted. 

I  have  never  witnessed  a  greater  desire,  humanly  speaking,  on  the  part  of 
either  Christians  or  Jews,  than  at  this  place,  for  the  Word  of  God  ;  and  the  priests 
themselves,  as  they  walked  the  streets,  became  persecuted,  by  Jews  as  well  as 
Christians,  demanding  of  them  the  Book  of  I Jfe  ;  and  by  their  own  wish  I 
supplied  two  or  three  with  Testaments  and  Psalters,  for  the  purpose  of  giving 
them,  with  their  own  bands,  to  some  of  their  friends  and  the  well -deserving.  I 
brought  a  full  case  of  Arabic  Scriptures  (Bibles  and  Testaments)  with  me  from 
Beyrout.  The  whole  was  distributed  in  a  short  time,  as  well  as  a  half  hundred 
of  Genesis  and  of  Psalters. 

Wolff  remained  at  Damascus  until  November  23rd,  1823, 
when  he  left  for  Aleppo.  He  had  been  there,  as  we  have  already 
seen,  the  previous  November,  just  before  the  earthquake.  He 
now  found  only  a  miserable  remnant  of  people  left.  "  Seven 
hundred  Jews  now  go  about  deprived  of  their  eyes,"  he  wrote  : 
'*  no  longer  able  to  read  Moses  and  the  Prophets."  On  two 
Sundays  he  preached  to  Jews  and  others.  As  he  was  the  first 
Protestant  preacher  who  had  been  heard  in  Aleppo  for  thirty- 
four  years,  we  can  well  imagine  that  a  great  deal  of  curiosity 
and  interest  was  aroused.  He  was  thanked  by  the  consuls 
(Jews)  who  were  present.  During  his  visit  he  held  daily 
religious  conversations,  which  often  lasted  till  after  midnight. 
He  then  proceeded  northward  on  his  way  to  Bagdad.  His 
journey  was  as  usual  full  of  romantic  incidents.  Having 
crossed  the  Euphrates  he  lodged  at  Biri  (Bire-Jik),  in  one  of 
the  holes  with  which  the  rocks  abound,  and  in  which  the 
prophet  Jeremiah  was  bidden  to  hide  his  girdle  (Jer.  xiii.  4). 
Wolff  met  some  Jews  from  Orfa  to  whom  he  spoke  of  Jesus 

At  Orfa  (Edessa,  but  *'  Ur  of  the  Chaldees,"  according  to 
an  improbable  tradition),  Wolff  found  fifty  Jewish  families, 
and  was  able  to  preach  Christ  to  the  chief  rabbis  who 
called  on  him.  Here  he  was  surrounded  by  imaginar)' 
memorials  of  Abraham,  the  cave,  traditional  place  of  his  birth  ; 
and  also  "  the  lake  of  Abraham."  Nimrod,  it  is  said,  had  him 
cast  into  a  furnace  because  he  preached  against  idolatry',  and 
this  furnace  was  miraculously  changed  into  a  beautiful  lake. 
The  Jews  and  Jacobite  Christians  in  this  district  held  that 
Abraham  converted  numbers  of  heathen  to  the  worship  of 

108  THE    PIONEER    MISSIONARY  [1820 

Jehovah,  and  pointed  to  Genesis  xii.  5 — "  the  souls  that  they 
had  gotten  in  Haran  " — as  proof.  * 

Thirty-one  towns  in  the  district  contained  the  aggregate  num- 
ber of  5,315  Jewish  families.!  At  Mardin,one  of  these  places, 
Wolff  read  St.  Matthew  xxvii.  and  xxviii.  in  Arabic  to  the  Jews, 
who  read  them  over  again  in  Hebrew.  At  Jalakha  he  met  some 
rabbinical  Jews  living  among  the  Arabs,  from  whom  they  were 
distinguished  by  their  long  hair  and  black  turbans.  He 
preached  Christ  to  them  in  Arabic.  He  even  found  Jews  living 
at  Sanjaar  (Shinar)  amongst  a  community  of  brigands, 
worshippers  of  the  devil,  who  danced  amidst  the  ruins  of 
Babylon  {cf,  Isaiah  xiii.  21).  J 

At  Mosul,  Wolff  had  most  interesting  conversations 
with  the  Jews,  and  also  with  their  rabbis,  for  a  fort- 
night. They  asked  him  if  the  Messiah  would  soon 
come,  whereupon  Wolff  enquired  whether  they  had 
ever  read  or  heard  of  Jesus  Christ ;  and  he  was  astonished 
to  find  that  one  of  their  rabbis  had  translated  the  New 
Testament  into  Hebrew  from  the  Arabic  100  years  pre- 
viously for  his  own  reading.  When  he  died  he  left  the  book 
as  a  precious  heirloom  to  the  rabbinical  college,  but  no  one 
had  ever  used  it.  Rabbi  Solomon  then  promised  that  he 
would  read  it,  and  compare  it  with  the  Hebrew  translation 
which  Wolff  gave  him. 

Passing  through  Arbel  (Ervil),  the  scene  of  the  overthrow  of 
Darius,  Kantara,  and  Karkuk,  the  site  of  Daniel's  tomb,  in 
which  place  Jews  were  found,  Wolff  at  length  reached  Bagdad 
on  April  8th,  1824,  sixty-four  days  after  his  departure  from 
Aleppo.  He  was  introduced  to  Saul,  the  Prince  of  the 
Captivity,  who  informed  him  that  there  were  1,500  families  of 
Jews  at  Bagdad.  The  whole  commerce  was  in  their  hands,  and 
they  were  rich  and  prosperous.  Wolff  was  introduced  by  the 
Prince  to  Rabbi  Mose,  the  High  Priest  of  the  Jews,  and  was 
shewn  their   four   beautiful  synagogues.      Wolff  remained  a 

*  Travels  and  Advttitures  of  Dr,  Wolffs  vol.  i.,  pp.  300  seq, 

\ Jewish  Expositor^  1825,  p.  76. 

X  Travels  <utd  Adventures  of  Dr,  Wolffs  vol.  i.,  p.  314. 

1829J  IN   MESOPOTAMIA  109 

whole  month  at  Bagdad,  preaching  to  the  Jews  and  circulating 
hundreds  of  Bibles.     He  said,  referring  to  this  visit : 

I  found  here  amongst  the  Jews  at  Bagdad,  to  my  greatest  astonishment, 
books,  Bibles,  Testaments,  and  tracts,  which  I  gave  to  the  Jews  at  Jerusalem, 
with  my  name  written  in  them  ;  my  name,  and  the  object  of  my  mission,  were 
therefore  already  become  known  to  them 

I  gave  away  among  very  respectable  Jews  ten  Hebrew  New  Testaments  in 
one  day  !  On  the  i6th  of  this  month,  more  than  twenty  Jews  called  on  me  at  the 
residence  of  the  British  agent,  and  conversed  with  me  more  than  nine  hours  ;  they 
read  upwards  of  ten  chapters  of  the  Gospel  of  Matthew.  * 

The  Jews  of  Bagdad  were  ver>'  anxious  to  buy  New 
Testaments  and  Bibles.  The  Prince,  the  chief  rabbi,  and 
other  Jews  were  diligent  readers  of  the  former,  and  shewed  no 
displeasure  at  WolflTs  efforts  to  convince  them.  A  great 
many  Jews  called  on  him  during  his  stay,  and  spoke  very 
sensibly  on  religious  subjects. 

At  Bussorah,  as  at  Bagdad,  Wolff  found  the  Jews  liberal 
minded,  candid,  and  very  enquiring.  They  were  physically  a 
fine  race  of  people,  whose  chief  object  was  gain.  The  chief 
Jews  of  the  town  called  upon  him  and  invited  him  to  the 
synagogue,  although  knowing  the  object  of  his  mission.  They 
also  requested  Bibles.  He  visited  the  synagogue,  and  the  next 
day  the  Prince  of  the  Jews,  and  a  certain  Hezekiel,  invited  him 
to  their  houses,  where  he  had  a  conversation  with  twenty  of  the 
principal  men.  Hezekiel  told  him  that  years  ago  he 
had  received  a  Hebrew  New  Testament  from  a  Jew  of 
Bombay.  Wolff  met  here  a  Polish  rabbi,  whom  he  had  come 
across  at  Jerusalem,  who  saluted  him  thus :  "  Blessed  art 
thou,  O  Rabbi  Joseph  Wolff,  who  comest  here  in  the  name  of 
Jehovah  !  "f 

A  great  change  came  over  Bussorah  in  a  few  years.  The 
Rev.  M.  Vicars,  visiting  it  in  1847,  stated  that  Dr.  Wolff 
would  never  recognize  the  place.  Its  80,000  inhabitants  had 
been  reduced  to  6,000.  Its  wealth  had  departed,  although  a 
few  Jews  possessed  a  little  money,  but  were  afraid  to  trade 
openly,  being  oppressed  by  the  Government.  Vicars  found 
the  Jews  ignorant,  but  willing  to  accept  Bibles. 

*  Jewish  Expositor^  1 825,  p.  229. 
t  Ibid,  p.  266. 

110  THE    PIONEER    MISSIONARY  \i%20 

Syrian  Christians  at  Orfa,  or  Jacobites,  are,  according  to 
Wolff,  the  lineal  descendants  of  those  Jews  who  received 
Christianity  through  the  preaching  of  St.  James  at  Jerusalem. 
Their  bishop  Gabriel  invited  Wolff  to  attend  service,  which 
he  did,  reading  the  Gospel  for  the  day,  and  preaching  from 
the  third  chapter  of  St.  John.  Wolff  affirmed  that  their 
mode  of  worship,  and  ceremonies,  as  well  as  their  features, 
unmistakably  proclaimed  them  to  be  the  literal  as  well  as  the 
spiritual  and  baptized  children  of  Abraham.* 

At  Mardin,  Wolff  found  more  Jacobite  Christians,  and  their 
patriarch,  130  years  old,  convinced  him  that  they  were 
descended  from  the  children  of  Israel.  When  Wolff  said  that 
he  was  travelling  about  for  the  purpose  of  making  Jews  believe 
that  Jesus  is  the  Messiah,  the  old  man  replied  that  he  had  lived 
to  be  130  years  of  age,  but  had  never  heard  of  such  an 
undertaking  as  that !  Sixteen  years  afterward,  one  of  the 
Jacobite  bishops  preached  in  Dr.  Wolffs  church  at  High 
Hoyland,  Yorkshire.!  These  Jacobites  pray  seven  times  a  day 
(Ps.  cxix.  164)  and  abstain  from  pork,  according  to  a  reading 
of  Acts  XV.  20,  29.  ...  "  should  abstain  from  blood,  and  from 
things  strangled,  and  from  pork"  (no/>i/etav). J  Wolff  met 
other  Jacobites  at  Mardin  and  Mosul. 

Wolff  visited  the  Kurdish  and  Arabic  village  of  Nebi  Ayoub 
(Prophet  Job)  which  was  said  to  be  the  birthplace  of  Job. 
Strange  to  say  the  chief's  name  was  Job.  He  had  80,000 
Arabs  and  Kurds  under  his  command,  and  was  the  most 
respected  and  feared  patriarch  of  the  desert.  His  integrity 
and  justice  were  praised  alike  by  Christians  and  Jews.  Wolff 
unfortunately  fell  into  the  hands  of  some  Kurds  who  bound 
and  beat  him,  and  robbed  him  of  everything.  After  such  an 
experience  he  advised  "  every  traveller  and  every  missionary 
passing  this  way  to  obtain  a  letter  from  the  Pasha  of  Aleppo 
to  Ayoub  Agha,  and  to  eat  bread  and  salt  in  the  tents 
of  that  mighty  patriarch,  then  he  will   never  be  troubled  by 

*  Travels  aiid  Adventures  of  Dr.  Wolffs  vol.  i.  p.  304. 
t  Ibid.  p.  310. 
:  Id.  p.  318. 

1829]  HIS    INFLUENCE  111 

the  Kurds  as  we  were.  Oh  that  he  may  know,  h'ke  Job  of 
old,  that  his  Redeemer  Hveth."  * 

WolfiF  was  in  Holland  in  1827,  as  we  have  already  seen,  and 
in  1828  he  visited  the  Ionian  Islands,  and  in  1829  Jerusalem, 
as  narrated  on  page  122. 

Wolff  was  essentially  a  missionary  explorer  and  traveller, 
and  held  and  executed  a  roving  commission  on  behalf  of  the 
Society.  The  subsequent  establishment  of  missions  to  Jews  in 
the  countries  which  he  visited  was  owing,  in  a  great 
measure,  to  his  early  efforts,  untiring  energy,  and  romantic 
enthusiasm.  The  vast  stores  of  information  about  Eastern 
Jews,  which  he  gathered  and  sent  home,  were  of  great 
value  at  head-quarters,  and  the  zeal  which  almost  "consumed" 
him  was  at  once  an  inspiration  and  an  object  of  emulation 
to  those  who  came  after  him.  Here  we  must  part  from  this 
energetic  missionary  for  a  season,  to  return  later  on  to  his 
further  labours. 

*  Jewish  Expositor^  1824,  p.  469. 



Bcni-lfraei  — Dr.  Chmdius  Buduiiuui— Jewish  TraiuUtioa  off  the  New  Testa- 
■MBt— Jacob  Levi  — Michael  5ariron  —  Correspondliif  Comnittee  at  Madras— 
Schools  at  Cochio  and  Boabay— Wolff  lo  Cochfai— White  and  Blacic  Jews— Benl- 
Israel  of  Poonah— Wolff  visits  Bonbay  and  Calcutta. 

THERE  is  a  very  remarkable  and  interesting 
remnant  of  Jews  in  India  known  as  the  Beni- 
Israel.  Their  origin  is  unknown,  but  according  to 
some  accounts,  io,oco  Israelites  from  Persia  settled  in  Kran- 
ganor  about  A.D.  68,  where  they  became  fully  established 
under  their  own  prince,  Joseph  Rabban,  in  the  4th  or  5th 
century,  the  king  of  the  country-  allowing  them  many  privileges. 
In  course  of  time  they  gained  over  a  number  of  proselytes  to 
Judaism,as  their  slaves, the  descendants-of  whom  form  the  black 
Jews  of  to-day.  The  white  Jews  do  not  intermarry  with  them. 
In  1028  the  Portuguese  conquered  the  country,  and  persecuted 
the  black  Jews,  who  thereupon  settled  in  Cochin  and  neigh- 
bouring villages.  There  are  now  some  18,228  of  the  Beni- 
Israel  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Bombay.* 

The  Rev.  Dr.  Claudius  Buchanan,  who  had  resided  much  in 
the  East,  as  one  of  the  "  Five  Chaplains  "  already  referred  to, 
drew  the  attention  of  the  Society,  in  1 810,  to  this  colony  of 
Jews  in  Cochin,  whose  numbers  he  represented  at  about  16,000. 
In  a  speech  at  one  of  the  half-yearly  meetings,  he  said  : 

I  visited  Cochin  soon  after  the  conquest  of  that  province.  The  Jews  received 
me  hospitably,  and  permitted  me  to  examine  their  libraries  and  their  s}'nagogues : 
and  they  presented  to  me  many  valuable  manuscripts,  which  are  now  deposited 
in  the  library  of  the  University  of  Cambridge.  One  of  these  is  a  roll  of  the 
Pentateuch,  on  goat  skins,  dyed  red  ;  one  of  the  most  ancient,  perhaps,  which  the 
East  can  produce. 

*  Jewiih  Year  Book  5668  (1907-8),  p.  240. 

i829]  DR.    CLAUDIUS    BUCHANAN'  113 

The  doctor  then  went  on  to  describe  these  Jews,*  and  he 

also  told  the  story  of  one  who  had  many  years  previously 

translated  the  New  Testament  into  Hebrew,  for  the  purpose 

of  confuting  it,  and  repelling  the  arguments  of  his  neighbours 

the  Syrian  Christians. 

The  manuscript  fell  into  my  hands,  and  is  now  in  the  library  of  the  University 
of  Cambridge.  It  is  in  his  own  hand-writing  ;  and  will  be  of  great  use  in 
preparing  a  version  of  the  New  Testament  in  the  Hebrew  language.  It  appears 
to  be  a  faithful  translation  as  far  as  it  ha^  been  examined  ;  but  about  the  end, 
when  he  came  to  the  Epistles  of  St.  Paul,  he  seems  to  have  lost  his  temper,  being 
moved,  perhaps  by  the  acute  argument  of  the  learned  Benjamite,  as  he  calls  the 
Apostle,  and  he  has  written  a  note  of  execration  on  his  memory.  But,  behold 
the  providence  of  God  !  The  translator  l>ecame  himself  a  convert  to  Christianity. 
His  own  work  subdued  his  unbelief.  In  the  lion  he  foutid  nveetness  ;  and  he 
lived  and  died  in  the  faith  of  Christ.  And  now  it  is  a  common  superstition 
among  the  vulgar  in  that  place,  that  if  any  Jew  shall  write  the  whole  of  the  New 
Testament  with  his  own  hand,  he  will  become  a  Christian  by  the  influence  of  the 
evil  spirit. 

Dr.  Buchanan  recorded  another  remarkable  conversion 
which  took  place,  some  time  afterward,  in  the  north.  Jacob 
Levi,  a  Jew  from  Smyrna,  travelled  overland  to  Calcutta,  and 
heard  the  Gospel  from  one  of  the  Lutheran  preachers  belonging 
to  the  Society  for  Promoting  Christian  Knowledge,  and  became 
a  convert  to  the  truth.  He  delivered  a  testimony  to  the  Jews, 
Hindoos,  Mohammedans,  and  Christians ;  for  he  was 
acquainted  with  various  languages,  and  spoke  eloquently,  like 
Apollos.  But  his  career  was  short,  for  he  was  destined,  like 
many  witnesses  of  the  Christian  faith,  to  shine  but  for  a  short 

The  Rev.  Robert  Fleming,  a  missionary  of  the  London 
Missionary  Society  at  Madras,  reported  in  1820  that  a  Cochin 
Jew,  Michael  Sargon  by  name,  born  in  1795,  had  been  con- 
verted to  Christianity,  and  baptized  by  the  Rev.  \V.  A. 
Keating,  Chaplain  of  St.  Mary's  Church,  Fort  St.  George,  on 
January  21st,  18 18.  Mr.  Fleming  bore  witness  to  the^genuine 
Christian  spirit  and  conduct  of  this  new  convert.  A  Mr.  Jarrett, 
with  whom  Sargon  had  resided,  and  who  hadjnstructed  him 
in  Christianity,  afterward  distributed  amongst  the  Jews  a 
quantity  of  Testaments  which  the  Committee  sent  out  for  that 

•  Chnstian  Researches  in  Ittdia^  by  Dr.  Buchanan,  p.  100. 




purpose.  Michael  Saigon  arrived  at  Coddn  cci  April  zmd.  i  S: 
on  a  \-isit  to  his  parents,  -si-bo.  as  -ae"  as  his  fc":^"-coc::tn"T» 
recdved  him  with  unexpected  kindness,  and  permfttoi  hfra 
discuss  the  difference  beraeen  his  religic-n  and  ibefrs.  1 
gave  portions  of  the  OM  and  Xea*  Testamer-ts,  and  tracts, 
Jcw's  eagerly  asking  for  theni,  s:*n5e  of  whom  caine  m 
distant  countries ;  and  had  the  satisfaction  of  seeing  a  spc 
of  enquin-  and  a  disposition  to  search  the  Scriptures  arc«us< 
As  a  result  of  this  visit,  a  Corresponding  Committee  ^ 
formed  at  Madras,  with  the  Archdeacon  as  President,  for  1 
establishment  of  a  mission  to  the  Cochin  Jews,  and  shor 
afteniard  Sargon  was  stationed  there  as  Christian  teacher 
Jewish  children,  5cvent>'  of  whom  were  so-^n  gathered  arc-i: 
him.  The  Committee  proposed  to  disseminate  from  thei 
the  Scriptures  and  tracts  into  all  pans  of  Asia,  estimating  t] 
the  Jewish  population  in  Persia,  India,  China,  and  Tarti 
exceeded  300.000.  For  some  years  the  Societ\'  found  1 
means  for  this  mission  in  India.  In  1822  no  less  than  i 
Jewish  children  at  Cochin  were  under  the  instruction 
Sargon,  who  shewed  himself  an  active  and  earnest  missions 
In  1823  an  Englishman.  Mr.  Harrington,  was  ap{>ointec 
help  him  in  his  work  :  and  the  Rajah  of  Cochin  most  kin 
granted  the  use  of  a  house  as  the  school  Encouraged  by  t 
the  Madras  Committee  earnestly  urged  the  Parent  Soci 
to  send  out  an  English  clergy-man  to  take  charge  of 
mission,  but  this  they  were  unable  to  do ;  consequently 
charge  of  the  school  was  put  into  the  hands  of  the  Rev 
Ridvdale.  of  the  Church  Missionaiy  Society. 

In   1824    Sargon  visited  the  Beni- Israel  at  Bombay.  ; 
rtpf jTttd  that  the  American  missionaries  there  had  1 1 5  J' 
in  their  schools  and  ten  Jeu-ish  teachers  in  their  service, 
succeeded  in  establishing  a  school  there  exclusively  for  J< 
which  the   American  schools  were  not,  and  the  numbei 
children    on  the  list  soon  rose  to  40.      In    1826   Abrah 
Sargon,   brother  to   Michael,  was   engaged  as   a  teachei 
B^>mbay ;  and,  subsequently,  J.  Sargon,  another  brother, 
J.  Samuel  at  Madras,  Bombay,  and  Calcutta.     One  Jew 
two  Jewesses   were  baptized   at  Cochin   in    1828,   but 

1829]  WOLFF    IN    COCHIN  115 

work,  owing  to  lack  of  funds,  was  allowed  to  lapse  shortly 
afterward.  We  may  as  well  here  finish  the  story  of 
this  early  attempt  to  reach  this  remnant  of  Israel,  although 
it  really  belongs  to  our  next  Period. 

When  Dr.  Wolff  was  in  Cochin  in  October  1833,  he 
assembled  both  the  white  and  the  black  Jews  together,  and 
preached  to  them.  He  also  visited  "  Jew  Town,"  called 
Yoodah  Ward,  where  he  found  them  all  drunk  in  honour  of 
the  Feast  of  Tabernacles.  His  account  of  the  Jews  was 
that  the  white  Jews  came  from  Palestine,  after  the  destruction 
of  Jerusalem  by  Titus  ;  and  that  the  black  Jews  were  prose- 
lytes from  the  Hindoos  and  Arabians.  *  For  this  reason  there 
was  no  intermarriage  between  the  white  and  the  black  Jews. 
Wolff  reported  that  there  were  80  white  Jews  at  Cochin,  with 
one  synagogue ;  t  and  that  the  black  Jews  numbered  470 
families,  with  ten  synagogues  ;  and  also  that  both  white  and 
black  Jews  were  much  prejudiced  against  the  Gospel ;  though 
anxiously  expecting  the  coming  of  the  Messiah.  J 

Wolff  also  visited  the  Beni-Israel  at  Poonah.  He  was  of 
opinion  that  their  ancestors  had  left  Jerusalem  after  the  de- 
struction of  the  first  Temple,  and  went  to  Arabia,  and  then 
to  India,  where  they  had  since  forgotten  most  of  their  reli- 
gion ;  though  they  continued  to  repeat,  in  Hebrew,  certain 
prayers,  which  they  had  learnt  from  other  Jews.  The  Scotch 
missionaries,  Drs.  Stevenson  and  Wilson,  revived  the  know- 
ledge of  Hebrew  amongst  them.  "  How  wonderful,"  exclaimed 
Wolff,  "  that  Gentiles  from  Scotland  should  be  the  instruments 
of  re-teaching  the  children  of  Israel  their  ancient  language !  "  § 
Wolff  also  visited  the  Beni-Israel  of  Bombay,  and  preached  to 
them  in  their  synagogue.  When  he  was  in  Calcutta  in 
1833  his  great  physical  powers  enabled  him  to  preach  twelve 
hours  every  day,  for  six  succeeding  days,  to  all  persons  who 
came  to  his  "  retreat,"  as  he  called  it.     There  were  about  60 

•  Travels  and  Advetttures  0/ Dr.  Wolffs  vol.  ii.,  p.  2 IS,  ff. 
+  Researches  and  Missionary  Labours,  p.  463. 
Xld.,  p.  476. 

§  Travels  and  Adventures^  vol.  ii.,  p.  233. 
I  2 

116  INDIA  [1820-29 

Jewish  families  at  Calcutta,  when  he  visited  it,  chiefly  Persian 
Jews  from  Bagdad  and  Shiraz.  He  thought  them  handsome, 
benevolent,  fairly  educated,  tolerant  and  hospitable.  There 
were  also  some  black  Jews  from  Cochin  living  there  in  the 
capacity  of  servants.  Wolff  visited  the  Jewish  quarter, 
conversing  with  both  white  and  black  Jews. 

We  shall  have  occasion  to  return  to  this  interesting  people 
in  the  later  history  of  the  Society.* 

'  See  page  385. 



An  early  station— The  Mother  City  of  the  Jews— Population— Establishment 
oftheMIsslon-Tschoudy— Lewis Way*s  efforts-Wolffs  visit- W.  B.  Lewls-Dr. 
Oeorfire  Dalton  first  Medical  Missionary— NIcolayson— Visits  to  the  North— Retnm 
to  Jerusalem— Oblifired  to  retlre-ThIrd  visit  of  Wolff. 

WE  are  not  surprised  that  Jerusalem  was  very  early 
selected  as  a  field  of  labour,  for  we  could  hardly 
imagine  the  oldest  and  largest  Society  for  pro- 
moting Christianity  amongst  the  Jews  not  having  a  full 
and  adequate  missionary  representation  in  the  Holy  City  and 
in  other  parts  of  the  Holy  Land.  How  else  can  the  Divine 
command,  "  beginning  at  Jerusalem,"  be  literally  obeyed  ? 

Even  when  the  people  were  few  in  number  in  the  land,  they 
demanded  and  received  the  best  efforts  for  their  spiritual 
welfare  from  our  forefathers  in  the  work.  As  they  said  in  the 
Fifteenth  Report : 

Who  that  has  ever  mourned  over  the  desolations  of  that  sacred  city  and  land, 
does  not  long  to  **  build  the  old  waste  places,  and  to  raise  up  the  foundations  of 
many  generations ? "  Who  would  not  be  called,  "The  repairer  of  the  breach, 
the  restorer  of  paths  lo  dwell  in  ?  "  Surely  every  man  who,  in  the  spirit  of  Him  who 
wept  over  Jerusalem,  and  prayed  even  for  His  murderers,  l)ewails  the  obduracy 
which  for  eighteen  centuries  has  reigned  over  the  people  which  He  loved.  .  .  . 
must  feel  a  glow  of  holy  zeal  within  him,  when  called  upon  to  pity  their  wretched- 
ness and  forward  their  conversion. 

We  should  have  more  ground  for  surprise,  if  those  upon  whom 
their  mantle  has  fallen  neglected  to  follow  up  their  labours,  to 
build  upon  their  foundation,  and  to  expand  and  develop  the 
work  by  every  means  at  hand,  now  that  the  Jewish  population 
has  increased  tenfold. 

Moreover,  Jerusalem  is  now,  as  ever,  the  mother  city  of  the 
Jews  of  the  disjiersion.  They  think  of  it,  pray  for  it,  and  visit 
it  in  large  numbers.  There  are  always  Jewish  pilgrims  in 
Palestine,  as  well  as  residents.    How  important  then  that  they 




should  be  able  to  come  into  contact  with  a  spiritual  forn 
Christianit}',  to  which  they  may  be  total  strangers  in  t 
own  land  I     The  present  Jewish  residents*  consist  of: 

'a^  Ashkenazim,  including  German,  Polish,  Russian, 
Roumanian  Jews,  speaking  Yiddish ;  (b)  Sephardim, 
Spanish-speaking;  (c)  Asiatic-Russian,  including  Jews  f 
Bokhara,  Circassia,  and  Georgia,  speaking  the  language: 
those  districts  ;  (d)  Persian  and  Syrian  ;  (e)  Mugrabi  (X< 
African);  (f)  Arabian,  from  the  Yemen ;  (g)  Other  nationali 
English,  French,  American,  &c. ;  (h)  Karaites,  from  the  Crir 

Anxious  to  ascertain  the  state  of  the  Jews  in  Palestine 
other  countries  bordering  on  the  Levant,  the  Committer 
the  year  1820  secured  the  services  of  a  Swiss  pastor,  the  1 
Melchior  Tschoudy,  who  had  had  some  experience  of 
East.  He  was  sent  out  to  Palestine,  and  called  at  Maltc 
his  way,  where  he  received  valuable  information  from  the  I 
\V.  Jowett  and  Dr.  Xaudi,  representatives  of  the  C.M.S.  in 
island.  Tschoudy's  labours  do  not  appear  to  have  been  \ 
cessful,  judging  from  certain  remarks  of  Dr.  Wolff,  who,  h 
ever,  states  that  he  baptized  two  Jews  at  Beyrout.  t 

Lewis  Way  was,  characteristically,  the  one  to  take  the 
step    toward    the   establishment  of    the    Palestine   Miss 
projected  by  the  Committee  in  consequence  of  Wolff's  rep 
of  his  first  visit  in  the  early  part  of  1822.  %     During  a  sojc 
at  Nice  in  the  winter  of  1822-23,  Lewis  Way  raised  £ 
for  the  purpose,  which  was  followed   by  the  opening  c 
Palestine  Fund  at  home.      He  left  Nice  in   March,  for 
East,  accompanied  by  Lewis,  the  missionary  selected.     T 
proceeded  by  wa}'  of  Leghorn,  Florence,  Rome,  Naples, 
Malta  to  Syria,  picking  up  valuable  information  on  the  n 
about  the  Jews  in  the  countries  bordering  on  the  Mediterran 
Whilst    staying    at    Antoura,    Way's   health    unfortuna 
failed,  and  he  was  obliged  to  return  home  on  August  i 

•  See  a  most  interesting  account  of  the  Jews  of  Jerusalem  in  Sir  C.  Wai 
Underground  fertisaUm^  ch.  xv. 

t  Travels  and  Adventures  0/ Dr,  Wolffs  vol.  i.  pp.  173,  227. 
\  Sec  page  103. 

i829]  DR,     GEORGE    D ALTON  119 

1823  ;  not,  however,  before  he  had  effected  arrangements  for 
the  Society's  work  in  Palestine  and  Syria,  and  acquired 
for  the  residence  of  the  agents  in  Palestine  an  institution  at 
Antoura,  formerly  occupied  by  the  Jesuits. 

While  Way  was  thus  occupied,  Lewis  remained  at  Sidon, 
studying  Arabic ;  and  on  Way's  departure,  Lewis  spent 
some  months  in  the  College  at  Antoura  by  way  of  preparation 
for  future  work.  In  the  autumn  of  1823  he  visited  Damascus, 
Acre,  Safed,  Hebron,  Jerusalem,  and  ever}^  place  in  Palestine 
inhabited  by  Jews.  He  reported  that  those  of  Jerusalem, 
where  he  arrived  on  December  13th,  1823,  were  miserable, 
shamefully  oppressed,  poor  and  in  need  of  protection,  and 
wrote  home  strongly  advising  the  Committee  to  send  out  two 
German-speaking  missionaries,  one  to  be  stationed  at 
Damascus,  and  the  other  at  Safed ;  whilst  he  proposed  to  devote 
himself  to  the  Sephardim,  making  Jerusalem  his  principal 
station.  He  spoke  also  of  many  difficulties  caused  by  the 
Turkish  and  Roman  Catholic  prohibitions  against  circulating 
the  Scriptures  and  preaching  in  Syria,  and  he  was  compelled  to 
surrender  the  premises  at  Antoura.  Lewis  then  appears  to 
have  made  Beyrout  his  centre  of  work  during  the  remainder 
of  his  stay  in  Syria.  Obstacles  to  establishing  the  mission 
were  well  nigh  insuperable ;  and  he  was  allowed  to  come 
back  to  England,  visiting  Smyrna  on  his  homeward  journey. 

The  Society  was  the  pioneer  in  establishing  Medical 
Missions  in  the  world.  Dr.  G.  Clarke,  as  we  shall  see  in 
Chapter  XHI.,  being  the  first  missionary.  The  second 
was  Dr.  George  Edward  Dalton,  a  medical  practitioner  in 
Ireland,  who  offered  his  services  to  the  Society  as  a 
lay  missionary,  and  left  England  for  Palestine  with  his  wife 
on  June  4th,  1824.  He  called  at  Malta  on  his  way  out,  and 
also  at  Alexandria,  at  which  latter  place  he  visited  a  synagogue, 
where  he  was  favourably  received,  the  Jews  eagerly  accepting 
his  tracts.  The  Daltons  arrived  at  Beyrout  on  January  6th, 
1825,  where  a  temporary  residence  had  been  prepared  for  them 
by  Lewis  who  had  returned  to  Syria.  Shortly  afterward 
Dalton  and  Lewis  paid  a  visit  to  Jerusalem.  Having  returned 
to  Beyrout,  the  former  wrote  on  May  23rd  :  "  As  yet  little  or 




nothing  has  been  attempted  in  Jerusalem  ;  the  visits  of  all 
missionaries  have  been  for  short  periods ;  none  of  us  can 
said  to  have  occupied  this  station."  Dalton  at  once  appl 
himself  to  the  study  of  Arabic.  Efforts,  which  were  eventuj 
crowned  with  success,  were  made  by  the  missionaries  to 
the  appointment  of  an  English  Consul  to  Jerusalem,  so  as 
ensure  safety  and  freedom  to  English  Christians.  This  ^ 
a  very  necessary  preliminary  to  the  establishment  of 
mission.  The  Turkish  firman  still  blocked  the  circulation 
the  Scriptures.  Dalton  wrote  in  September,  in  a  despo 
ent  mood,  from  Tyre,  whither  he  had  gone  for  a  short  tim< 

What  I  have  as  yet  seen  of  the  Jews  in  this  land  leads  me  to  think  they 
very  prejudiced,  and  unwilling  to  listen  ;  I  do  not  think  they  are  at  all  prep 
for  the  Hebrew  New  Testament. 

Dalton's  health  was  already  suffering  from  the  climate,  wh 
had  lately  carried  off  Fisk,  one  of  the  American  missionai 
Dalton  eventually  took  up  his  residence  in  Jerusalem — 
first  missionary'  of  the  Society  to  do  so — on  December  2( 
There  he  was  joined  a  few  days  afterward,  on  January-  ; 
1826,  by  Mr.  J.  Nicolayson,  who  had  arrived  at  Beyrout 
December  21st.  Dalton's.  journal  of  that  date  is  path( 
indeed,  if  we  bear  in  mind  that  they  were  the  last  wo 
he  wrote : 

Jan.  3. — I  began  reading  Arabic  with  Papas  Isa.  I  visited  the  sick  Bis 
found  him  considerably  relieved,  and  full  of  gratitude  ;  he  said  his  sufferings 
been  great ;  he  had  taken  quantities  of  medicines  from  Arabs  and  Jews, 
without  relief.  Whilst  with  him,  news  came  to  me  of  a  *new  Englishr 
from  Beyrout,  having  arrived  at  Mar  Michael.  It  rejoiced  my  heart  to  find 
fellow-labourer  Mr.  Nicolayson  the  person.  O  Lord,  how  great  are  Thy  men 
dwelling  here  alone,  a  companion  has  been  sent  to  supply  the  place  of  my 
departed  brother  Fisk,  and  bring  intelligence  from  my  near  and  dear  one 
health,  preservation,  and  peace  ! 

**  When  all  thy  mercies,  O  my  God, 
My  rising  soul  surveys. 
Transported  with  the  view,  I'm  lost, 
In  wonder,  love,  and  praise."  * 

Immediately  afterward,  this  servant  of  God  became  sick,  a 
after  an  illness  of  21  days,  died  on  January  25th.     He  y 

^Jewish  Expositor^  1827,  p.  73. 

1 829]  ARRIVAL    OF    NICOLA  YSON  121 

buried  the  next  day  in  the  Greek  cemetery  on  Mount  Zion, 

the  first  missionary  of  the  Society  to  find  a  last  resting  place 

in  the  Holy  City.     This  was  a  great  blow  to  the  mission  and 

its   prospects.      Dalton   had   begun   the   real   work    of    the 

Society  in  Jerusalem  in    its  twofold  aspect  of  spiritual  and 

temporal  benefit,  and  laid  the  foundation  of  the  medical  part 

of  the  work  which  has  since  attained  to  so  great  dimensions. 

The  Committee,   we    read,    knowing   his  qualifications   and 

fitness  for  the  work,  had  anticipated  much  good,  under  the 

Divine   blessing,   from   his  patient  and  persevering  labours, 

when  it  pleased  Almighty  God  to  remove  him  to  the  heavenly 


Although    three   missionaries    had    preceded    Nicolayson, 

the  mission  was,  as  he  said,  still  in  its  infancy,  if  indeed  so 

much  could  be  said  of  it.      Difficulties  and  obstacles  were 

many,  but  this  state  of  things  only  called  for  greater  effort  and 

exertion.     Nicolayson  returned  to  Beyrout  on  February  17th, 

1826,  where  he  devoted  himself  to  the  study  of  Arabic,  at  the 

same  time  having  almost  daily  conversations  with  Jews.     He 

visited  Sidon,  Tyre,  Tiberias,  and  Safed  in  August.     Speaking 

of  Bible  distribution  in  the  country,  he  said  : 

I  could  sell  thousands  of  them,  if  I  had  them,  to-day.  If  you  would  have  the 
kindness  to  send  me  a  good  supply  from  London,  it  would  be  very  welcome,  for 
I  cannot  have  too  many.  From  my  journal  you  will  see  that  the  New  Testament 
has  been  torn  out  from  some  of  the  Bibles  I  have  sold  :  might  it  not,  therefore, 
be  better  to  send  the  Old  Testament  only  ?  Of  New  Testaments,  in  a  separate 
volume,  there  are  many  here  ;  but  no  Jew  will  lake  them  as  yet. 

As    Safed    appeared  to  be  a  ver>'  desirable  station    for   a 

missionary,  Nicolayson  determined  to  make  it  his  residence 

for   some    months,   and    arrived    there   on    November    nth. 

Having  visited   Damascus   in  March    1827,  he  proceeded  to 

Jerusalem,  where  he  resided  from  March   26th  to  May    2nd. 

He  then   returned   to  Beyrout,  but  the  political  state  of  the 

countr)''  necessitated  his  leaving  on  September  1 2th.  He  retired 

to  Alexandria  and  Cairo,  and  proposed  to  go  on  to  Malta. 

Contrary  winds,  however,  drove  him  round  by  Cyprus,  and 

at  Larnaca,  finding  a  ship  sailing  for  Beyrout,  he  determined  to 

return  to  Syria  for  a  further  effort.    He  reached  Beyrout  early 

in  1828,  only  to  find,  as  before,  that  the  unsettled  state  of 

122  JERUSALEM  [1820-29 

matters  interfered  with  any  considerable  missionary'  efforts, 
although  there  was  an  increasing  demand  for  Old  Testaments. 
Xicolayson  now  married  the  widow  of  Dalton,  and  prepared 
to  settle  down  ;  but  the  departure  of  the  British  Consul  from 
Beyrout  warned  him  that  he  could  no  longer  continue  in 
Syria  in  safety,  whereupon  he  left  for  Malta. 

Once  again,  within  this  Period,  Jerusalem  was  to  be  visited 
by  Dr.  Wolff.  On  his  way  out  in  1828  he  called  at  the  Ionian 
Islands,  arriving  at  Cephalonia  in  Februar}'  of  that  year. 
During  his  stay  he  addressed  the  Jews  of  the  island,  on 
one  occasion,  in  the  Lazaretto,  where  he  was  in  quarantine. 
He  arrived  on  March  9th  at  Corfu,  where  he  preached  to  and 
called  upon  Jews.  By  May  he  was  at  Alexandria,  and  then  at 
Beyrout,  hoping  to  be  able  to  go  on  to  Jerusalem,  but  the 
Pasha  of  Acre  refused  him  permission  ;  and  his  stay  in 
Syria  being  attended  with  considerable  danger,  he  retired 
to  Cyprus.  He  then  went  to  Eg>'pt  for  a  time,  and 
eventually  arrived  at  Jerusalem  on  January  7th,  1829.  The 
rabbi  issued  an  excommunication  which  prevented  the  Jews 
from  going  to  him  for  four  days,  but  afterward  they  went 
"in  crowds."  An  attempt  was  made  upon  his  life  by  a 
fanatical  Greek.  Wolff  opened  a  school  and  did  his  utmost  to 
preach  to  both  Jews  and  Greeks.  "I  never  had,"  he  wrote 
on  June  ist,  "such  a  trying  time  during  the  whole  of  my 
missionary  labours  as  I  have  now.  Letters  of  Jews  come 
against  me  from  Odessa,  London,  Persia,  Constantinople  and 
other  places."     He  had  to  depart  later  in  the  year. 

Here  we  must  leave  the  Holy  Land  for  a  while,  with  the 
reflection  that  when  we  look  at  the  strong  and  many-sided 
character  of  the  Jerusalem  mission  at  the  present  day,  we 
can  hardly  realize  its  modest  beginning,  and  the  smallness 
of  the  horizon  which  bounded  its  founders*  aspirations. 



German  Empire  — History  of  Jews— Crusader j— Moses  Mendelssohn  —  Berlin 
Mission— Professor  Tholuck— The  Rhine  Provinces  occupied— Frankfort -on-the- 
Main— J.  D.  Marc— J.  Stockfeld— P.  Treschow— Saxony— Dresden— J.  P.  Goldberg- 
Leipziir— Breslau— Duchy  of  Posen— McCaul  and  Becker  visit  Posen— BerRleldt  and 
Wermelsklrch  stationed  there— Princess  Radzlvil— Baltic  Provinces— Wendt  and 
Hoff  at  Konlgsberg— Ayerst  and  Alexander  at  Danzig— Dr.  Gerlach  at  Thorn- 
Hamburg— Efforts  of  Esdras  Edzard— J.    C.  Moritz. 

THE  present  Empire  of  Germany  is  a  conglomeration 
of  kingdoms,  principalities,  grand  duchies,  duchies 
and  free  towns,  and  dates  only  from  1871.  It  was 
composed  of  the  North  German  Confederation  provinces,  which 
had  been  separated  from  Austria  in  1866,  of  the  Kingdom  of 
Prussia,  and  of  the  Southern  States  of  Wiirtemberg,  Bavaria, 
Baden  and  Hesse  Darmstadt,  which  had  rallied  to  the  side  of 
Prussia  against  France  in  the  war  1 870-1 871.  By  the  action 
of  the  Congress  of  Vienna  the  German  States  had  been 
federated  in  a  Bund,  from  181 5  to  1866  the  seat  of  govern- 
ment being  at  Frankfort-on-the-Main,  and  Austria  the 
predominant  partner 

The  history  of  the  Jews  in  these  countries  is  most  interesting, 
and  goes  back  to  the  very  early  centuries  after  Christ.  They  are 
said  to  have  settled  in  Cologne,  an  ancient  Roman  colonia,  as 
far  back  as  the  third  century.  At  any  rate,  the  Jews  of 
Cologne  were  a  wealthy  and  influential  community  at  the  close 
of  the  tenth  century.  Shortly  afterward  they  were  overtaken 
by  cruelty  and  persecution.  Indeed,  it  has  been  said  of  the 
Jews  of  Germany  generally,  that  they  were  a  "mass  of  suffering" 
during  the  Middle  Ages.  They  were  in  bondage,  strictly 
confined  to  their  Ghetto,  or  Judengasse,  ignorant,  crushed, 
mean-spirited,  and  enslaved  spiritually  by  the  Talmud. 
They  were  widely  spread  throughout  Germany,  Bohemia, 
and  Franconia,  especially  in  the  districts  of  the  Rhine  and  the 

124  GERMAN    STATIONS  [i8ao 

Moselle.  They  were  falsely  accused  of  unspeakable  crimes, 
such  as  crucifying  Christian  children  at  Passover  time,  poison- 
ing wells  and  springs  of  water,  and  insulting  the  Host  Thex'' 
suffered  heavily  for  their  suppcjsed  misdeeds.  Many  fled 
from  Germany  into  Poland  at  this  juncture.  The  Crusaders, 
on  their  march  through  Germany  to  the  Holy  Land,  left  a 
trail  of  Jewish  blood  behind  them.  To  the  cry  of "  Hep ! 
Hep!"  *  the  undisciplined  forces  of  the  First  Crusade  massacred 
a  large  number  of  Jews  at  Treves,  Metz,  Cologne,  Mainz,  Worms, 
Spires,  Strasburg,  and  other  places.  In  two  months,  I2,cxx> 
Jews  were  killed  in  the  Rhine  provinces,  12,000  in  Bavaria, 
and  12,000  in  Holland.  The  Second  Crusade  claimed  fewer 
Jewish  victims,  owing  to  St.  Bernard's  noble  protest!  against 
the  policy  of  Rudolph  and  the  fiery  invectives  of  Peter  of 
Cluny.  The  Reformation  scarcely  improved  their  position. 
Moses  Mendelssohn  (i729-tS5)  was  the  first  to  raise  his 
people  from  the  degradation  in  which  they  lay,  and  to  enable 
them  to  lift  up  their  heads  again.  To  him,  primarily,  the 
rejuvenescence  which  we  see  now  still  going  on  was  due.  In 
him  the  old  proverb,  "  From  Moses  to  Moses  there  arose  not 
a  Moses,"  received  a  fresh  fulfilment.  Moses  Mendel — or,  as 
he  came  to  be  called,  Mendelssohn— was  born  at  Dessau,  in 
1729.  In  early  years  he  imbibed  the  spirit  of  Moses 
Maimonides.  He  learnt  pure  German,  and  with  it  culture. 
Notwithstanding  the  disadvantages  of  poverty  and  deformity 
he  made  rapid  way.  His  friendship  with  Lessing,  who  took 
him  for  the  hero  in  his  Nathan  the  IVisCy  made  the  Jew,  as  he 
really  was,  and  not  as  prejudice  had  distorted  him,  known  to 
the  Christian.  Lessing,  moreover,  started  Mendelssohn  on 
his  literary  career,  in  which  he  achieved  immortal  renown. 
His  book /^r«Wtv;/,  published  in  1783,  in  which  he  sketched 
the  religious  and  national  aspect  of  Judaism,  was  an  epoch- 
making  work,  and  the  first  stone  in  the  structure  of  Reform 
Judaism.     To  quote  Lady  ^lagnus  : 

*  Derived  prol>ably  from  the  German  "  Hab  !  Hab  I"   A  fanciful  derivation  is 
from  **  Hierosolyma  est  pcrdita." 

t  See  page  20. 

1 829]  PROFESSOR     THOLUCK    AT    BERLIN  125 

As  wc  read  the  stor>'  of  the  wise  and  liberal  philosopher,  who  broke  through 
the  barriers  and  let  in  the  light  of  learning,  and  of  social  countenance,  on 
mediitval  benighted  Judaism,  we  shall  see  that  the  ver}*  children  of  the  eman- 
cipator were  dazzled  by  the  unaccustomed  rays,  that  his  sons  wavered,  and  his 
daughters  apostatized,  and  that  in  the  third  generation — only  the  third — the 
fetters  which  degraded  were  called  degrading,  and  were  altogether  cast  off,  and 
the  grandchildren  of  Moses  Mendelssohn,  the  typical  Jew,  were  Jews  no  longer.* 

Felix  Bartholdy  Mendelssghn,  the  composer,  the  grandson 
of  Moses  Mendelssohn,  and  Neander,  the  Hebrew  Christian 
historian,  whose  original  name  was  David  Mendel,  conferred 
lustre  on  the  Christian  Church. 

The  conquests  of  Napoleon  ameliorated  the  lot  of  the  Jews, 
but  on  his  downfall  the  Judengasse  system  again  reigned 
supreme,  and  the  cry  of  "  Hep !  Hep  !  "  was  once  more  heard 
in  the  land.  In  1 850  Frederick  William  IV.  removed  the 
civil  disabilities  of  the  Jews,  and  they  were  further  emancipated 
in  1870,  but  the  spread  of  Anti-Semitism  in  recent  years 
shews  that  the  spirit  of  hatred  of  the  Jews  is  not  yet  a  thing 
of  the  past. 

We  have  already  referred  f  to  the  visit  of  Lewis  Way  to 
the  Continent  in  181 7.  The  Berlin  mission,  which  claims 
first  mention,  was  one  of  the  fruits  of  that  visit,  during  which 
he  came  into  contact  with  the  members  of  the  University. 
A  Jew,  whom  he  influenced,  was  baptized,  and  the  fact'  com- 
municated to  the  Committee  by  Mr.  (afterward  Sir)  George 
Rose,  the  British  Minister,  a  great  friend  of  the  Society.  In 
1822  a  local  mission  was  formally  established,  under  the 
patronage  of  the  King  of  Prussia,  who  sanctioned  the  regulations 
for  the  auxiliary,  and  free  postage  to  its  correspondence,  and 
became  godfather  to  two  Jews  baptized  in  Berlin.  Professor 
Tholuck,  a  man  of  extensive  Biblical  and  Oriental  learning, 
became  the  Society's  representative.  In  1824  he  was  able  to 
announce  fifty  baptisms;  and,  in  1825,  one  hundred  more. 
He  travelled  throughout  Germany  for  the  Society,  and 
commenced  a  periodical  in  German,  entitled.  The  Friend 
of  Israel,  prepared  tracts  on  the  Jewish  subject,  delivered  in 

*  Outlines  of  fcioish  History  ^  p.  284. 
t  See  page  58. 


126  GERMAN    STATIONS  1820 

the  University  public  lectures  on  Rabbinical  literature  and 
divinity,  and  printed  an  edition  of  select  passages,  taken  from 
that  ancient  and  important  cabbalistic  work,  the  Zohar,  In 
the  year  1826  he  was  appointed  by  the  King  of  Prussia  to  an 
important  and  responsible  situation  in  the  University  of  Halle, 
but  continued,  for  several  years,  to  act  as  the  Society's  repre- 
sentative in  the  Prussian  dominions,  and  occasionally  to  visit 
its  stations.  The  Society  had  no  mission  station  at  Berlin 
until  the  year  1832,  although  missionaries  occasionally 
visited  it. 

The  Society's  attention  was  directed  at  this  early  period 
to  the  numerous  communities  of  Jews  scattered  throughout 
the  provinces  adjacent  to  the  Rhine  and  its  tributaries.  At 
different  times  the  following  towns,  amongst  others,  have  been 
occupied  by  its  missionaries :  Offenbach,  Frankfort-on-the- 
Main,  Horstgen,  Cologne  and  Deutz,  Heidelberg,  Dusselthal, 
Mannheim,  Lippstadt,  Neuwied,  Detmold,  Cassel,  Crefeld, 
Kreuznach,  Strasburg,  Colmar,  Metz,  Mulhausen,  Carlsruhe, 
Mainz,  Stuttgart,  Nuremberg,  Worms  and  Kornthal.  It  is 
quite  impossible  to  notice  in  detail  the  operations  at  these 
numerous  centres,  which  have  been  changed  from  time  to 
time  as  circumstances  rendered  necessary,  or  to  enumerate 
all  the  devoted  missionaries  who  have  laboured  therein.  We 
select  only  the  most  important  of  these  stations. 

Frankfort-on-the-Main,  with  its  outlying  suburb  of  Offen- 
bach, was  one  of  the  very  earliest  stations  of  the  Society.  It 
had  much  to  recommend  it  as  a  Jewish  mission  centre.  It  was 
the  capital  of  the  then  Germanic  Confederation,  and  occupied 
a  commanding  position  with  regard  to  the  neighbouring  towns 
and  the  surrounding  country.  The  city  itself,  with  its  quaint, 
picturesque  and  ancient  Judengasse,  and  its  20,000  Jewish 
residents,  offered  a  large  if  not  promising  field  of  labour. 
Historians  speak  of  Jewish  residents  in  Frankfort  a  thousand 
years  ago ;  indeed,  their  original  settlement  there  is  probably 
lost  in  obscurity.  Religiously,  the  Jews  were  divided  into 
three  classes  :  the  Orthodox,  the  "  Reform- Verein  "  and  the 
Creizenians,  who  were  followers  of  Michael  Creizenach,  and 


formed  a  connecting  link  between  the  votaries  of  superstition 
and  those  of  rationalism,  in  the  same  way  as  the  Templars  did 
at  Hamburg.  The  social  position  of  the  Jews  had  greatly 
improved  when  the  mission  was  opened.  Formerly,  and  up  to 
the  close  of  the  i8th  century,  they  had  been  subject  to  many 
restrictive  and  vexatious  regulations.  They  were  strictly  con- 
fined to  their  Ghetto,  the  gates  of  which  were  absolutely  closed 
on  Sundays  and  festivals,  and  they  were  compelled  to  wear  a 
peculiar  hat,  or  cap,  or  some  other  distinguishing  badge.  They 
were  not  allowed  to  employ  Christian  servants,  and  were  pro- 
hibited from  following  certain  trades.  Six  Jews  only  might 
settle  at  Frankfort  in  one  year,  and  only  twelve  marriages  were 
allowed  among  them  within  the  same  period.  All  this  surely 
did  not  predispose  them  in  favour  of  Christianity. 

From  1820  onward,  and  up  to  1841,  the  Society  was 
represented  at  Frankfort  and  Offenbach  by  J.  D.  Marc,  a 
Jewish  convert,  who,  in  the  first-named  year,  with  another 
Hebrew  Christian,  Freidenburg,  a  student  in  Berlin  University, 
distributed  a  large  quantity  of  publications  amongst  the  Jews 
of  Frankfort  and  the  district.  In  the  course  of  three  or  four 
years  ninety  adult  Jews  were  baptized,  besides  some  children, 
and  baptisms  followed  in  every  subsequent  year. 

With  reference  to  other  towns  in  the  Rhenish  district,  men- 
tioned above,  we  may  add  that  the  Rev.  J.  Stockfeld  laboured 
at  Horstgen,  from  1825  to  1827  ;  Mr.  C.  G.  Petri  resided  at 
Detmold  from  1826  to  1831,  and  at  Lippstadt  from  1832  to 
1 834.  The  Rev.  Peter  Treschow  made  Neuwied  his  centre  in 
1827,  from  whence  he  visited  many  other  towns  in  Germany. 
The  Society  was  in  close  connexion  with  Count  von  der 
Recke*s  celebrated  Institution  at  Dusselthal,  of  which  we  have 
already  spoken,*  until  it  was  closed  in  1827. 

In  1827  Stockfeld  was  working  at  Cologne,  from  whence  he 
removed  to  Neuwied  in  1838,  and  a  year  later  to  Kreuznach. 

Two  towns  in  Saxony  were  occupied  by  the  Society  in  this 
decade.     First,  Dresden,  the  capital,  where  the  Jews  were  not 

*  See  page  87. 

128  GERMAN    STATIONS  [1820 

more  than  a  thousand  in  number,  though  numerous  in  the  im- 
mediate district.  In  1821  J.  P.  Goldberg,  a  Jewish  convert, 
commenced  his  labours  under  favourable  auspices  and  the 
patronage  of  Count  Dohna,  Count  Einsiedel  and  other  dis- 
tinguished persons.  Goldberg  had  been  a  Jewish  schoolmaster 
before  his  conversion,  and  afterward  continued  the  same  work 
with  the  object  of  bringing  the  children  to  Christ.  He  was 
successful  in  this,  for  we  read  of  a  Jewess  and  her  seven 
children  being  baptized  in  1823,  when  sixteen  converts  were 
present  on  the  occasion.  Other  baptisms  followed.  Altogether, 
Goldberg  was  the  means  of  preparing  forty-two  Jews  and 
their  children  for  baptism.  He  visited  Leipzig  annually, 
at  the  time  of  the  great  fairs,  which  used  to  be  attended 
by  Jews  from  all  parts  of  Europe.  There  he  found  a  large 
field  for  missionary  activity.  He  also  visited  Silesia.  We 
may  here  mention  that  Dresden  was  given  up  in  1838,  and 
Goldberg  transferred  to  Strasburg. 

Leipzig,  the  second  town  of  importance  in  Saxony,  is  a 
large  industrial  and  commercial  centre,  with  a  numerous 
Jewish  population.  Its  University,  founded  as  far  back  as 
1409,  is  one  of  the  chief  centres  of  learning  on  the  Continent, 
having  more  than  3,000  students,  of  whom  a  considerable 
number  are  Jews.  As  early  as  1820  the  Society  obtained 
access  to  the  Jews  of  Leipzig,  through  Tauchnitz,  the 
publisher,  who  undertook  to  circulate  the  Society's  publications 
among  them.  He  distributed  a  large  number  of  Hebrew  New 
Testaments  and  tracts.  Mr.  R.  Smith,  the  Society's  missionary 
at  Berlin,  resided  at  Leipzig  for  some  time. 

Silesia,  with  a  Jewish  population  of  50,000,  in  a  total  of 
1,000,000,  has  been  a  province  of  Prussia,  since  the  successful 
war  which  Frederick  the  Great  waged  against  Maria  Theresa, 
1 745- 1 763.  Breslau,  its  capital,  with  6,000  Jewish  residents 
in  a  total  population  of  350,000,  is  the  third  city  in  the  German 
Empire.  It  has  for  centuries  been  a  great  commercial  centre 
between  Eastern  and  Western  Europe,  and  possesses  a  famous 
University,  removed  from  Frankfort-on-the-Oder  in  1 811,  at 
which    there    are   man}-   Jewish   students.      The   Jews,   the 

i829]  McCAUL    AND    BECKER    AT    POSEN  129 

majority  of  whom  are  Polish,  have  broken  away  from  Talmudic 
obligations  and  influence.  They  are,  for  the  most  part,  in  good 
circumstances.  Inthe  early  days  of  the  Society  various  mission- 
aries resided  at  this  important  Jewish  centre.  The  Rev.  R. 
Smith,  who  was  there  in  1823,  stated  that  many  students 
of  the  University  applied  to  him  for  books.  Subsequently, 
from  1826  to  1830,  he  made  Breslau  the  centre  of  his 
missionary  operations. 

At  the  partition  of  Poland  the  province  of  Posen  fell  to  the 
share  of  Prussia,  but  it  still  bears  unmistakable  evidence  of  its 
Polish  connexion,  more  than  three-fourths  of  its  population 
being  Poles.  The  city  of  Posen,  the  ancient  capital,  with  its 
cathedral  and  tombs  of  the  two  earliest  kings,  is  to  a  great 
extent  still  a  Polish  city.  At  the  time  of  the  partition,  and 
till  1825,  when  the  Society's  mission  was  established,  the 
Jewish  population  of  the  province  was  about  80,000,  and  of 
the  city  of  Posen  8,000.  The  Jews,  unlike  their  co-religionists 
in  Russian  Poland,  have,  to  a  very  great  extent,  thrown  off  the 
yoke  of  the  Talmud,  and  follow  the  more  rationalistic  leanings 
of  their  brethren  in  the  rest  of  Germany.  They  now  number 
only  60,000  in  the  duchy,  and  6,000  in  the  city  of  Posen. 

When  McCaul  and  Becker  thought  it  prudent  to  retire  for 
a  season  from  Warsaw  in  1822,  they  visited  Posen  by 
permission  of  the  Prussian  Government,  and  met  with  an 
extraordinary  reception  from  the  Jews.  Their  chief  work 
consisted  in  distributing  the  New  Testament  and  tracts.  Let 
McCaul  himself  describe  the  scene  : 

One  Saturday,  the  Jews  began  to  read  them  before  the  window  ;  this  attracted 
other  Jews,  who  came  in  to  request  some  for  themselves — in  a  few  minutes  there 
were  about  thirty  Jews  satisfied — now  the  news  spread  amongst  them  like  fire — 
in  less  than  ten  minutes  after  we  began,  our  room  was  completely  filled,  or  rather 
crammed — the  hall  the  same — and  a  great  crowd  before  the  house,  clamorously 
asking  for  tracts — we  gave  away  about  one  hundred  ;  the  crowd  then  became  so 
great,  that,  in  self-defence,  we  were  obliged  to  stop  ;  many  Icissed  our  hands 
and  arms  to  induce  us  to  give  them  some.  After  we  ceased,  the  crowd  waited 
at  least  an  hour  before  the  house,  ere  it  dispersed. 

The  next  morning,  Sunday,  another  crowd  collected, 
though  no  books  were  distributed  then,  but  on  Monday,  the 


23D  JZiSkT^v  sr^rssjrs  [i&» 

preserve  oraer ;  az  Tassiay  tb?  >£=:>£  ^^^i^:^^  :cc=rTod  again, 
saf  :iranpinEri2iC''vbSJ*-K^siLir:t£I  ibescrck  :c  Ii^g^'-irc  was 
odsaisfCEd.  ETETi-  J-CT,  wEdjrct  2  5^=^j?  exceco.Tri.  askied  for 
£  X«v  Tgr?-trri,  As  tbe  rrcoes  5>t^  re:,  ihey  had  to  be 
isx.  SDC  TPET?  p&fsfed  :r.  fr:c:  rce  r:  ar^:cbg.  Many 
C^rifcan?  t:»:k  sn  ^as^Ts:  r:tie:*sc  in  the  prjceedip^s.  arsd  the 
*  Aznr'-Vsr*-  S:o;rr  re*  Fr^nis  :f  I^^3c^l '  -b^s  ?:r=»i  *r  Pasen 
irxisr  :b^  pcirrca^^e  :f  r—jr:?  Kilrr.^H  A  srcrr:  re  sriquiiy 
azamspc  ib*  J^tts  Tis  ir:c:i*-cL  r.»:c  :r-ly  ii  F -"^ser:*  bet  at 
Lissa  in£  :crer  ciajzss  "»i:i±:  Becktcr  vL?£t^cL  In  :S-5  Mr. 
HiZJDe?.  rdssSrciir.-  :c"  the  Berlir.  S:cL«er.-.  5cpci5ed  whfa 
b:t:k5    ry    riSs    S:c3er.\   Trs::t   ::     PrsecL   wber?    tbe  Jews 

It  Sf  ri:c  sirrrLiizi^.  ±!ers>-rs:  tj  £2dc  r".it>  En  the 
?  :se!i  AtV-tj-^.'  Srcfer."  r^4:je<CKL  thrrcu:^:  tbe  rDaf'.L=i  of 
r  rTffis>:r  TbrtTiik   :c  Berlfr.  tbe  ifcccrtriKCt   :c  i  resadeot 

I*  :  5  *5  M *s5r?v  J.  G.  B«?r^::xi!C':  jltsc  J.  G.  G.  Werrae'.skirch 
^v^'s^  xm  r:  Frse::.  ber  X:>-jl  Hir=^rej5>  tbe  Frincesss  ysar?  berrrs  b^--  Lewis  Wiv.  :be  rri:35>D-rarK<  n^::^Yed  the 
zii:<c  rr:iin':ii5  insctiTC.  mo  a  v^r  kfrc  rec^vclcc  frrci  the 
risen  Ai3£faj~.-  S:c:er..     A  rcrlic  senriof  *^i>  imzxdSateiy 

pirrtise.  ire  irt^ncei  re  tbe  £r^  SaruTsiiy  by  ifbxir  Jcw^x  a 
mrrber    -vbicf:    ir.    i   5r*-    -A^^k^    i::cr^J;;55^i   re    S5?^'«:t^i■-5ve; 

in  :  ir^  rr  zcec  i  icb-xi  5:r  Jot  ish  cbilcr^c.  Ke  w-i>  "coed 
r[*  J.  r.  Hir^*^.irrn>  jini  a  >-^«ir  in^fr^xx:  by  j  >  H.  Gn£  The 
rv-:  iarzs-  r.crir *ei  in  tbi?  felc  .  f  Ijivcr  5,  r  r:::jjry  ^.^JlTs 

~-  zLi^c  ni:^-  -.^isLt  tbe  Biltic  ?r,^'.i::c;r:>.  jl  .i::scnct  c. 

n^vnir  :f  il^neL  Kjniipiitrr^,  I>a:^::>.  jinc  5c^ct::\  ,'Cte  ^t  :»d!er 
:f  Trmcrt  ba^  l^sei  :ejuptec  by  tbc  >.v:ec>  rrvc  e«irlwst 
Linc<z  zz  tbe  msea:  caw     \\"h:!c>r  ti^?  re?io?;:t   Jewish 

i829]  KONIGSBERG    AND    DANZIG  131 

population  of  these  towns  is  not  inconsiderable,  the  proximity 
of  the  three  first-named  to  Russian  Poland,  and  the  fact 
that  they  are  largely  visited  by  Jews  from  Russia  for  commercial 
purposes,  have  constituted  them  important  centres  for  mission- 
ary activity.  Moreover,  in  recent  years,  the  continual  stream  of 
refugees  from  the  Pale  of  Settlement  for  embarkation  at  the 
Baltic  ports  has  increased  the  opportunities  for  evangelistic 
work.  Consequently,  the  Society,  when  retiring  altogether 
from  some  of  the  other  German  provinces,  maintained  its 
position,  though  in  somewhat  curtailed  proportions,  on  this 
coast  line  for  a  few  years  longer.  As  a  matter  of  fact,  the 
mission  in  this  district  was  continuously  maintained  through 
eight  decades. 

Through  the  influence  of  Messrs.  Wendt  and  Hoff,  who 
spent  some  time  in  Konigsberg  in  1822  on  their  way  to 
Poland,  an  auxiliary  Society  was  established,  under  the 
supervision  of  Dr.  Borowsky,  the  Bishop  of  the  Evangelical 
Lutherans.  In  1827  a  direct  representative  of  the  parent 
Society,  the  Rev.  J.  G.  Bergfeldt,  was  stationed  here.  He  was 
instrumental  in  baptizing  many  Jews.  His  greatest  achieve- 
ment, however,  was  the  circulation  of  large  quantities  of  the 
Holy  Scriptures:  for  example,  in  1832,  as  many  as  1,503 
copies,  or  portions,  were  sold  to  Jews,  realizing  ;^i  16. 

Danzig,  being  situated  near  the  mouth  of  the  Vistula,  is 
visited  during  the  summer  by  numbers  of  Jews  from  different 
parts  of  Poland  and  Galicia,  who  are  frequently  employed  as 
agents  in  carrying  on  the  trade  in  corn,  and  have  charge 
of  the  vessels  in  which  it  is  brought  to  Danzig  from  different 
parts  of  the  interior.  Whilst,  therefore,  the  state  of  the  Jews  in 
the  town  itself  may  not  offer  great  encouragement  to  the 
missionary,  there  are  many  opportunities  of  preaching  Christ 
to  the  strangers  above  referred  to,  who  in  many  cases  have 
never  been  visited  by  a  missionary. 

Danzig  was  frequently  visited  by  the  Society's  missionaries 
in  early  times,  and  a  school  for  Jewish  children  was  established 
there  in  1828  by  the  Rev.  W.  Ayerst,  and  his  fellow-labourer, 
the  Rev.  M.  S.  Alexander.  This  school  continued  to 
flourish  for  several  years,  and  was  at  one  time  attended  by  asi 

K  2 

132  GERMAN   STATIONS  [1820 

many  as  ninety-four  Jewish  children.  After  the  removal  of 
Alexander  in  1830,  and  Ayerst  in  the  following  year,  this 
station  remained  unoccupied  till  1840. 

Another  town,  Thorn,  was  also  occupied  during  this  Period, 
Dr.  Gerlach  being  stationed  there  in  1828,  and  remaining  till 
1833.  He  travelled  through  West  and  East  Prussia  and  along 
the  Polish  frontier  making  known  the  Gospel  to  the  Jews.  It  is 
recorded  that  at  one  place  he  went  regularly  to  the  synagogue 
every  Sabbath,  and,  after  the  manner  of  the  Apostles  of  old, 
reasoned  with  the  Jews  out  of  their  own  Scriptures  that 
Jesus  is  the  Christ. 

We  now  proceed  westward  until  we  come  to  Hamburg, 
Bremen,  and  LUbeck,  the  chief  of  the  eighty  or  so  Hanse  or 
Free  towns  on  the  north  coast  of  Germany,  ranging  from  the 
Scheldt  to  the  Gulf  of  Danzig.  These  towns  were  associated 
under  the  Hanseatic*  League,  which  dated  from  the  thirteenth 
century ;  a  confederacy  whose  object  was  their  mutual 
prosperity,  and  protection  against  piracy. 

Hamburg,  the  largest  of  these  Hanse  towns,  was  founded 
by  Charlemagne  in  the  ninth  century.  It  is  now  the  principal 
emporium  on  the  Continent,  with  a  population  of  750,000.  Its 
situation,  size  and  importance  constitute  it  an  advantageous 
centre  for  missionary  operations.  The  residential  Jewish 
population  is  in  itself  numerous,  amounting  to  20,000, 
most  of  whom,  as  is  the  case  everywhere,  belong  to  the 
mercantile  class  in  its  different  grades,  such  as  bankers, 
of  whom  there  are  a  great  number,  merchants,  manu- 
facturers, traders  in  all  sorts  of  wares,  horse  and  cattle 
dealers,  and  peddlers.  In  the  Jewish  quarter  proper  there 
is  a  long  street,  commonly  called  the  "Jews'  Exchange," 
which  from  morning  till  night  presents  a  most  busy  scene. 
Both  sides  of  the  street  are  thickly  studded  with  stalls, 
on  which  petty  dealers  expose  their  various  small  wares  for 
sale,  whilst  the  space  between  in  the  centre  of  the  street,  is 
thronged  with  customers,  all  of  the  poorer  class.   Hamburg 

♦  Most  authorities,  including  Professor  Skeat,  derive  "Hanseatic"  from 
hansa^  an  association.  (Others  from  Am-See'Staaten^  towns  on  the  sea,  Brewer, 
Dictionary  of  Phrase  and  Fable.) 

i829]  HAMBURG  133 

is  the  centre  of  a  large  missionary  district,  comprising 
Hanover,  Holstein,  Mecklenberg  and  Oldenburg.  The 
majority  of  the  Jews  in  Hamburg  and  Altona  are  Talmudists, 
and  have  several  synagogues.  One  of  these  is  a  very  large  and 
imposing  edifice,  generally  well  filled  on  their  sabbath,  when 
there  is  fine  chanting,  but  rarely  a  sermon.  There  are  also  a 
number  of  Reform  Jews  in  Hamburg,  who  maintain  a 
spacious  Temple.  The  anxiety  of  these  Jews  to  establish  a 
good  position  leads  them  to  turn  rather  a  deaf  ear  to  the  even 
slight  demands  which  their. own  rationalistic  religion  makes 
upon  them.  Moreover,  there  is  a  constant  stream  of  Jewish 
immigration  from  Russia  flowing  through  Hamburg  to 
England  or  America.  As  long  as  the  Jews  in  Russian  Poland 
remain  almost  inaccessible  to  missionary  influence,  it  is 
of  the  utmost  importance  that  the  Society  should  occupy 
such  a  post  of  vantage  as  Hamburg  affords.  Thereby 
thousands  of  fugitive  Jews,  who  in  their  own  country  had 
never  seen  a  Christian  missionary  or  a  New  Testament,  nor 
received  any  Christian  sympathy  or  kindness,  have  in 
passing  through  Hamburg  experienced  a  revelation  of  what 
Christianity  is,  both  in  words  and  deeds,  and  have  gone  on 
their  way  rejoicing. 

We  have  already  noticed  *  a  most  noteworthy  attempt  in 
Hamburg  to  win  Jews  to  Christ,  made  by  Esdras  Edzard 
(1629 — 1708),  who  was  the  means  of  bringing  hundreds  of 
Jews  into  the  Church  of  Christ. 

The  attention  of  the  Committee  having  been  drawn,  in 
1 8 19,  to  the  spiritual  needs  of  the  Jews  in  Hamburg,  they 
made  a  grant  of  ;^ioo  toward  the  enlargement  of  the 
English  Church,  of  which  the  minister  was  the  Rev.  G. 
D.  Mudie,  on  the  condition  that  free  seats  should  be  set 
apart  for  the  use  of  Jews,  and  a  lecture  occasionally  given 
to  them.  This  was  followed  up  by  the  appointment  in  1825 
of  that  remarkable  missionary,  Mr.  J.  C.  Moritz,  whom  the 
Emperor  Alexander  I.  of  Russia  was  the  first  to  discover 
and  to  employ  in  his  own  dominions.!  Moritz  laboured  at 
Hamburg  for  the  Society  from  1825  to  1827. 
*  See  page  9.  t  See  page  96. 



J«w«  In  Prance— AlMce  and  Lorraine-^trasburg— Revs.  J.  J.  Banga  and  P.  J. 
0#Ur-Metz— Switzerland— Sweden— Denmark— J.  C.  Moritz-^ews  In  Spain— 
TMIr  ** Golden  Age"— Woiff  at  QibraiUr^Rev.  Charles  Neat  and  Dr.  Ocorffe 
Clarke— Mediterranean  Mission— Dr.  Ewald  at  Lisbon. 

WE  may  comprise  within  the  h'mits  of  a  single 
chapter  the  early  histor>'  of  the  Society  in  the 
countries  named  above,  of  which  France  is  the 
only  one  where  its  operations  have  been  at  all  extensive  or 

Little  is  known  of  Jews  in  France  until  early  in  the  seventh 
century,  when  severe  laws  were  enacted  against  them  by 
Chilixjric,  the  Nero  of  his  day.  Clotaire  II.,  in  615,  and  the 
Council  of  Rheims,  in  627,  added  to  these  restrictions,  whilst 
Dagobert  commanded  the  Jews  to  be  baptized  or  to  leave  the 
kingdom,  an  edict  which  was  generally  evaded.  These  laws 
remained  in  force  during  the  Merovingian  dynasty.  The 
Carlovingian  kings,  Pepin  (752 — 768)  and  Charlemagne  (768 — 
814)  conciliated  and  even  patronized  the  Jews.  The  latter 
employed  a  Jew,  named  Isaac,  to  transact  his  friendly  nego- 
tiations with  the  famous  Caliph  of  Bagdad,  Haroun-al-Rashid. 
The  Jews  enjoyed  even  greater  prosperity  under  Louis  the 
Debonair  (8 14 — 840),  who  remained  deaf  to  Christian  accusa- 
tions against  them,  and  also  under  his  son  and  successor, 
Charles  the  Bald  (840 — 877).  The  remaining  Carlovingian 
monarchs  and  their  successors,  the  Capets,  shewed  them  less 
favour,  but  their  position  was  fairly  endurable,  though  some- 
what precarious,  owing  to  the  different  edicts  promulgated  by 
the  petty  tyrants  by  whom  France  was  then  governed. 
Toward  the  end  of  the  eleventh  centurj'  the  Jews  were 
banished  from  France,  but  subsequently  recalled  by  Philip  I. 
(1060-1108),  and  a  similar  experience  occurred   under  Philip 

1820-29]  JEWS    IN    FRANCE  136 

Augustus  (i  180-1223),  who  expatriated  them  in  1182,  but 
allowed  them  to  return  under  certain  conditions,  one  of  which 
was  the  wearing  of  a  distinctive  mark,  that  of  a  little  wheel 
upon  their  dress.  Louis  VIII.,  or  the  Lion  (1223- 1226),  annulled 
all  debts  due  to  the  Jews.  The  long  reign  (1226- 1270)  of 
Louis  IX.,  or  St.  Louis  as  he  was  called,  was  a  fearful  period  for 
the  persecuted  people,  who  were  plundered,  banished  and 
recalled.  These  proceedings  were  found  to  pay,  and  were 
twice  resorted  to,  in  two  successive  years,  1 306  and  1 307,  by 
Philip  the  Fair  (1285- 13 14).  For  the  next  eighty  years  the 
Jews  fared  somewhat  better,  although  the  usual  tactics  were 
periodically  followed,  being  varied  by  pillage  and  massacre. 
In  1 394  they  were  banished  by  Charles  VI.,  and  for  nearly 
400  years  but  few  were  to  be  found  in  the  country.  These 
principally  consisted  of  some  Spanish  and  Portuguese  Jews 
in  the  south,  who  had  fled  from  Spain  in  1492,  settling  at 
Avignon  and  Bordeaux.  They  had  become  "  New  Christians," 
accepting  baptism,  but  remaining  secretly  attached  to  their  old 
religion.  These  Jews  obtained  privileges  from  Henry  1 1.,  and 
subsequently  threw  off  their  disguise. 

The  depth  of  degradation  to  which  the  Jews  had  fallen  is 
revealed  by  the  estimation  in  which  they  were  generally  held. 
When,  in  1787,  at  the  meeting  of  the  Society  of  Arts  and 
Sciences  held  at  Metz,  a  well-wisher  raised  the  question, 
"Is  there  any  way  of  making  the  Jews  of  France  happier 
and  more  useful?"  one  answer  was,  "Transport  the  whole 
of  them  to  the  deserts  of  Guiana."  No  wonder  that  the 
Jews  took  part  in  the  Revolution  of  1789,  which  encouraged 
their  settlement  in  the  country  in  greater  numbers,  by  recog- 
nizing them  as  citizens.  Napoleon  distinctly  favoured  them, 
and  it  was  at  his  instance  that  the  Sanhedrin  met  in  Paris 
in  1806. 

Amongst  famous  French  Jews,  we  may  mention  the  names 
of  Rashi  and  David  Kimchi,  the  well-known  commentators, 
and  of  Cremieux,  Fould  and  Jules  Simon,  the  eminent 

The  provinces  of  Alsace  and  Lorraine,  to  give  them  the 
names  by  which  they  were  generally  known  through  a  part 

136  SWITZERLAND  [1820 

of  the  nineteenth  century,  at  the  time  of  which  we  are 
writing  belonged  to  France,  but  they  were,  after  the  Franco- 
Prussian  War,  in  1 870-1,  restored  to  Germany.  The  pro- 
vince of  Alsace  had  been  wrested  by  France  from  Germany 
in  1697,  and  the  city  of  Strasburg  in  1621. 

The  Jews  of  this  district  principally  consist  of  scattered 
communities,  as  in  the  Rhine  provinces  ;  and,  owing  to  the 
fact  that  they  were  so  long  French  citizens,  they  are  more 
"  advanced  "  than  their  co-religionists  in  the  rest  of  Germany, 
and,  on  the  whole,  better-to-do  as  regards  social  position. 
The  towns  of  Strasburg,  Metz,  Colmar  and  Miilhausen  have, 
at  different  times,  been  centres  of  the  Society's  work  ;  from 
these  its  missionaries  have  visited  many  towns  of  France  and 

Strasburg  was  occupied  at  a  very  early  period  in  the  Society's 
existence  ;  the  Rev.  J.  J.  Banga,  who  had  been  trained  in  the 
Society's  Seminary  at  Stanstead,  being  stationed  there  from 
1826  to  1832,  when  weak  health  necessitated  his  removal  to 
Rome.  In  1828  he  had  been  joined  by  the  Rev.  P.  J.  Oster,  and 
both  of  them  used  to  visit  periodically  large  towns  in  France, 
namely,  Paris,  Metz,  Nancy,  Montbeliard,  Lyons,  Besan^on, 
Avignon,  Marseilles,  Nismes,  Montpelier, Toulon  and  Toulouse. 
Metz  was  visited  in  1828  by  McCaul,  who  found  Jews  in 
possession  of  Scriptures  and  tracts  which,  received  originally 
from  the  Society,  had  come  into  their  hands  by  circulation 
amongst  the  Jews  themselves. 

We  must  take  a  glimpse  at  Switzerland,  where  Banga 
was  stationed  at  Basle  from  1824  to  1826.  Being  a  native 
of  that  country,  he  took  orders  in  his  own  Church.  His  work 
in  Switzerland,  Eastern  France,  and  Southern  Germany,  was 
of  a  pioneer  character,  for  the  purpose  of  making  enquiries 
into  the  condition  of  the  Jews  in  those  countries.  He  visited 
Wurtemberg,  Tubingen,  Kirchen,  Stuttgart,  Esslingen,  Zurich 
and  Berne.  At  the  last-named  place  he  distributed  New 
Testaments  and  tracts  amongst  the  Jews.  His  enquiries  led 
to  the  establishment,  in  1826,  of  the  mission  at  Strasburg,  as 
being  the  central  city  of  the  district. 

i829]  SWEDEN   AND    DENMARK  137 

Our  first  mention  of  Sweden  and  Norway  must  also  be 
made  during  this  Period.  Jews  have  never  been  very 
numerous  in  those  countries  or  in  Denmark.  The  Jewish 
population  of  Sweden,  which  was  about  i,ocx)  fifty  years  ago, 
has  increased  to  4,550.  The  Jewish  population  of  Denmark,  on 
the  contrary,  has  decreased  from  15,000  to  5000,  within  the 
same  limit  of  time.  This  rather  startling  diminution  in 
numbers  is  probably  owing  to  the  loss  of  the  province  of 
Schleswig-Holstein,  which,  by  the  treaty  of  Gastein,  was 
surrendered  to  Austria  and  Prussia  in  1865,  only  to  become 
part  and  parcel  of  the  latter's  dominions  on  the  defeat  of 
Austria  by  Prussia  in  1866.  Altona,  the  largest  town  in 
Holstein,  contains  a  Jewish  population  of  about  5,000. 
The  reason  why  Norway  is  not  bracketed  with  Sweden  in  this 
narrative  of  Jewish  evangelization  is  owing  to  her  consistently 
inhospitable  attitude  toward  the  Jews,  there  never  having 
been  more  than  a  mere  handful  of  them,  about  thirty  in 
all,  resident  in  that  country  at  any  given  period. 

The  Society's  occupation  of  Sweden  and  Denmark  is 
exclusively  associated  with  the  zealous  and  indefatigable 
labours  of  that  able  missionary,  J.  C.  Moritz.  Born  at 
Bernstein,  in  Pomerania,  in  1786,  of  strict  Jewish  parents,  he 
arrived  in  London  in  1807,  with  a  letter  of  introduction  to  the 
then  chief  rabbi.  Dr.  Herschell.  Here,  however,  he  became 
acquainted  with  Christianity,  and  was  baptized  in  1809, 
surrendering  his  Jewish  name  of  Moses  Treitel  for  the 
baptismal  name  of  Johann  Christian  Moritz.  In  181 1  he 
went  into  business  at  Gothenburg,  and  there  married  a 
Christian  lady  who  proved  a  real  helpmeet  to  her  husband. 
In  1 8 17  the  way  was  opened  for  Moritz  to  labour  amongst 
his  brethren  in  Russia ;  and,  as  already  stated,*  he  was 
employed  for  some  years  by  the  Emperor  of  Russia  in 
evangelistic  work  among  the  Jews  in  his  Empire.  Moritz 
entered  the  service  of  the  Society  in  1825.  Having  spent 
two   years    at   Hamburg,    he    made    in     1827    a  tour    of 

*  Vide  supruy  pp.  96  and  133. 

138  JEWS    m   SPAIN  [1820 

inspection  and  evangelization  throughout  Denmark  and 
Sweden.  Failing  in  his  efforts  to  establish  a  mission  in 
the  former  country,  owing  to  the  withholding  of  the  requisite 
royal  permission,  he  devoted  his  attention  to  the  latter 
and  principally  to  the  important  seaport  of  Gothenburg. 
There  he  visited  nearly  all  the  Jewish  families,  distributing 
nearly  300  tracts  amongst  them.  In  a  similar  manner  he 
testified  in  other  towns,  from  house  to  house,  that  Jesus 
is  the  Christ.  In  this  way  much  good  itinerant  work  was 
done.  On  leaving  the  Rhine  provinces  of  Germany,  where 
he  resided  from  1828  to  1832,  Moritz  again  visited  Sweden,  in 
1833  and  1834. 

The  last  countries  to  be  treated  of  within  this  Period  are 
Spain  and  Portugal,  where  the  Jewish  population  is  very  scanty. 
The  traditional  accounts  of  settlements  of  Jews  in  Spain,  in 
the  time  of  Nebuchadnezzar,  and  in  the  still  earlier  time  of 
Solomon,  may  not  be  dismissed  as  altogether  fabulous,  and 
unworthy  of  credence.  Later  on,  Jews  probably  followed  the 
conquest  of  Spain  by  Rome,  as  in  other  countries  which 
came  under  its  imperial  sway.  In  no  country  in  the  world 
has  the  lot  of  the  Jews  been  more  unequal.  Prosperity  and 
peace  at  one  time,  misery  and  woe  at  another,  have  been 
their  experience.  The  Council  of  Elvira,  A.D.  299,  passed 
some  restrictive  laws  against  the  descendants  of  Israel,  even 
then  numerous  in  Spain.  Reccared,  and  other  Gothic  kings, 
further  curtailed  their  privileges,  and  diminished  their  pros- 
perity, and  it  is  said  that  90,000  submitted  to  baptism  in  the 
reign  of  Sisebut  (612-617),  in  order  to  retain  their  privileges. 
The  Council  of  Toledo,  held  in  633,  condemned  this  pro- 
ceeding, but  declared  that  they  must  remain  Christians.  The 
remaining  Gothic  monarchs  either  patronized  or  persecuted, 
banished  or  recalled  them,  as  caprice  dictated,  until  their 
kingdom  was  conquered  by  the  Saracens,  at  the  battle  of 
Xeres  in  711. 

During  the  dominion  of  the  Saracens  and  the  Moors  (711- 
1050),  the  Jews  enjoyed  a  "golden  age,"  and  Spain  was  called  by 
them  "  an  earthly  paradise  "  and  "  a  garden  of  Eden,"  and  was 

i8a9]  AfARRANOS  139 

to  them  a  second  Canaan.  They  enjoyed  great  power,  and  even 
grandeur,  and  distinguished  themselves  in  every  branch 
of  learning,  science,  art  and  literature.  The  famous  schools 
and  rabbis  of  these  Sephardic  Jews  were  held  in  high  repute 
throughout  the  world.  On  the  decay,  in  the  eleventh  century, 
of  the  Babylonian  schools,  the  centre  of  Jewish  learning  was 
shifted  from  the  East  to  the  West.  Cordova,  Barcelona, 
Toledo,  Seville,  Saragossa,  and  Lisbon  became  as  famous  as 
Babylon  had  been  for  its  "  schools  of  the  prophets."  Their 
mantle,  and  the  title  of  Prince  of  the  Captivity,  descended 
upon  their  successors  in  Spain.  A  few  celebrities  only  can  be 
mentioned  here :  Rabbis  Moses,  Samuel  Cophni  Haccohen, 
Joseph  ben  Samuel  Hallevi,  Isaac  ben  Jacob  Alphesi,  Isaac 
ben  Baruch,  Isaac  ben  Moses,  Isaac  ben  Giath,  Isaac  ben 
Reuben,  Moses  ben  Nachman,  Aben  Megas,  Ibn  Ezra,  and 
Maimonides,  of  Cordova;  Rabbis  Samuel,  and  Judah  ben 
Levi,  of  Barcelona;  Rabbis  Moses  Micozzi,  and  Asher  of 
Toledo,  were  one  and  all  distinguished  as  writers,  commen- 
tators, Talmudists,  poets  or  philosophers.  Then  there  were 
Zacuto,  the  astronomer,  and  Don  Isaac  Abarbanel,  the 
celebrated  author  and  counsellor  of  kings. 

A  change  came  over  the  fortunes  of  the  race  soon  after  the 
re-ascendency  of  Christianity  in  the  Peninsula.  The  Catholic 
kings  of  Spain,  indeed,  at  first  favoured  the  Jews,  but  after 
the  death  of  Pedro  the  Cruel  in  1369,  they  regarded 
them  as  heretics  and  subjects  for  forced  conversion.  Mas- 
sacres took  place  at  Seville  and  Barcelona  in  1391.  With  the 
revival  of  the  Inquisition — the  New  Inquisition,  as  it  was 
called — under  Ferdinand  and  Isabella  (1483),  their  position 
became  unbearable.  In  order  to  escape  penalties,  thousands 
of  Jews  embraced  Christianity  during  this  period.  These 
converts  were  called  "  Marranos."  *  The  great  majority,  how- 
ever, remained  steadfast  to  their  ancestral  faith,  and  in  1492 
suffered  banishment  to  the  number  of  300,000.  The  refugees 
fled   to   North   Africa,   Italy,   Turkey,   and    Palestine,    and, 

*  A  common  derivation  is  from  Maran-atha  (i  Cor.  xvi.  22),  but  it  is  said  to 
mean  **  dirty"  in  Spanish.  The  appellation  is  occasionally  spelt  *•  Marano,"  and 
also  "  Maranno." 


Graetz  says*  that  not  till  1868  did  Spain  again  open  her 
doors  to  the  ancient  race. 

Wolff,  as  we  have  seen,t  visited  Gibraltar  in  1821  on 
his  way  to  the  Orient.  In  1823  the  Rev.  Charles 
Neat,  accompanied  by  Dr.  George  Clarke  the  first  medical 
missionary  of  the  Society,  visited  the  same  place,  calling 
upon  the  Jews  in  their  houses  and  synagogues,  and 
receiving  much  encouragement  in  their  work,  both  in 
public  and  private.  They  and  their  successors  continued  their 
labours  either  here  or  at  other  cities  on  the  Mediterranean  till 
1829,  and  the  group  of  temporary  stations  was  called  the 
"  Mediterranean  mission." 

In  1 841  Dr.  Ewald  visited  the  Jews  in  Lisbon,  and  found 
that,  in  addition  to  those  who  attended  the  synagogue  in  the 
city,  there  were  many  crypto-Jews,  who,  while  conforming  to 
the  Roman  Catholic  worship,  secretly  kept  the  Jewish  feasts. 

We  have  now  reached  the  close  of  this  Period.  The 
operations  of  the  Society  were  still  in  their  infancy,  and  its 
missionaries  were  only  thirty-six  in  number. 

*  History  of  the  fews^  vol.  iv.  p.  409. 
t  See  page  102. 

jFouttb    pedob, 



^^e  facers  fell  asleep. 

2  St.  Peter  hi.  4. 

i^oses  Jttp  snbant  is  HeaH ;  noto  therefore  arise,  go  ober  t^is  ilorHan, 
t^on,  anH  all  tf^is  people,  nnto  t^e  lann  to^it^  31  )io  gibe  to  t))em,  eben  to  tf^e 
ti^ilHren  of  IFsrael. 

Joshua  i.  s. 

FOURTH  PERIOD,  1830— 1840. 



NoUble  years  In  the  history  of  England— The  Society's  youth— ObsUcles 
and  encouragements— Total  Jewish  population— Circulation  of  the  Scriptures- 
Hebrew  Christian  congregations— A  wise  rtaoXyt  —  Monthly  Intelligtnce— Jewish 
ImttUigtnce—VmXxwM  and  Vice- Patrons— John  luibouchere,  Treasurer— Committee 
and  Trustees- Society's  Bankers  —  Death  of  Basil  Woodd  and  C.  S.  Hawtrey— 
Secretariat  —  Death  of  William  Wllberforce,  Isaac  Saunders,  Charles  Simeon, 
and  Lewis  Way  —  Literary  activity— Old  Testoment  In  Yiddish— New  Testoment 
in  Hein'ew— Uturgy  In  Hebrew— Its  use  at  various  stations  of  the  Society- 
Reopening  of  Seminary— Anniversary  Sermons  and  Meetings— Exeter  Hall- 
Annual  Breaidast— Speech  by  Wolff— Circumstances  attending  his  severance  from 
the  Society— Other  important  speeches. 

THE  eleven  years  contained  in  this  Period  were  indeed 
notable  ones  in  the  history  of  our  country.  It  had 
only  just  recovered  from  the  excitement  roused  by  the 
Catholic  Emancipation  Act,  a  question  which  had  split  up 
the  various  parties  in  the  Church  from  1827  to  1829,  when  it 
was  thrown  into  greater  agitation  by  the  Reform  Bill  of  1831. 
Then  came  the  Oxford,  or  Tractarian,  movement,  in  1833.  In 
1837  commenced  the  long  and  happy  reign  of  Queen  Victoria. 
In  the  year  1830  the  Society  may  be  said  to  have  left  the 
period  of  infancy  behind,  and  to  have  entered  upon  its 
youthful  stage.  By  that  time  "  a  great  door  and 
effectual "  had  been  opened  to  the  labours  of  its  missionary 
servants,  in  spite  of  there  being  "  many  adversaries.'*  The 
enemies  of  truth  had  not  been  inactive,  as  they  never  are,  and 
many  hindrances  had  been  incurred.  Obstacles,  however,  are 
made  to  be  overcome  ;  and  with  all  its  difficulties,  the  Society 
had  much  to  induce  it  to  press  forward.  Whilst  Christians  at 
home  were  becoming  more  and  more  alive  to  their  obligations 
to  obey  the  Lord's  command,  and  to  follow  His  example  in 

144  HOME    PERSONNEL  [1830 

preaching  to  the  lost  sheep  of  the  house  of  Israel,  the  protection 
of  foreign  governments,  desirous  of  promoting  Christianity 
amongst  the  Jews,  afforded  real  and  peculiar  encouragement 

There  were  at  this  time  six  millions  of  Jews  in  the  world. 
The  Societ>'  had  found  them  in  great  ignorance  and  moral 
d^^dation,  the  result  of  long  ages  of  neglect,  scorn,  and 
persecution,  having  but  little  knowledge  of  the  Old  Testament, 
and  none  whatever  of  the  New.  During  the  tA)V'enty  years  of 
the  Society's  existence  there  had  been  a  great  increase  of 
Scriptural  knowledge  amongst  them. 

The  Society  had  been  the  means  of  introducing  even  the 
Old  Testament  into  a  great  many  Jewish  schools,  where  pre- 
viously only  the  Talmud  had  been  read.  Thousands  of  Jews 
had  heard  the  Gospel  for  the  first  time,  and  become  acquainted 
with  the  doctrines  of  Christianity.  A  spirit  of  enquiry  was 
widely  diffused,  and,  in  spite  of  opposition  and  disappoint- 
ments, many  of  the  children  of  Israel  had  been  turned  to  the 
Lord  their  God.  Small  Hebrew  Christian  congr^ations  were 
collecting  in  various  places — London,  Amsterdam,  Berlin  and 
Warsaw.  I  n  other  towns  there  were  smaller  parties  of  Christian 
believers,  several  of  whom  were  clergymen  and  missionaries, 
preaching  the  Gospel  to  their  brethren.  In  almost  every 
important  town  on  the  Continent  there  were  illustrations  of 
the  truth  of  the  Apostolic  declaration  "  at  this  present  time 
also,  there  is  a  remnant  according  to  the  election  of  grace." 

With  these  great  encouragements,  and  an  increase  of  ;^2,ooo 
in  the  Income  for  1830-31,  the  Society  pursued  its  way, 
strengthening  existing  work  where  experience  shewed  this 
could  be  done,  and  entering  upon  new  ground,  as  opportunities 
offered  and  means  allowed.  In  this  latter  respect  we  cannot 
forbear  quoting  a  laudable  decision  and  wise  resolution  of 
the  Committee,  which,  if  it  only  could  be  followed  in  the 
present  day,  would  obviate  many  an  anxious  care  on  the  part 
of  religious  bodies  : 

Not  to  conduct  the  financial  affiEiirs  of  your  Society  on  any  other  principle  than 
that  of  circumscribing  the  expenditure  of  each  month  by  the  sum  at  that  time 
actually  in  your  treasurer's  hands. 

In  the  month  of  January  1830,  a  new  magazine  of  eight 

i840]  TRUSTEES    AND    BANKERS  145 

pages  was  commenced,  entitled  Monthly  Intelligence^  for 
gratuitous  circulation,  which  was  changed  to  Jewish  Intelligence 
in  1835.  The  issue  of  The  Jewish  Expositor  was  continued 
by  a  separate  editor,  the  Rev.  Thomas  Boys,  tutor  at  the 
Seminary,  at  his  own  risk  and  responsibility,  but  only  till 
June  1 83 1,  when  it  ceased,  apparently  owing  to  lack  of 
funds.  Th^  Jewish  Records  also  were  continued  throughout 
the  Period. 

With  regard  to  the  personnel  of  the  Society  during  the 
same  time.  Lord  (formerly  Admiral)  de  Saumarez  became 
a  Vice-Patron  in  1832;  the  Marquis  of  Westminster  in 
1834,  and  Lord  Ashley,  afterward  seventh  Earl  of  Shaftes- 
bury, in  the  next  year.  On  the  death  in  1837  of  the  Bishop 
of  Salisbury  (Dr.  Burgess),  the  Bishop  of  Ripon  (Dr.  Longley), 
who  was  afterward  Bishop  of  Durham,  Archbishop  of  York 
and  of  Canterbury  successively,  became  Patron.  The  prominent 
new  lay  members  of  Committee  during  the  Period  were  Captain 
Bazalgette,  Captain  Hope,  C.B.,  Major  Sotheby,  W.  Wynne 
Willson,  J.  B.  Hyndman,  Colonel  Jourdan,  and  John  Spurling. 
Prominent  clerical  members  were  but  few,  the  Revs.  A. 
Brandram  (Secretary  to  the  British  and  Foreign  Bible 
Society),  and  J.  Pratt,  Junior,  only  needing  mention.  Sir 
George  Rose,  Sir  Robert  Inglis,  Thomas  Pell  Piatt,  and 
John  Labouchere  were  added  to  the  Trustees,  vice  Messrs. 
Thomas  Babington,  Basil  Woodd,  Simeon,  Hawtrey,  and 
King  deceased.  The  last  named  had  held  the  office  of 
chapel  warden  since  its  opening.  A.  Frampton,  M.D., 
became   Honorary   Physician   in    1831. 

In  the  same  year  John  Labouchere,  M.P.,  a  member  of 
the  firm  of  Williams  Deacon  and  Co.,  and  the  father  of  Mr. 
Henry  Labouchere,  the  well-known  proprietor  of  Truth,  was 
elected  Treasurer,  in  place  of  Sir  Robert  Inglis  who  resigned, 
and  was  appointed  a  Vice-President.  Originally  the  Society 
had  accounts  at  various  banks.  The  Report  for  18 14  gives  a 
list  of  nine  in  London  alone.  These  were  gradually  reduced 
to  two;  namely,  Smith,  Payne  and  Smiths  of  George  Street  and 
Hoares  of  Fleet  Street.  In  1 83 1  Williams  Deacon  and  Co.  were 
added.  The  next  year  Smith,  Payne  and  Smiths  were  given  u^, 


146  HOME    PERSONNEL  [1830 

and  for  many  years  accounts  were  kept  at  the  other  two  banks. 
In  1859  Williams  Deacon  &  Co.  became  the  sole  Bankers  of 
the  Society.    W.  Grane  became  Honorary  Solicitor  in  1833. 

During  the  eleven  years  under  review  some  of  the  fathers 
of  the  Society  fell  asleep.  In  183 1  a  twofold  loss  was  sus- 
tained by  the  death  of  two  most  devoted  supporters,  Basil 
Woodd,  and  Hawtrey.  The  former  was  incumbent  of  Bentinck 
Chapel,  Marylebone,  for  many  years,  and  then  rector  of 
Drayton-Beauchamp,  Bucks.  He  was  Honorary  Secretary 
from  181 5  to  1827,  and  in  1828  was  elected  one  of  the 
four  original  Life  Governors.  He  spoke  at  two  of  the  Society's 
Annual  Meetings,  in  181 5  and  in  18 17,  and  preached  one  of  the 
Anniversary  Sermons  in  the  latter  year.  He  was  thus  one 
of  the  very  early  friends  of  the  cause,  to  which  he  had  firmly 
adhered  in  its  most  depressed  condition  and  in  its  perplexing 
difficulties.  He  also  rendered  most  efficient  help  in  raising 
funds.  He  was  the  author  ol  Brief  Expositions  of  the  Church 
Catechism^  which  ran  through  46  editions,  and  a  Tractate  on 
Confirtnation^  which  reached  36  editions. 

His  former  colleague,  Charles  S.  Hawtrey,  previously  vicar 
of  Whitstone,  Monmouth,  followed  him  within  three  months, 
on  July  17th,  just  after  the  Anniversary  in  which  he  had  taken 
an  active  part.  He  was  closely  connected  with  the  Society  from 
1 8 14  to  1 831;  as  Honorary  Secretary  till  1824,  and  afterward 
till  his  death  as  salaried  Secretary,  and  Chaplain  during  the 
whole  period.  He  was  a  true  servant  of  God,  one  in  whose 
character  great  simplicity  and  energy  were  united,  and  his 
labours  in  the  Jewish  cause  were  most  abundant.  His  funeral 
sermon  was  preached  in  the  Episcopal  Chapel  by  Simeon, 
from  St.  John  xii.  26. 

Hawtrey  was  succeeded,  in  1832,  after  the  post  had  been 
offered  to  and  declined  by  the  Rev.  Dr.  Marsh,  by  the  Rev. 
J.  B.  Cartwright,  who  now  combined  the  duties  of  the 
chaplaincy  with  those  of  secretary.  In  the  same  year  the 
Rev.  W.  Curling  was  appointed  "Home  Secretary,"  and 
the  Rev.  Robert  Shaw  took  the  place  of  the  Rev.  T.  Mortimer, 
as  "Visitor  of  Associations."  He  was  succeeded  in  1836 
by   the    Rev.    John   Davis,  whose    exact  office   was  "  Cor- 


responding  and  Travelling  Home  Secretary."  Davis  was 
followed,  in  1837,  by  the  Rev.  James  Jubilee  Reynolds,  In 
1833  Joseph  Gibbs  Barker  retired  from  the  Lay  Secre- 
taryship, which  fell  into  abeyance  till  1849,  and  William 
Crickmer,  who  had  served  nine  years  as  a  clerk  in  the  office, 
was  appointed  Accountant. 

The  death  of  William  Wilberforce  in  1833,  at  the  age  of 
74,  was  a  universal  loss.  He  was  one  of  the  most  loving  and 
prominent  personages  of  his  day.  It  speaks  volumes  for  the 
character  of  the  Society's  work  that  it  could  command  from 
such  a  man,  affection,  patronage,  time,  and  advocacy,  all  of 
which  he  ungrudingly  bestowed  upon  it  from  its  foundation. 
He  spoke  no  less  than  eight  times  at  its  Annual  Meetings. 
He  had  what  his  detractors  called  a  "  religious  facetiousness," 
which  descended  in  a  double  portion  to  his  son  Samuel  ;  and, 
according  to  Sir  James  Stephen,  whose  father  was  one  of  the 
"Clapham  sect,"  Wilberforce  was  "the  Agamemnon  of  the 
host,"  and  "  the  very  sun  of  the  Claphamic  system," 

consuming  his  existence  in  labouring  for  the  Church,  for  the  State,  and  for 
mankind,  such  as  no  other  man  in  that  age,  and  such  as  no  private  man  of  any 
age  of  his  country's  annals,  had  at  once  the  genius  and  the  will  to  render.* 

By  the  death  in  1835  of  the  Rev.  Isaac  Saunders,  rector 
of  St.  Anne's,  Blackfriars,  was  lost  another  faithful  and 
affectionate  friend,  who  became  closely  attached  to  the  Society 
on  its  reconstruction,  and  gave  his  church  for  the  annual 
sermon  the  next  year,  and  on  two  subsequent  occasions.  He 
was  an  efficient  advocate  of  the  cause  in  many  different  parts 
of  the  country  in  the  days  when  the  Society  totally  depended 
upon  honorary  deputations. 

The  death  of  Charles  Simeon  on  November  13th,  1836,  at 
the  age  of  seventy  years,  was  a  great  and  irreparable  loss.  He 
had  watched  over  the  Society  with  fatherly  interest  almost 
from  its  very  commencement,  and  been  present  and  spoken 
at  every  Anniversary  from  181 3  to  1830,  except  that  of  1823. 
He  spoke  again  in  1832,  and  for  the  last  time  in  1835  ;  in  all, 
nineteen  times  !     Yet  such  was  his  humility,  that  on  the  last 

*  Essays  in  Ecclesiastical  Biography^  vol.  ii.  p.  194. 
L  2 

148  HOME    PERSONNEL  [1830 

occasion  he  said,  **  Though  I  have  studied  the  subject  of  the 
Jew'ish  question  for  many  years,  and  written  upon  it  not  a 
little,  I  have  never  understood  it  until  within  the  last  few 
months."  He  preached  one  of  the  Annual  Sermons  in  181 1, 
and  again  in  1 818.  It  does  not  come  within  our  province  to 
speak  of  his  wonderful  services  to  the  Church  at  lai^e,  as 
preacher,  divine,  author  and  founder  of  the  Simeon  Trust,  all 
of  which  services  can  never  be  foi^otten.  Dr.  Overton  says 
that  he  was  a  most  enthusiastic  Churchman,  and  had  a 
uniform  respect  for  Episcopal  authority.  Some  of  his  followers 
were  dissatisfied  with  his  strict  churchmanship,  and  it  was 
said  that  he  was  "  more  of  a  Churchman  than  a  Gospel-man'^  * 
His  friend,  Dr.  Dealtr>%  called  him  the  "Luther  of 
Cambridge ; "  and  Sir  James  Stephen,  "  St.  Charles  of 
Cambridge."  Lord  Macaulay  said  that  "  his  real  sway 
over  the  Church  was  far  greater  than  that  of  any  Primate."  t 
No  one  ever  felt  a  warmer  and  more  spiritual  concern  for  the 
welfare  of  the  Jewish  people,  or  took  a  more  prominent  part 
in  supporting  the  Society's  work.  The  ver>'  frequent  mention 
of  it  in  his  correspondence,  from  181 3  to  1836,  shews  how 
greatly  it  entered  into  his  labours.  To  the  Society,  said  Bishop 
Wilson  of  Calcutta,  in  his  Recollections  of  Simeon,  he  was 
"  pre-eminently  attached.  In  truth,  he  was  almost  from  the 
commencement  the  chief  stay  of  that  great  cause."*  Bishop 
Moule  says  in  his  monograph  that  "  the  conversion  of  the 
Jews  was  perhaps  the  warmest  interest  of  his  life."§  The 
great  weight  of  his  name,  and  his  zealous  and  able  advocacy, 
at  all  times  freely  given,  advanced  the  cause  in  these  early  days 
beyond  expression.  At  the  laying  of  the  foundation  stone  of 
the  Episcopal  Jews*  Chapel,  in  1813,  he  gave  a  donation  of 
two  hundred  guineas.  His  liberality  indeed  was  munificent 
and  princely,  on  one  occasion  to  the  extent  of  ;£^  1,000.     He 

*  Recollections  of  the  Coni'ersation  Parties  of  the  Rez\  C.  Simeon^  by  Abner  \V. 
Brown,  Introduction,  p.  ii. 

+  Trc\'el>-an,  Life  of  Lord  McLcaulayy  vol.  i.  p.  67. 
X  Cams,  Life  of  Simeon,  p.  844. 
§  Charles  Simeon,  p.  122. 

1840]  CHARLES    SIMEON  149 

also  contributed  to  the  temporal  necessities  of  enquiring  and 
Christian  Israelites,  and  was  a  warm  supporter  of  the  Operative 
Jewish  Converts*  Institution.  In  all  the  difficulties  of  the 
Society  he  continued  its  warm  and  indefatigable  friend  ;  he 
helped  to  raise  it,  as  we  have  seen,  from  the  "  Slough  of  Des- 
pond" into  which  it  fell  in  its  unsectarian  period;  and,  in  181 5, 
when  its  management  was  vested  altogether  in  the  hands  of 
members  of  the  Church  of  England,  he  became  one  of  its  most 
zealous  and  laborious  champions.  He  ungrudgingly  gave  his 
services  as  travelling  deputation  here,  there,  and  everywhere. 
No  obstacles  deterred  him,  no  difficulties  frightened  him,  no 
disappointments  cooled  his  ardour,  because  he  firmly  believed 
the  cause  was  God's,  and  that  His  commands  ordered 
it,  and  His  blessing  rested  upon  it  and  sanctified  it.  He 
often  contributed  to  the  pages  of  the  Jewish  Expositor^ 
frequently  preached  to  Jews  in  London,  and  was  assiduous 
in  his  attendance  at  Committee.  As  a  Fellow  of  King's 
College,  Cambridge,  and  vicar  of  Holy  Trinity  Church, 
he  occupied  a  great  position,  and  used  his  influence  to 
induce  the  younger  members  of  the  University  to  study  the 
Jewish  question,  their  growing  interest  in  which  gave  him 
inexpressible  satisfaction.  He  addressed  a  large  assembly 
of  undergraduates  in  1834,  and  spoke  of  the  connexion  of  the 
future  of  Israel  with  the  glory  of  God.  One  of  his  very  last 
acts  was  to  send  a  message  to  them,  taken  down  from  his 
dying  lips,  urging  them  to  continued  and  increased  exertion  in 
the  cause.*  "  As  a  man  and  a  Christian,"  said  Bishop  Wilson, 
"  he  eminently  lived  to  the  glory,  and  died  in  the  peace  of 
Christ  his  Lord."  "  Perhaps  the  English  Church,"  says  Bishop 
Moule,  "  never  had  a  more  loving  and  devoted  son  and 
servant."  t  The  fact  that  he  remained  a  bachelor  doubtless 
tended  to  his  great  usefulness  amongst  Cambridge  men. 
"  I  have  felt  it,"  he  said  to  Robert  Noble  the  C.M.S.  mission- 
ary, who  eschewed  marriage  after  his  example,  "a  great 
sacrifice,  but  I   have  never  regretted  it ;  and  if,  to  be  more 

•  Jewish  Intelligence i  1836,  p.  309. 

t  Charles  Sinuon^  p.  107.     See  also  Balleine,  History  of  the  Evangelical  Party  ^ 
pp.  128-131. 

150  HOME    PERSONNEL  [1830 

useful  as  a  missionary,  you  determine  on  a  life  of  celibacy, 
God  can  and  will  support  you,  and  you  will  be  blessed  in 
the  deed."     Thus  it  had  been  with  Simeon. 

One  more  death,  even  more  disastrous  to  the  Society  than 
that    of    Simeon    has    to    be   recorded   within    the   Period, 
namely  that   of  the  Rev.    Lewis  Way,  which   occurred   on 
January  23rd,    1840.     He  was  the   best  earthly  friend,  out 
of  many  good  friends,  whom  Almighty  God  has  vouchsafed 
to  the  Society  during  its  hundred  years.     One  cannot  doubt 
that    he   was   a   special   deliverer   raised  up  to  extricate  it 
from   an   unsatisfactory  impasse^  and  to  establish  it  upon  a 
sound    and    permanent   basis.      Through   him    the    Jewish 
missionary  cause  was  confided  to  members  of  the  Church  of 
England.      By  his    means    the    Bishops    of   Salisbury,   and" 
Lichfield  and  Coventry,  accepted  the  office  of  Patrons.  At  his 
summons  it  was  that  Sir  Thomas  Baring  came  forward,  in  a 
time  of  peril  and  difficulty,  to  place  himself  at  the  helm.     The 
Society's  chapel  and  schools  were,  as  long  as  they  stood,  a 
monument   of  his   liberality.     He  was   the  honoured  agent 
in   opening   the   heart  of  the   Emperor  of  Russia  to  regard 
with  favour  the  aims  of  the  Society,  and   in  directing  to  it 
the  attention  of  Chevalier  Bunsen,  who  subsequently  moved 
the    King    of    Prussia    to    countenance    its   efforts   and  to 
establish  a  kindred  Society  in  his  dominions.   Way's  personal 
labours,  as  we  have  already  seen,  prepared  the  field  in  Holland, 
Prussia,  Poland,  France,  Italy,  and  Palestine,  and  those  who 
followed  him  bore  testimony  to  the  impression  which  his  love, 
liberality,  and  faith,  had  made  upon  the  Jewish  mind.    He  was 
the  firsr  in  modem  times  to  convince  the  Jews  that  a  Christian 
can   really   love   them.     By   him  also  the   attention   of  the 
assembled  Sovereigns  at  Aix-la-Chapelle  was  directed  to  the 
state  of  the  Jewish  people,  and  in  consequence  of  his  represen- 
tations  a  protocol   was   then   agreed   to   by  their  Ministers, 
promising   a   further  consideration   of  their  condition.     His 
journeys  and  labours  throughout  England  and  Ireland  were 
most  extensive,  and  it  is  not  too  much  to  say  that  through 
them  the  first  great  impulse  was  given  to  the  Jewish  missionary 
cause.     At  his  own  expense  he  collected  the  Society's  library 

The   Rev.  Lewis  Way. 

1S40J  LEiVIS    fVAY  161 

of  Hebrew  and  Rabbinical  literature.  In  a  word,  God  raised 
him  up  for  this  great  work,  and  furnished  him  with  all 
the  talents  which  it  required — learning,  genius,  wealth,  fervent 
piety,  and  a  heart  overflowing  with  love  for  His  ancient 

The  providential  circumstances  under  which  Lewis  Way 
was  led  to  take  an  interest  in  the  Society  were  of  a  strange  and 
romantic  character,  and  the  following  account  of  them  was 
furnished  by  a  member  of  his  family.  Two  friends,  himself  and 
another,  were  riding  one  day,  in  the  winter  of  181 1,  from 
Exmouth  to  Exeter,  when  their  attention  was  called  to  a  group 
of  oaks.  They  were  told  that  a  Miss  Jane  Parminter,  who 
had  lately  died,  was  so  deeply  interested  in  the  welfare  of  the 
Jews  that  she  left  a  clause  in  her  will  that  those  trees  should 
not  be  cut  down  until  the  Jews  had  returned  to  their  own 
land.  This  striking  story  about  the  "  Oaks  of  k  la  Ronde,"  as 
they  were  called,  so  impressed  Way,  that  an  interest  and 
spiritual  concern  for  the  salvation  of  Israel  at  once  sprang  up 
in  his  heart.  He  made  enquiries  whether  any  Christians  had 
ever  done  anything  in  this  direction,  heard  of  the  London 
Jews*  Society,  which  was  then  struggling  along,  and  at  once 
came  to  its  rescue  in  the  princely  way  already  recorded. 

The  fact,  which  transpired  many  years  later,*  that  no  such 
clause  as  that  to  which  Way's  notice  was  called  existed  in 
Jane  Parminter's  will,  does  not  invalidate  the  other  fact,  that 
his  love  for  the  Jews  was  the  result  of  what  he  heard,  even 
though  it  was  but  a  pious  fiction. 

His  death  very  naturally  formed  a  leading  topic  at  the 
next  annual  meeting,  when  Dr.  Marsh  spoke  of  the  bril- 
liancy of  his  imagination,  the  soundness  of  his  learning,  his 
retentive  memory,  his  sincerity  in  religion,  the  fervency  of 
his  zeal  in  this  particular  cause,  and  his  general  benevolence. 

Elliott,  of  Brighton,  said  that  Way,  "  with  the  Rev.  Charles 
Simeon,  was  the  greatest  friend  the  Society  had  ever  had." 

This  Period  was  signalized  by  great  literary  activity.  In 
1830  the  translation  of  the  Old  Testament  into  Judaeo-Polish 

*  See  page  416. 

162  HOME    PERSONNEL  [1830 

was  completed.  It  had  been  commenced  in  Warsaw  by 
McCaul,  who  was  assisted  by  missionaries  and  converts.* 

In  September  1838,  a  revised  edition  of  the  New  Testament 
in  Hebrew,  undertaken  by  the  Society's  missionaries,  McCaul, 
Reichardt,  and  Alexander,  assisted  by  Hoga,  saw  the  light. 
The  profound  learning  and  scholarship  of  the  translators,  their 
vast  experience  and  close  acquaintance  with  Jewish  modes 
of  thought,  life,  and  ways,  rendered  them  the  most  fitting  men 
that  could  have  been  found  for  such  a  work.  It  is  no  wonder 
that  it  has  maintained  its  position  ever  since  that  time,  and 
even  now,  notwithstanding  the  subsequent  issue  of  Delitzsch's 
and  Salkinson's  versions,  the  Society's  New  Testament  is  still 
recognized  by  competent  Hebrew  scholars,  both  Jewish  and 
Gentile,  as  a  splendid  production.  Jews  often  pay  it  the 
tribute  of  saying,  "  It  is  beautiful ! "  no  doubt  referring  to  the 
pure  and  classical  Hebrew  in  which  it  is  composed.  The 
first  issue  was  in  octavo  size.  A  smaller  and  more  handy 
pocket  edition,  32mo.,  was  published  in  1840,  and  a  i2mo. 
edition  in  1852,  through  the  munificence  of  Miss  Jane 
Cook.  A  Syriac  New  Testament  in  Hebrew  characters  was 
completed  in  1837. 

Another  most  important  event  was  the  publication,  in  1837, 
by  the  Society,  of  the  Liturgy  of  the  Church  of  England  in 
Hebrew,  a  copy  of  which  was  presented  to  each  of  the  Arch- 
bishops and  Bishops  of  the  United  Kingdom,  as  well  as  to  other 
learned  divines  and  scholars,  from  whom  were  received  many 
important  testimonies  to  the  accuracy  of  the  translation. 
Missionaries  of  the  Society,  too,  have  testified  again  and  again 
to  the  extreme  usefulness  of  this  Hebrew  version  of  our  Prayer 
Book,  which  has  enabled  services  to  be  held  in  that  language 
in  the  Society's  churches  in  London  and  Jerusalem,  and  has 
been  a  standing  witness  to  the  Jew  of  the  simplicity,  the 
purity,  and  the  Scriptural  character  of  Divine  worship  according 
to  the  rites  of  that  Church  of  which  the  Society's  missionaries 
are  ministers.  This  is  no  small  matter  with  a  people  who 
are  greatly  averse  to  anything  which  savours,  however  slightly, 

*  See  page  99. 

x840]  ENGLISH   UTURGY   IN   HEBREW  163 

of  idolatry.  The  Prayer  Book  of  our  Church  commends 
Christianity,  from  which  they  have  been  repulsed  by  the 
superstitions  of  other  Churches,  as  was  said  at  the  time  of 
publication  : 

Its  deep  and  tender  devotion,  the  evangelical  simplicity  of  its  ritual  will  form  in 
the  mind  of  the  Jew  an  inviting  contrast  to  the  idolatry  and  superstition  of  the 
Latin  and  Eastern  Churches;  its  enlarged  charity  will  affect  his  heart,  and  its 
Scriptural  character  demand  his  homage.  It  is  surely  a  high  privilege  reserved 
to  our  Church  and  nation  to  plant  the  Cross  on  the  Holy  Hill  of  Zion  ;  to  carry 
back  the  faith  we  once  received  by  the  Apostles ;  and  uniting,  as  it  were,  the 
history,  the  labours,  and  the  blood  of  the  primitive  and  Protestant  martyrs  "  to 
light  such  a  candle  in  Jerusalem  as  by  God's  blessing  shall  never  be  put  out."  * 

Apart  from  its  public  use,  moreover,  it  has  been  a  guide  to 
private  devotion.  Accustomed  to  a  form  of  prayer  all  their 
lives,  Jews  need  a  substitute  when  they  become  Christians,  and 
this  the  Prayer-Book  offers  them. 

Fortified  by  the  appearance  of  the  Hebrew  Liturgy,  the 
Committee  said : 

They  hope  to  see  an  effective  Church  of  England  Mission,  and  to  have  a 
regular  Hebrew  Service,  under  the  sanction  of  Episcopal  authority,  established 
in  the  most  important  stations,  t 

And  two  years  later,  in  1839  : 

It  has  been  the  desire  of  your  Committee,  and  is  siill  their  persevering 
endeavour,  to  carry  out  their  designs  and  to  establish  their  missions  as  much  as 
possible  in  strict  subordination  to  the  doctrine  and  discipline  of  the  Church  to 
which  they  belong.  As  ministers  or  members  of  that  Church,  your  missionaries, 
whilst  they  abstain  from  all  interference  with  foreign  churches,  incur  less  danger 
of  being  mixed  up  in  the  disputes  which  agitate  them.  The  ministrations  and 
liturgy  of  our  Church  are  peculiarly  suited  to  the  mind  and  habits  of  the  Jews  ; 
and  the  establishment  of  a  regular  Hebrew  Service,  first  in  your  Episcopal 
Chapel  in  London,  subsequently  at  Liverpool,  and  more  recently  at  Jerusalem, 
has  led  your  Committee  to  anticipate  the  period  when  it  can  be  introduced  at  all 
your  chief  missionary  stations.  % 

To  this  end,  and  the  obtaining  of  necessary  missionaries, 
they  reopened  the  Seminary  in  London  in  1 840.  An  account 
of  this  institution  is  reserved  for  Chapter  XXIII. 

"^Quarterly  Review^  January  1839. 
t  Twenty-ninth  Report,  (1837),  p.  62. 
X  Thirty- first  Report  (1839),  p.  38. 

154  HOME    PERSONNEL  [1830 

The  eleven  Anniversary  Sermons  during  this  Period  (1830 
1840)  were  preached  by  the  following  friends  of  Israel:  George 
Hodson  and  J.  Haldane  Stewart,  in  St.  Paul's,  Covent  Garden  ; 
by  William  Jowett,  Fellow  of  St.  John's  College,  Cambridge, 
Alexander  McCaul  and  Edward  Bickersteth,  in  St.  Clement 
Dane^s ;  and  by  Francis  Goode  (afterward  Dean  of  Chichester), 
Hugh  Stowell,  James  Scholefield,  incumbent  of  St  Michael's, 
Cambridge,  and  Professor  of  Greek  in  the  University,  W.  W. 
Pym,  rector  of  Willian,  Dr.  Thomas  Tattershall,  incumbent  of 
St.  Augustine's,  Liverpool,  and  the  Rev.  Henry  Venn  Elliott, 
incumbent  of  St.  Mary's  Chapel,  Brighton,  and  a  former  curate 
of  Simeon's,  in  the  Episcopal  Jews'  Chapel,  Palestine  Place. 

The  Annual  Meetings  were  held  as  follows  :  in  1830,  in  Free- 
masons' Hall,  presided  over  by  Sir  Thomas  Baring;  from  1831 
to  1839  in  Exeter  Hall,  presided  over  by  Sir  Thomas  Baring 
in  1 83 1,  1832,  1834-7,  1839  and  1840  ;  in  1833,  by  the  Bishop 
of  Lichfield  and  Coventry ;  and  in  1838  by  Sir  George  Rose. 

Exeter  Hall,  which  was  destined  to  become  so  famous  for 
religious  orator>',  and  to  be  "  the  ark  and  sanctuary  of  the 
Evangelical  party,"*  was  opened  on  March  29th,  183 1,  and 
from  that  date  until  1907,  inclusive,  the  Society's  Annual 
Meeting  was  held  there,  that  is,  yj  times  in  all.  Mr.  Stock 
tells  the  story  of  the  acquisition  of  this  historic  hall  for  a 
meeting-place  for  religious  and  philanthropic  Societies,  f 

The  following  well-known  Evangelical  leaders  and  others 
were  among  the  speakers  during  the  eleven  years  under 
review  :  Edward  Bickersteth,  rector  of  Watton  (seven  times); 
William  Marsh,  and  Hugh  Stowell  (six  times) ;  J.  Haldane 
Stewart  (five  times) ;  Sir  G.  H.  Rose,  J.  VV.  Cunningham,  rector 
of  Harrow,  and  Thomas  Grimshawe  (four  times)  ;  the  Bishop 
of  Lichfield  and  Coventry,  and  Charles  Simeon  (three  times) ; 
the  Patron  (Bishop  of  Ripon),  Lord  Ashley  (afterward  Earl 
of  Shaftesbury),  Lord  Bexley,  Lord  Mount-Sandford,  Francis 
Cunningham,  rector  of  Lowestoft,  C.  J.  Hoare,  Archdeacon 
of  Surrey  and  rector  of  Godstone,  John  Labouchere  and  J.  P. 

♦  A  Pocketful  of  Sixpences,  by  G.  W.  E.  Russell,  p.  148. 
t  History  of  the  C.  M,  5.,  vol.  i.  p.  277. 

1840]  EXETER    HALL  155 

Plumptre,M.P. (twice).  The  following  spoke  once  in  this  Period : 
Chevalier  Bunsen,  late  Prussian  Ambassador  at  Rome,  the 
Bishops  of  Ohio  and  Vermont,  the  Hon.  and  Rev.  H.  D. 
Erskine,  vicar  of  St.  Martin's,  Leicester,  the  Dean  of  Ardagh, 
Daniel  Wilson,  the  younger,  vicar  of  Islington,  Henry 
Drummond,  Dr.  I.  H.  Merle  D*xA.ubign6,  the  historian  of  the 
Reformation,  Samuel  Gobat,  C.M.S.  missionary  in  Abys- 
sinia, Gerard  Noel,  W.  Jowett,  C.  J.  Goodhart,  then  minister 
of  St  Mary's  Episcopal  Chapel,  Reading,  W.  W.  Pym,  H.  V. 
Elliott,  of  Brighton,  Major-General  Latter,  Assaad  Yakoob, 
a  native  of  Syria,  and  Professor  Tholuck,  of  Berlin.  The 
following  missionaries  of  the  Society  also  spoke,  Alexander 
(four  times),  Joseph  Wolff  (twice),  Ayerst,  McCaul,  Nicolayson 
and  Thelwall. 

The  first  mention  of  a  Public  Breakfast  of  the  friends  of 
the  Jewish  cause  occurs  in  the  Jewish  Intelligence  for  April 
1835,  to  be  held  in  Exeter  Hall  on  the  morning  of  the 
Annual  Meeting.  But  as  this  notice  says  "as  usual,"  it  is 
quite  clear  that  it  was  not  the  first  occasion  of  such  a 

It  was  not  till  1835  that  the  speeches  at  the  Annual 
Meeting  were  reported  verbatim;  and  therefore  we  cannot 
compare  one  year's  utterances  with  another.  Those  in  the 
year  in  question  were  extremely  interesting,  not  to  say 
diverting,  owing  to  Wolff's  entrancing  personality. 

Here  we  must  pause  to  give  an  explanation  about  this 
remarkable  man.  He  was  no  longer  in  the  service  of  the 
Society,  not  being  able  to  fetter  himself  by  regulations  in  any 
way,  or  to  consider  himself  as  a  man  under  authority.  The 
circumstances  which  led  to  his  severance  from  the  Society  are 
forcibly  indicative  of  his  eccentric  and  independent  character. 
Owing  to  some  extraordinary  public  letters  which  he  wrote  to 
the  Jews  from  Jerusalem  and  Cyprus,  one  of  which  appeared 
in  the  London  iJ/(7;'«/;/^ //^r^^  of  September  sth,  1829,  he 
was  recalled  home,  in  order  that  he  might  render  a  personal 
explanation  to  the  Committee.  This  he  declined  to  give, 
and  severed  himself  from  the  Society  in  terms  of  Christian 
friendship,  grateful  for  the   benefits  he  had    received.      The 

156  HOME    PERSONNEL  [1830 

Committee   on    January    26th,    1831,   passed   the  following 
resolution : 

This  Committee  receive  with  much  regret  the  intimation  that  the  Rev.  Joseph 
Wolff  feels  himself  no  longer  able  conscientiously  to  act  in  connexion  with  this 
Society.  No  expressions  contained  in  their  instructions  to  the  missionaries  are 
intended  to  discourage  the  study  of  'prophecy,  or  the  proclamation  of  its  anti- 
cipated glorious  fulfilment  ;  they  are  intended  as  cautions  only  against  giving 
one  part  of  Scripture  a  prominence  above  others.  The  Committee  would  here 
record  their  sense  of  the  great  services  rendered  by  Mr.  Wolff  in  the  propagation 
of  the  knowledge  of  Christ  among  various  nations,  and  especially  among  his 
brethren  after  the  flesh ;  and  while  this  Committee  are  unable  any  longer  to  guide 
or  assist  Mr.  Wolff  in  his  joumeyings,  they  would  wish  him  God-speed,  and  trust 
that  he  may  be  mercifully  preserved  from  all  perils  and  dangers  in  the  course  of 
his  projected  long  journey,  and  be  enabled  successfully  to  preach  the  unsearch- 
able riches  of  Christ  among  the  tribes  he  is  about  to  visit. 

These  prayers  had  been  answered,  for  Wolff  had  just 
returned  to  England  after  eight  years*  absence  in  many 
Eastern  lands,  namely:  in  Palestine,  Egypt,  Cyprus,  Turkey, 
Greece,  Armenia,  Persia,  Turkestan,  Bokhara,  Balkh,  Cabool, 
Hindostan  and  Cashmere.  At  one  time  he  had  "  sighed  in 
imprisonment  and  slavery  "  at  Bokhara.*  Amongst  the  many 
touches  of  humour  in  his  speech  he  related  how  that  when  at 
Bustan  one  of  the  sons  of  the  King  asked  him  to  give  him 
a  paper  on  the  King  of  England  for  ;£"  10,000  a  year  :  Wolff 
told  him  he  could  very  easily  give  him  the  paper,  but  he 
doubted  whether  His  Majesty  would  honour  it !  Wolff  inter- 
rupted his  speech  to  sing  to  the  meeting  a  Jewish  chant  which 
he  had  heard  at  Jerusalem. 

A  minute  of  Committee  of  March  24th,  1835,  indicative  of 
a  change  in  the  manners  and  customs  of  the  day,  and  in  the 
ideas  of  conducting  the  meeting,  says  : 

The  Committee  consider  it  inexpedient  that  wine  should  be  used  at  the 
Anniversary  meeting,  and  therefore  it  be  not  procured  at  the  next  meeting. 

Wolff  spoke  again  in  1838,  giving  an  account  of  his  travels 
in  Egypt,  Arabia,  Abyssinia,  India,  St.  Helena  and  America. 
By  a  happy  circumstance,  he  met  two  old  friends  on  the 
platform  :  Gobat,  with  whom  he  had  stayed  in  Abyssinia,  and 
Assaad  Yakoob,  whom  he  had  seen  in  Syria.     Gobat  made 

*  See  page  198. 

1840]  MEMORABLE    SPEECHES  167 

a  short  speech  commending  the  case  of  the  Abyssinian  Jews 
to  the  Society,  but  the  time  was  not  yet  ripe  for  com- 
mencing work  in  that  country. 

The  year  1839,  the  last  but  one  of  this  Period,  was  rather  a 
memorable  one  for  its  speeches  ;  the  Patron  of  the  Society,  the 
Bishop  of  Ripon,  spoke  most  encouraging  words  ;  Lord  Ashley 
followed,  speaking  of  the  great  blessing  that  was  to  be  granted 
to  England  in  being  permitted  to  erect  a  church  in  Jerusalem 
for  "  the  true  worship  of  the  Saviour  who  was  there  crucified." 
The  Bishop  of  Vermont  spoke  of  "Happy  England  which 
first  held  out  the  right  hand  of  fellowship  to  the  Jew,  and  first 
strove  to  give  back  the  oracles  of  God  to  His  ancient  people;" 
and  concluded,  "Happy,  happy  England,  ' Esto perpetual* 
Chevalier  Bunsen  spoke  of  thousands  of  converts  in  his  own 
countr}",  and  a  general  movement  of  enquiry  amongst  the 
Jews  of  Germany  and  Poland.  The  Rev.  C.  J.  Goodhart 
made  his  "maiden"  speech  for  the  Society  in  Exeter  Hall,  and 
Sir  George  Rose,  as  an  old  officer  of  the  Society  and  one 
who  had  shared  in  its  labours  for  twenty-two  years,  bore 
testimony  to  its  progress  and  hopeful  prospects,  and  advocated 
the  claims  of  a  special  Fund  for  Temporal  Relief,  which  was 
inaugurated  on  that  day. 

Mr.  Stock  says  that  the  meetings  of  our  Society  "  were  for 
many  years  perhaps  the  most  popular  of  all ;  the  meetings 
being  always  densely  crowded  and  the  greatest  interest  taken 
in  the  Hebrew  school-children  who  sang  on  these  occasions."  * 

*  History  of  the  C.M,S.,  vol.  i.  p.  153. 



Systenuitlc  work  In  London— J.  C.  Relchardt— Michael  Solomon  Alexander— 
MlMhm  Hoose  opened— Aldermanbury  Conferences— ^iV  Paths  and  Dr.  McCanl— 
Aaron  Saul— Servlcea  In  Hebrew  establlehed— Baptisms  and  results— Jews  In 
tbe  Provinces— Liverpool  as  a  station— H.  S.  Joseph— J.  Q.  Lazarus. 

WE  must  now  turn  to  the  Society's  missionary  work 
at  home  during  this  Period.  Systematic  and 
r^^lar  missionary  efforts  amongst  the  Jews  of 
London  may  be  said  to  have  been  inaugurated  in  1829,  by 
the  Rev.  J.  C.  Reichardt.  Previously  to  his  appointment  the 
work  was  carried  on  in  a  quiet  but  effectual  manner,  as  we 
have  seen,  in  the  mission  chapel  and  schools,  and  by 
distribution  of  publications. 

Now  a  new  impetus  was  to  be  given.  Hitherto  the  contest  had  been,  as  it  were, 
at  long  range,  now  they  were  to  come  to  close  quarters  ;  hitherto  the  Gospel  had 
been  offered^  now  its  blessed  offers  were  to  ht  pressed  even  upon  the  unwilling  and 
reluctant.  * 

Reichardt  set  about  visiting  the  Jews  of  London  and 
other  large  towns,  and  gave  lectures  to  Jews  in  a  room  in 
Petticoat  Lane.  He  was  joined  in  1830  by  the  Rev.  Michael 
Solomon  Alexander,  Professor  of  Hebrew  at  King's  Collie, 
London,  afterward  the  first  Anglican  Bishop  in  Jerusalem,  the 
story  of  whose  conversion  is  related  on  page  208.  The  latter 
lectured  in  Palestine  Place  to  Jews,  who  attended  in  large 
numbers,  as  many  as  fifty  sometimes  remaining  for  the  "after 
meeting."  A  year  later,  in  1831,  when  Reichardt  was  appointed 
head  of  the  Operative  Jewish  Converts'  Institution,  which 
almost  owed  its  existence  to  his  untiring  efforts,  and  which  was 
removed  to  14,  Palestine  Place,  in  1833,  Alexander  succeeded 
to  the  charge  of  the  mission.  One  of  his  first  acts  was  to  open  a 

*  Halsted,  Oiir  Alissiofis^  p.  66. 

1830-40]  INFLUENCE    OF    McCAUL  159 

mission  house  in  Palestine  Place.  The  next  year,  1832, 
was  chiefly  notable  for  the  establishment  of  Saturday  Evening 
Conferences  with  Jews,  held  regularly  in  Aldermanbur>'.  The 
subjects  discussed  by  Christians  and  Jews  were  the 
Messiah,  His  Godhead,  character,  genealogy,  sufferings,  resur- 
rection and  ascension,  and  the  authenticity  and  genuineness 
of  the  New  Testament.  These  Conferences,  which  were  con- 
tinued till  1836,  were  of  signal  service  in  pressing  the  claims 
of  Christianity ;  and  the  addresses  given  at  them  formed  the 
basis  of  Dr.  McCauFs  famous  and  incomparable  Old  Paths, 

No  one  ever  rendered  higher  services  to  the  Society  than 
McCaul,  who  was  successful  as  missionary,  as  Principal  of  the 
Collie,  and  as  a  tract  writer.  His  name  looms  very  large  in 
the  history  of  the  Society.  Of  all  the  men  who  have,  at 
different  times,  left  their  mark  upon  it,  McCaul  stands  in  the 
very  foremost  rank.  Indeed,  he  stands  alone,  or  almost  alone. 
The  only  two  other  men  who  exercised  an  influence  at  all 
approaching  his  in  power,  and  that  in  a  different  capacity, 
were  Lewis  Way,  whose  insight  and  munificence  reformed 
the  Society  in  its  infancy,  and  Charles  Simeon,  who  so 
greatly  aided  him  at  that  juncture.  Each  of  these  three 
fathers  of  the  Society  magnified  his  office  and  made  it  honour- 
able ;  each  exerted  a  magic  influence  in  favour  of  Jewish 
Missions  over  all  with  whom  he  came  into  contact,  and  each, 
in  his  day  and  generation,  was  looked  upon  as  the  recognized 
leader,  we  had  almost  said,  the  actual  embodiment,  of  the 
Society  itself. 

McCaul,  a  distinguished  alumnus  of  Dublin  University, 
was  attracted  to  the  cause  by  Lewis  Way.  From  1821  to  183 1 
he  held  the  post  of  missionary  at  Warsaw,  where  he  acquired 
a  thorough  knowledge  of  Hebrew  and  the  Jewish  controversy. 
On  his  transference  to  the  London  mission  he  used  the  know- 
ledge thus  acquired  in  taking  part,  as  already  stated,  in  the 
revision  of  the  Hebrew  New  Testament  and  in  the  preparation 
of  tracts.  The  Old  Paths  "^^s  originally  issued  in  sixty  weekly 
numbers.  They  touch  upon  almost  every  phase  of  Orthodox 
Jewish  creed  and  practice,  and  have  proved  to  be  a  powerful 
onslaught   on   rabbinism.     They  are  learned,  eloquent,  and 

160  AGGRESSIVE    ERA    IN   HOME    MISSIONS  [1830 

forcible,   and  have   been   a  great   missionary  power  in  the 
evangelization  of  the  Jews. 

With  McCaul  at  the  College,  Reichardt  at  the  Operative 
Jewish  Converts'  Institution,  Cartwright  as  Chaplain,  and 
Alexander  as  head  of  the  mission,  the  Society  was  indeed 
well  manned  in  London.  Never  since  that  day  has  the  Society 
had,  in  one  mission  and  at  one  and  the  same  time,  such  a 
brilliant  missionary  quartette,  conspicuous  alike  for  piety, 
learning  and  ability.  And  yet  the  London  mission,  throughout 
its  career,  has  had  the  benefit  of  most  able  and  capable  men. 

In  1835  there  was  established  "The  Episcopal  Jews*  Chapel 
Abrahamic  Society,"  for  visiting  and  relieving  Jewish  converts 
and  enquirers. 

December  i8th,  1836,  was  an  important  day,  when  two 
converts  were  admitted  to  the  priesthood,  the  Rev.  F.  C.  Ewald 
by  the  Bishop  of  London,  and  the  Rev.  H.  S.  Joseph,  subse- 
quently missionary  at  Liverpool,  by  the  Bishop  of  Chester. 

In  1837  a  mission  house  was 'opened  in  New  Street,  City, 
in  close  proximity  to  the  Jewish  quarter.  This  served  the 
double  purpose  of  a  depository  for  missionary  publications,  and 
a  resort  for  Jews  desiring  conversation  with  the  missionar}-. 
Aaron  Saul,  a  convert,  was  in  daily  attendance.  As  a  proof 
of  the  need  which  had  thus  been  met,  it  may  be  stated 
that  as  many  as  10,000  copies  of  single  numbers  of  the  Old 
Paths  were  disposed  of  in  the  very  first  year.  This  fact  shews 
that  a  great  many  Jews  came  into  contact  with  Christianity 
and  its  claims.  The  Home  mission  may  be  said  now  to  have 
firmly  established  its  position  in  the  ^y^s  of  the  Jews ;  an 
important  success,  rendered  doubly  important  from  the  fact 
that  an  agitation  for  reform  in  synagogue  worship  was  just 
then  splitting  the  Jewish  community  in  twain.  The  Talmud 
had  been  dethroned  from  its  high  pedestal,  and  numbers  no 
longer  regarded  it  as  the  authority.  It  was  claimed  for  the 
Society  that  its  activity  had  had  much  to  do  with  these  dis- 
sensions amongst  the  Jews,  who  had  been  taught  by  it  that 
they  must  go  to  the  Holy  Scriptures  if  they  desired  to 
ascertain  the  truth. 

After  the  lapse  of  centuries  Christian  worship  was  again 


held  in  the  sacred  Hebrew  tongue,  by  the  establishment,  on 
February  5th,  1837,  of  a  regular  Hebrew  Service  in  Palestine 
Place  on  Sunday  afternoon.  The  prayers  were  read  on  that 
day  by  McCaul,  and  the  sermon  preached  by  Alexander 
from  Romans  xi.  14.  Hebrew  Christians  joined  with  Gentile 
Christians  in  worshipping  the  Redeemer  of  Israel  in  the 
language  of  their  forefathers. 

By  the  end  of  this  year,  246  Jews  had  been  baptized  in  the 
Society's  church.  The  results  of  the  London  work  were,  on 
the  whole,  very  encouraging;  the  weekly  Hebrew  service, 
besides  being  increasingly  attended  by  Jewish  Christians,  drew 
a  small  congregation  of  resident  Jews,  and  also  formed  a 
point  of  attraction  for  foreign  Jews  visiting  the  country. 

There  were  now  in  England  about  30,000  Jews,  of  whom 
nearly  two-thirds  resided  in  London,  and  the  rest  in  the  Pro- 
vinces, but  it  was  some  years  before  the  Society  opened  any 
mission  stations  away  from  the  metropolis,  restricting  its  work 
to  occasional  visits  of  missionaries.  Thus,  we  find  J.  C. 
Reichardt  spending  four  months  of  1830  in  Birmingham, 
Manchester,  and  Liverpool ;  and  in  the  same  year  Alexander 
visited  Plymouth,  Bristol,  and  other  places,  in  order  to 
work  amongst  the  Jews. 

The  importance  of  Liverpool  as  a  Jewish  missionary  centre 
marked  it  out  as  the  first  station  to  be  occupied  in  the  Pro- 
vinces, in  1838.  It  had  then  a  Jewish  population  of  two  or 
three  thousand.  The  work  was  entrusted  to  the  Rev.  H.  S. 
Joseph,  mentioned  above,  minister  of  St.  Simon's  Episcopal 
Chapel,  who  carried  it  on  for  some  years  with  zeal  and  dis- 
cretion, holding  a  weekly  Hebrew  service,  superintending  the 
work  of  the  depdt  in  the  charge  of  J.  G.  Lazarus,  another  con- 
vert, and  managing  the  "  Home  for  Enquiring  and  Converted 
Jews."  Joseph  also  visited  many  towns  in  the  north  and  west, 
such  as  Manchester,  Bristol,  Bath,  Birmingham,  and  Leeds. 




Revolutions  of  1830— Poland— Work  Interrupted  and  restored— Nine  missionaries 
at  woric— Resuits^— Jews  in  Austria  and  Qallcla- Mission  established  at  Cracow— 
Dr.  Qerlach- T.  Hiscock—Bellson  — Davenport— Holland- Qerman  stations  — 
Berlin  and  McCaul— W.  Ayerst— C.  Becker— Frankfort-on-the-Maln—Moritz— 
Missionaries  at  Breslau— Morltz,  Neumann  and  Hellmuth— Petri,  O'  NelU  and  West 
at  Hamburg— Other  stations  in  Germany— French  Jews  after  the  Revolution— Oster 
at  Marseilles— Jewish  visitors  from  Morocco— Oster  removes  to  Metz— J  A.  Haus- 
melster— Switzerland  repeatedly  visited— Sweden  also— Testimony  of  Professor 
Tholuck  to  progresm  of  Jewish  missions. 

THE  disturbed  state  of  the  Continent  in  the  year  1830, 
with  revolutions  in  Poland    and    France,    and   other 
hindrances,  greatly  affected  the  Society^s  work   and 

To  deal  primarily  with  Poland,  as  being  the  most  important 
of  the  European  stations.  The  first  obstacle  encountered  was 
the  placing  of  the  mission,  by  an  Imperial  Edict,  under  the 
jurisdiction  of  the  General  Lutheran  Consistory,  where,  in 
spite  of  the  Committee's  representations,  it  has  since  remained. 
The  second  event  was  the  outbreak,  on  November  29th,  of  the 
Poles  against  the  Russians,  which  necessarily  interfered  with 
the  work,  and  even  placed  the  lives  of  the  missionaries  in 
jeopardy.  By  the  providence  of  God,  all  were  mercifully 
spared  ;  although  Wendt  received  a  bayonet  wound  at  the 
capture  of  Lublin,  to  which  place  he  had  been  appointed 
only  the  year  before.  During  the  siege  of  Warsaw  by  the 
Russians,  the  residence  of  the  missionaries,  being  situated  in 
that  quarter  of  the  city  most  exposed  to  attack,  "rocked 
like  a  vessel  at  sea,"  but  no  damage  was  sustained.  The 
Industrial  Home,  already  mentioned  on  page  99,  was  struck 
by  a  cannon-ball ;  yet,  even  in  this  disastrous  year,  the  work 
prospered,  there  being  eleven  baptisms  at  Warsaw,  and 
four    at    Lublin.       This    latter    city    was     occupied     from 

1830-40]  NINE    MISSIONARIES    IN    POLAND  163 

1829  till  1853,  during  which  period  forty-four  baptisms 
were  registered,  many  of  the  neophytes  holding  good 

The  mission  continued  to  prosper,  and  to  find  favour  in 
high  places.  Prince  Paskewitch,  Governor  of  Warsaw,  follow- 
ing the  example  set  by  the  Grand  Duke  Constantine,  took 
great  interest  in  the  work,  and  shewed  it  much  sympathy. 
In  1833  a  Jew  was  baptized  even  in  his  palace.  Further 
encouragement  was  received  in  applications  from  Jewish 
schools  for  Bibles,  the  Society  being  thus  acknowledged 
by  the  Jews  as  a  dispensing  agency  of  the  Word  of  God. 
It  is  impossible  to  chronicle  the  numerous  changes  which 
took  place  in  the  personnel  and  disposition  of  the  staff 
during  the  next  few  years.  In  1832  the  Society  had  no  less 
than  nine  missionaries  in  Poland  ;  namely,  McCaul,  Becker, 
Smith,  Lange,  Waschitscheck  and  Lawrence  at  W'arsaw ;  and 
Wendt,  Hoff,  and  Rosenfeldt  at  Lublin.  In  1834  a  new 
station  was  opened  at  Kielce,  midway  between  Warsaw  and 
Lublin,  and  Wendt  and  Rosenfeldt  were  sent  there.  Sub- 
sequently, Kutno  was  occupied  for  a  short,  and  Kalisch  for  a 
longer,  period.  Whilst  some  of  the  above  named  missionaries 
were  transferred  to  other  stations,  S.  Deutsch,  J.  G. 
Zuckertort  and  J.  C.  H.  West  were  added  to  the  staff  at 
Warsaw.  Within  twenty  years,  that  is  from  1821  to  1840,  as 
many  as  153  Jews  were  baptized  by  the  Society's  missionaries. 
Besides  these,  a  great  number  had  been  baptized  in  the 
Churches  of  the  country,  after  their  attention  had  been  directed 
to  the  Christian  faith  by  books  circulated  by  the  mission- 
aries, or  by  conversations  with  them,  and  some  even  after  a 
course  of  instruction. 

Another  important  result  of  the  labours  of  the  missionaries 
was  to  be  found  in  the  fact  that,  by  their  means,  a  knowledge 
of  the  most  essential  doctrines  of  Christianity  was  widely 
spread  amongst  the  Jews  of  that  country,  which  frequently 
manifested  itself  in  a  milder  disposition  toward  Christianity  ; 
and,  had  it  not  been  for  important  reasons,  particularly  the 
difficulty  of  obtaining  temporal  subsistence  after  baptism, 
which   prevented  many  from  embracing  the  Christian  faith, 

M  2 


the  number  of  baptisms  would  doubtless  have  been  two  or 
three  times  as  large. 

Austria,  second  in  importance  only  to  Poland,  on 
account  of  its  numerous  Jewish  population,  was  occupied  in 
the  early  years  of  this  decade.  A  brief  historical  retrospect 
will  serve  to  indicate  the  character  of  this  important  mission 
field.  The  lot  of  the  Jews  in  the  Duchy  of  Austria  was  much 
the  same  during  the  Middle  Ages  as  that  of  their  co-religionists 
in  Germany.  In  1167  a  council  held  in  Vienna  imposed 
heavy  burdens  upon  them.  In  1420,  and  again  in  1464,  they 
were  threatened  with  plunder  and  massacre.  Ferdinand  I. 
(1553-64)  at  first  tolerated  their  presence  in  Vienna,  but 
subsequently  expelled  them.  Similar  experiences  befell 
them  during  the  next  hundred  years.  In  1668  they  were 
accused  of  firing  the  citadel,  banished,  and  their  synagogues 
turned  into  churches.  It  was  not  till  the  reigns  of  Maria 
Theresa  and  Joseph  II.  that  the  Jews  recovered  their  former 
position.  In  1783  Joseph  granted  them  privileges  under  his 
famous  Edict  of  Toleration.  Gradually  the  Jews  of  Austria, 
Hungary,  and  Galicia  obtained  enfranchisement,  the  last 
disabilities  being  removed  in  1867. 

There  are  more  Jews  in  Austria-Hungar}-  than  in  any  other 
European  country,  Russia  alone  excepted  ;  namely,  in  Austria 
1,143,305,  and  in  Hungary,  1,000,000;  altogether  2,143,305.* 

From  the  end  of  the  fourteenth  centurj^  to  1772  Galicia 
formed  part  of  the  kingdom  of  Poland,  but  was  then  incorpor- 
ated in  the  Austro- Hungarian  Empire.  This  vast  province, 
with  its  six  million  inhabitants,  of  whom  as  many  as  700,000 
are  Jews,  offers  a  very  important  and  extensive  field  for 
missionary  enterprise.  In  Cracow,  Lemberg,  and  other  large 
towns,  the  Jews  actually  form  one-third  of  the  population. 

Cracow  was  for  two  centuries  and  a  half  (1320 — 1569)  the 
capital  of  Poland,  and  contains  45,000  Jews.  It  has  an 
ancient  castle,  and  a  magnificent  cathedral  containing  the 
tombs  of  the  most  famous  Polish  kings.    With  the  neighbouring 

•  Die  /udettfrage  in  Oesterreich. 

1840]  C/iACOlV    OCCUPIED  165 

towns  of  Chrzanow  and  Kroeszowice,  it  formed  a  republic  from 
1815  to  1846,  governed  by  a  Senate.  This  territory  was 
incorporated  with  the  Austrian  dominions  in  1846.  Lemberg 
has  had  a  checkered  history.  Originally  founded  in  1259, 
and  called  LeopoHs,  it  was  besieged  by  the  Turks  in  1524 
and  again  in  1672,  and  sacked  by  Charles  XII.  of  Sweden  in 
1705.  It  has  a  Jewish  population  of  40,000.  Brody  has  1 5,000 
Jews,  and  is  called  the  "  Galician  Jerusalem." 

The  untoward  events  in  the  early  history  of  the  Warsaw 
mission  narrated  on  page  97  turned  out  for  the  furtherance 
of  the  Gospel.  When  McCaul  and  Becker  left  Warsaw  in 
1822,  they  not  only  visited  Posen,  but  also  Cracow.  There 
they  obtained  permission  to  work  amongst  the  Jews,  who 
provided  their  lodgings  for  several  days.  On  one  occasion 
the  missionaries  distributed  271  New  Testaments,  tracts  and 
cards,  to  probably  as  many  Jews.  This  was  most  encouraging, 
but  the  visit  was  only  a  flying  one. 

It  was  not  till  1833  that,  by  permission  of  its  governing 
Senate,  Cracow  was  occupied  as  a  missionary  station.  The 
large  number  of  Jews,  then  20,000,  consisting  of  Talmudists, 
Chassidim,  and  Reformed,  most  of  whom  were  very  poor,  and 
huddled  together  in  wretched  and  closely  confined  streets, 
offered  a  compact  field  for  missionary  effort.  The  Rev.  A. 
Gerlach,  D.D.,  was  the  first  agent  of  the  Society.  He  was 
assisted,  and  in  1838,  succeeded  by  the  Rev.  T.  Hiscock. 
Notwithstanding  many  difficulties,  caused  by  the  unsettled 
political  state  of  the  little  Republic,  and  its  subsequent 
occupation  by  Russia,  Prussia,  and  Austria,  as  well  as  the  active 
opposition  of  the  Jews,  a  fair  amount  of  work  was  done.  The 
Scriptures  were  largely  circulated  and  neighbouring  towns 
visited.  Within  five  years  sixteen  Jews  were  baptized  ;  and 
in  one  year,  1840,  the  number  of  applications  for  the  holy 
rite  was  very  large. 

We  must  now  visit  Holland  again.  In  Chapter  VI.  we  saw 
how,  in  1830,  Amsterdam  was  rendered  vacant  by  the  trans- 
ference of  the  resident  missionaries,  Lange  and  Waschitscheck 
to  Poland.      Amsterdam  was  too  important  a  mission  centre 


to  be  long  neglected,  and  so  in  1832  the  Rev.  R.  Bellson,  a 
convert,  and  Mr.  W.  Davenport  were  appointed  to  the  vacant 
post.  In  the  meantime,  in  1831,  the  Rev.  J.  C.  H.  West  had 
visited  the  country,  and  appears  to  have  been  highly  favoured 
in  obtaining  access  to  many  Jews,  especially  at  Rotterdam, 
where  great  numbers  heard  the  truth.  At  the  commencement 
of  their  labours  Bellson  and  Davenport  reported  very  favour- 
ably of  the  readiness  of  the  Dutch  Jews,  both  to  listen  to  the 
Gospel  and  to  receive  the  Scriptures.  In  Amsterdam  there 
was  a  great  demand  for  Christian  instruction,  and  the  mission 
house  was  so  besieged  with  Jews  anxious  to  obtain  the 
Scriptures,  that  the  police  had  to  interfere.  After  a  time, 
however,  though  not  before  two  Jews  had  been  baptized, 
difficulties  arose  which  led  to  the  missionaries  being  again 
transferred,  in  1835,  to  the  larger  field  of  Poland.  The  Jews 
of  Brussels  were  visited  in  1836  by  the  Rev.  J.  Stockfeld,  of 
Cologne.     During  this  visit  he  was  ordained  there. 

Important  work  was  carried  on  at  the  German  stations 
during  this  Period. 

In  the  winter  of  1830-31  Dr.  McCaul  resided  at  Berlin 
for  several  months,  and  had  much  intercourse  with  Jews. 
Several  hundred  converts  had  already  been  received  there 
into  the  Church  by  baptism  ;  and  the  want  of  a  missionar>% 
whose  special  care  it  should  be  to  watch  over  their  spiritual 
welfare,  was  deeply  felt.  Moreover,  Berlin,  being  the  central 
point  from  which  modern  movements  in  Jewish  reform 
proceeded,  was  marked  out  for  a  station,  and  a  strong  one,  of 
the  Society.  The  Committee  selected  the  best  man  for  the  work, 
the  Rev.  W.  Ayerst,  who  had  previously  been  stationed  at  Dan- 
zig. He  proceeded  to  Berlin  in  1832,  and  in  1834  commenced, 
under  the  immediate  sanction  of  H.M.  the  King  of  Prussia,  to 
deliver  lectures  to  the  Jews,  which  aroused  the  greatest  interest, 
and  that  amongst  the  highest  circles.  Berlin  was  said  to  have 
at  that  time  upward  of  700  Christian  Jews.  A  service  for 
Jews  was  held  every  Saturday  ;  the  Old  Paths  was  translated 
into  German  by  Ayerst,  who,  when  he  left  Berlin  in  1837, 
had  been  permitted  to  baptize  forty-two  adult  Jews.      During 


the  years  1830-7  as  many  as  326  Jewish  baptisms  were 
r^stered  in  the  Consistory  at  Berlin.  The  Rev.  C.  Becker 
succeeded  Ayerst  in  the  last  named  year,  and  remained  till 
1840,  during  which  time  he  baptized  fourteen  Jews. 

The  promising  work  at  Frankfort-on-the-Main  deserves  to 
be  mentioned  next.  As  previously  recorded,  Marc  was  in 
charge  from  the  earliest  days  of  the  Society's  operations  on  the 
Continent,  namely  1820.  From  1829  to  1833  Frankfort 
was  the  centre  also  of  J.  C.  Moritz's  indefatigable  labours, 
and  C.  Becker  resided  there  for  a  few  months  in  1837. 
Ayerst  was  transferred  from  Berlin  to  Frankfort  in  1838, 
on  the  completion  of  a  visit  to  most  of  the  Society's 
stations  in  Germany,  Hungary  and  Prussian  Poland,  of  which 
he  supplied  a  most  interesting  and  instructive  report.  Settled 
at  Frankfort,  Ayerst  lost  no  time  in  carrying  through  the 
press,  and  circulating  throughout  Germany,  an  edition  of  5,000 
copies  of  the  Old  Paths  in  German,  and  eventually  succeeded 
in  establishing  at  Frankfort  a  dep6t  for  books  and  tracts. 
Having  become  intimately  acquainted  with  current  Jewish 
literature  in  Germany,  he  was  well  qualified  to  meet  it  with 
suitable  Christian  publications.  He  made  several  journeys  in 
the  country  round  Frankfort,  and  had  easy  access  to  the 
Jews.  W.  Davenport  was  sent  to  help  him.  In  1839  three 
Jewish  baptisms  took  place.  The  mission,  however,  was  all 
too  soon  deprived  of  Ayerst's  presence ;  he  being  appointed 
Secretary  of  the  Society  in  1841. 

One  paragraph  will  suffice  about  the  work  at  Breslau.  The 
Revs.  H.  Lawrence  and  Dr.  McCaul,  S.  Deutsch  and  the 
Rev.  W.  Ayerst  resided  there  at  different  times  from  1830 
to  1834;  whilst,  from  that  year  to  1859,  Dr.  S.  Neumann,  a 
Hebrew  Christian,  who  had  been  led  to  the  Saviour  by 
J.  C.  Moritz,  and  was  a  Professor  of  the  University,  was 
the  Society's  agent  there.  He  was  more  especially  brought 
into  contact  with  learned  Jews  and  the  students,  over  whom  he 
exercised  great  influence.  It  was  through  him  that  a  student 
named    Isaac    Hellmuth,    afterward    Bishop   of  Huron,   had 


his  attention  drawn  to  Christianity.  From  1820  to  1845  rio 
fewer  than  676  Jews  were  baptized  in  Silesia.  The  permanent 
mission  was  established  later. 

A  word  must  be  said  about  Hamburg,  where  J.  C.  Moritz 
resided  from  1834  to  1840,  and  C.  G.  Petri  and  O'Neill 
also  for  a  time,  the  latter  from  1826  to  1831  ;  and  the 
Rev.  J.  C.  H.  West  was  there  from  1832  to  1838,  when  he  was 
transferred  to  the  more  pressing  work  in  Poland.  These  early 
labourers  met  with  many  difficulties  from  the  fact  that  the 
Jews  of  Hamburg  had  their  own  police  system,  and  were  able 
to  circumscribe  effectually  the  missionary's  scope,  and 
to  hinder  his  activity.  A  mission  school,  conducted  by  Moritz 
and  West,  was  closed  by  rabbinical  influence.  Neither  did 
the  local  authorities  of  the  "  free  "  town  look  with  any  degree 
of  favour  on  evangelistic  efforts.     Moritz  left  in  1840. 

Before  we  part  from  the  German  stations  we  may  briefly 
mention  that  Dessau  was  occupied  in  1833  by  the  Rev. 
C.  Becker,  and  Magdeburg  from  1834  to  1838.  On  his 
arrival  at  the  latter  place,  he  found  ten  Jewish  converts 
there.  Mr.  C.  Noesgen  laboured  at  Halbertstadt  from  1832 
to  1841. 

As  r^ards  the  work  in  France  during  this  decade  the  Rev. 
P.  J.  Oster,  as  already  said,  went  to  Strasburg  in  1828.  He 
found  the  French  Jews  much  less  accessible  after  the  Revolution 
of  1830,  feeling  themselves  free  to  oppose  Christianity,  as  being 
nothing  but  folly  and  vanity.  At  Marseilles,  which  became 
Oster's  station  in  1834,  he  was  from  time  to  time  visited 
by  many  Jews,  and  his  attention  was  particularly  turned  to  a 
certain  class,  who,  at  that  time,  were  in  the  habit  of  coming  to 
that  city  in  considerable  numbers  from  Morocco  for  purposes 
of  commerce,  and  were  glad  of  the  opportunity  of  procuring 
copies  of  the  W'ord  of  God.  He  reported  in  1834  that  he  had 
sold  all  his  stock  of  Hebrew  Bibles  to  these  Moroqueen  Jews, 
and  that  it  he  had  had  twice  or  three  times  as  many  they 
would  all  have  been  purchased  and  taken  to  Africa. 

In   1835   Oster  removed  to    Metz,   which,  with   its   larger 

1840]  SWITZERLAND  169 

Jewish  population,  seemed  to  offer  a  more  promising  sphere. 
This  city  had  been  visited  by  Dr.  McCaul  in  1828,  when 
he  found  several  Jews  in  possession  of  Scriptures  and 
tracts,  received  originally  from  the  Society,  which  came 
into  their  hands  by  circulation  amongst  the  Jews  them- 
selves. In  1839  a  new  and  important  field  of  labour  was 
opened  to  Oster  among  the  French  Jews,  at  the  time 
when  he  began  to  complain  of  the  want  of  opportunities 
of  personal  access  to  them.  The  discussions  on  religious 
subjects  then  prevailing  among  the  Jews  in  France  afforded 
a  favourable  opportunity  for  a  Christian  missionary  to  enter 
the  controversy.  The  Old  Paths,  which  Oster  translated 
into  French,  and  other  tracts,  proved  very  seasonable.  After 
fourteen  years'  work  at  Metz  and  in  other  parts  of  France, 
he  resigned  his  connexion  with  the  Society  in  1842,  in  order 
to  take  up  parochial  work  at  home. 

In  1832  the  Rev.  J.  A.  Hausmeister,  a  Christian  Jew,  entered 
upon  his  long  missionary  residence  at  Strasburg,  which 
ended  only  at  his  death  in  i860.  In  1838  he  was  joined  by 
Mr.  J.  P.  Goldberg,  from  Dresden,  who  assisted  him  in  the 
instruction  of  enquirers,  and  also  in  missionary  journeys. 
Hausmeister  was  a  most  devoted  worker  in  the  cause,  as  his 
interesting  journals  testify. 

Switzerland  being  close  at  hand  was  not  neglected.  In  1830 
Oster  visited  Geneva  and  also  Basle,  where  a  local  "  Jews* 
Friends'  Society  "  was  established.  Moritz,  when  at  Frankfort, 
repeatedly  visited  Switzerland.  For  example,  in  1831,  at 
Endingen,  which  with  Langenau  had  i,6cx)  Jews,  he  preached 
in  their  synagogue  and  taught  the  children  in  their  schools. 
In  1832  Hausmeister  and  Ewald  visited  Basle,  where  were 
four  converts.  Switzerland  in  succeeding  years  was  fre- 
quently visited  by  missionaries  from  Germany ;  but  lately 
the  Society  has  done  nothing  directly  for  the  Jews  there,  who 
now  number  8,ocx)  or  more. 

In  1833,  and  again  in  1834,  Moritz  visited  Sweden,  as 
already  stated,  but  apparently  the  time  was  not  then  ripe  for 
the  establishment  of  a  mission  in  that  country. 

170  CONTINENTAL    STATIONS  [183040 

We  cannot  close  this  chapter  better  than  by  giving  some 
words  of  Professor  Tholuck^s,  written  in  1837,  describing  the 
progress  of  Christianity  amongst  the  Continental  Jews. 

It  is  an  undoubted  matter  of  fact,  that  more  proselytes  have  been  made  during 
the  last  twenty  years,  than  since  the  first  ages  of  the  Church.  No  one  can  deny 
it  on  the  Continent,  and  no  one,  I  am  sure,  will  deny  it.  Not  only  in  Germany, 
but  also  in  Poland,  there  has  been  the  most  astonishing  success,  and  I  can  bear 
testimony  to  what  has  come  under  my  own  observation  in  the  capital  of  Silesia, 
my  native  place,  where  many  conversions  have  taken  place.  In  this  capital  I  shall 
speak  only  of  such  individuals  as  I  am  acquainted  with  myself  in  the  profession 
to  which  I  belong.  In  the  University  of  Breslau  there  are  three  professors  who 
were  formerly  Israelites.  A  professor  of  philology,  a  professor  of  chemistry,  and 
a  professor  of  philosophy  !  there  is,  besides,  a  clergyman,  who  professes  the 
Gospel,  and  he  was  a  Jew.  In  my  present  station  at  Halle,  there  are  no  less 
than  five  professors,  formerly  Jews ;  one  of  medicine,  one  of  mathematics,  one 
of  law,  and  two  of  philology. 

I  might  show  that  some  of  the  Jewish  conversions  have  taken  place  amongst 
men  of  the  highest  literary  attainment ;  and,  amongst  others,  I  might  mention 
Dr.  Neander  of  Berlin.  Dr.  Branis  of  Breslau,  and  Dr.  Stahl  of  Erlangen. 
These  are  all  persons  of  the  highest  scientific  reputation,  and  now  faithful 
followers  of  our  Lord  Jesus  Christ.* 

*  Jewish  Intelligence^  1837,  page  97. 



Ottoman  Empire— Sephardlm  — Constantinople  — Salonlca  — A  false  Messiah  — 
RellCfoas  movement  amongst  Jews  of  the  Capital— Jacob  Levi  the  first  victim— 
Misaion  opened— Rev.  5.  Farman— **John  Baptist'*— School  and  medical  woric— 
Death  of  Pannan— Schwartz— Mission  suspended— Asiatic  Turkey— The  Seven 
Chmvhes—Smsrma— Earlier  history— Lewis  and  Wolff  there— Lewis  appointed— 
In  bonds  for  the  Gospel— "John  Baptist*'  again- Deputation  from  the  Church  of 

ALTHOUGH  the  majority  of  Jews  inhabit  Christian 
countries,  yet  a  considerable  proportion  are  found  in 
Mohammedan  lands ;  and  the  Ottoman  Empire,  and 
principally  the  European  portion  of  it,  has  long  been  the 
habitation  of  Sephardic  Jews.  They  number,  perhaps, 
three-fourths  of  the  entire  Jewish  population  of  282,277  in 
Turkey  in  Europe  and  Eastern  Roumelia,  and  seven-eighths 
of  the  60,000  Jews  in  Constantinople.  In  doctrine  and  practice 
they  are  strict  Talmudists  ;  in  social  position  the  extremes 
of  wealth  and  poverty  meet ;  and  their  language  is  Judaeo- 
Spanish,  a  jargon  composed  of  Spanish  and  Hebrew.  They 
offer  a  most  interesting  field  for  missionary  enterprise  and 
evangelistic  ef^JDrts,  a  field  which  has  been  worked  by  some 
of  the  most  eminent  missionaries  in  the  Society's  ranks. 
Spanish  Jews  are  proverbially  harder  to  reach  than  the 
Ashkenazic,  or  German  Jews.  Pride  of  origin,  as  well  as  of 
religion,  makes  them  more  fanatical,  and  almost  unapproach- 
able, even  if  they  are,  out  of  innate  politeness,  more  outwardly 
courteous  to  the  Christian  missionar>'.  This  external  bearing 
has  not  prevented  them  from  thwarting  his  efforts  by  cherem^ 
or  from  resorting  to  more  overt  acts  of  persecution,  when 
such  were  deemed  necessar>'  to  preser\^e  their  own  religion 
from   the  dreaded  inroads  of  Christianity.      The  instinct  of 

172  MISSIONS    IN    THE    OTTOMAN    EMPIRE  [1830 

self-preservation,  and  the  continuance  for  centuries  of  their 
ancestral  faith  in  a  narrow  crystallized  form,  have  even  led  them 
to  oppose  violently  those  of  their  own  kindred  and  persuasion 
who  have  manifested  a  desire  for  enlightenment  and  progress. 

The  past  history  of  this  remnant  of  scattered  Israel  is 
romantic  in  vicissitudes.  On  the  whole,  the  Jews  have  met 
with  better  treatment  at  the  hands  of  Mohammedans  than  from 
Christians.  The  religions  of  Moses  and  of  Mohammed  have 
several  features  in  common.  Each  is  a  strict  monotheism, 
and  Jews  and  Moslems  are  of  Semitic  stock,  and  united  in 
their  opposition  to  Christianity.  This  may  account,  in  some 
measure,  for  the  fellow-feeling  often  existing  between  them. 

When  the  dominion  of  the  Moors  came  to  an  end  in  Spain, 
and  Christian  intolerance  had  succeeded  to  Moslem  indul- 
gence, and,  in  1492,  had  driven  out  from  the  Peninsula  the 
descendants  of  Abraham,  about  5o,cxx)  of  them  settled  in  the 
newly-founded  Turkish  Empire.  Constantinople  had  fallen 
to  its  Ottoman  conquerors  in  1453,  and  thus  a  fresh  asylum 
had  been  opened  to  the  persecuted  people.  As  a  Jewish  poet 
said  :  "  Great  Turkey,  a  wide  and  spreading  sea,  which  our 
Lord  opened  with  the  wand  of  His  mercy,  as  at  the  Exodus 
from  Egypt,  that  the  tide  of  thy  present  disaster,  Jacob,  as 
happened  with  the  multitude  of  the  Egyptians,  should  therein 
lose  and  exhaust  itself"  * 

The  reigning  Sultan,  Mohammed  II.,  and  his  successors, 
not  only  looked  with  favour  upon  the  various  Jewish  commu- 
nities, Ashkenazic  and  Karaite,  which  had  been  settled  in 
Greece  for  centuries,  but  also  welcomed  the  immigration  of 
the  Sephardic  exiles,  granting  them  equal  liberty  with  Greeks 
and  Armenians. 

Constantinople  soon  had  a  Jewish  population  of  30,CXX), 
with  forty-four  synagogues.  The  newly-arrived  Spanish  Jews 
very  quickly  acquired  an  ascendency  over  their  co-religionists. 

Salonica,  the  ancient  Thessalonica,  became  a  thoroughly 
Jewish  city,  and  a  centre  of  Cabbalistic  lore.  It  has  been 
called  by  Usque  "  a  mother  of  Judaism."     It  became,  in  fact, 

*  Samuel  Usque,  quoted  by  Graetz,  History  of  the  Jews^  vol.  iv.  p.  428. 



Ottonum  Empire— Sephardim  — Constantinople  — Salonica  — A  false  MeMlah  — 
RellfkMu  movenent  amongst  Jews  of  the  Capital— Jacob  Levi  the  first  victim— 
MUston  opened— Rev.  5.  Farman— **John  Baptist**— School  and  medical  work- 
Death  of  Parman— Schwartz— Mission  suspended— Asiatic  Turkey— The  Seven 
Chnxbes— Smyrna— Earlier  history— Lewis  and  Wolff  there— Lewis  appointed— 
In  bonds  for  the  Gospel- "John  Baptist**  again— Deputation  from  the  Church  of 

ALTHOUGH  the  majority  of  Jews  inhabit  Christian 
countries,  yet  a  considerable  proportion  are  found  in 
Mohammedan  lands ;  and  the  Ottoman  Empire,  and 
principally  the  European  portion  of  it,  has  long  been  the 
habitation  of  Sephardic  Jews.  They  number,  perhaps, 
three-fourths  of  the  entire  Jewish  population  of  282,277  in 
Turkey  in  Europe  and  Eastern  Roumelia,  and  seven-eighths 
of  the  60,000  Jews  in  Constantinople.  In  doctrine  and  practice 
they  are  strict  Talmudists  ;  in  social  position  the  extremes 
of  wealth  and  poverty  meet ;  and  their  language  is  Judaeo- 
Spanish,  a  jargon  composed  of  Spanish  and  Hebrew.  They 
offer  a  most  interesting  field  for  missionary  enterprise  and 
evangelistic  efjprts,  a  field  which  has  been  worked  by  some 
of  the  most  eminent  missionaries  in  the  Society's  ranks. 
Spanish  Jews  are  proverbially  harder  to  reach  than  the 
Ashkenazic,  or  German  Jews.  Pride  of  origin,  as  well  as  of 
religion,  makes  them  more  fanatical,  and  almost  unapproach- 
able, even  if  they  are,  out  of  innate  politeness,  more  outwardly 
courteous  to  the  Christian  missionary'.  This  external  bearing 
has  not  prevented  them  from  thwarting  his  efforts  by  cherem^ 
or  from  resorting  to  more  overt  acts  of  persecution,  when 
such  were  deemed  necessary  to  preser\'e  their  own  religion 
from  the  dreaded  inroads  of  Christianity.      The  instinct  of 

174  MISSIONS    IN    THE    OTTOMAN    EMPIRE  [1830 

to  Constantinople,  Farman  took  up  his  residence  in  the  Galata 
quarter  of  the  city,  where  he  steadily  pursued  his  labours. 
He  circulated  largely  the  Scriptures  in  Hebrew,  and  could 
easily  have  sold  ten  times  the  number  of  Pentateuchs  and 
Psalters.     Three  Jews  were  baptized. 

In  1840  a  school  was  established,  and  a  medical  mission 
opened  by  Mr.  A.  Gerstmann,  from  Jerusalem,  who  remained 
in  charge  of  the  mission  after  Farman's  resignation  in  1841  ; 
but  only  for  a  short  time,  being  suddenly  summoned  to  his 
final  rest  in  May  of  the  next  year.  A  promising  work  was 
thus  cut  short.  The  Rev.  J.  Nicolayson,  calling  at  Con- 
stantinople on  his  way  out  to  Jerusalem,  and  enquiring  for 
the  doctor,  was  met  by  the  startling  words,  "  He  has  just 
died  !  "  The  bereaved  mission  had  to  be  suspended,  notwith- 
standing fruitless  endeavours  to  keep  on  the  school,  which 
had  twenty-nine  scholars.  We  may  here  add  that  the  Rev. 
C.  Schwartz,  of  Berlin  University,  who  had  been  ordained  by 
the  Bishop  of  London,  succeeded  to  the  charge  of  the  mission 
in  1842.  He  was  aided  by  Philip,  as  translator,  but  Schwartz's 
stay  was  of  very  short  duration,  and  the  station  was  not 
reoccupied  till  1851. 

We  now  cross  the  sea  to  Asiatic  Turkey,  and  visit  the  second 
city  of  the  empire,  Smyrna,  the  "  Flower  of  the  Levant,"  natur- 
ally a  great  missionary  centre.  Its  commanding  position  on 
the  shores  of  the  iEgean  Sea,  its  wealth,  size,  and  importance, 
point  it  out  as  such.  The  large  population  of  Sephardic  Jews 
specially  mark  it  as  a  mission  field.  There  are,  also,  Jews  in 
many  neighbouring  towns,  as  well  as  in  the  islands  of  Mitylene, 
Samos,  Kos,  Crete,  Rhodes  and  Chios.  "Next  to  the  land 
consecrated  by  the  footsteps  of  our  blessed  Lord  Himself," 
says  Canon  Tristram,  "there  is  no  country  in  the  world  so  full 
of  associations  precious  to  every  Christian  as  Asia  Minor."  * 

"  Asia,"  in  the  New  Testament,  signified  the  Roman 
territory  of  Proconsular  Asia,  and  comprised  four  distinct 
provinces — and    these    the   most    westerly — namely,    Mysia, 

•  The  Seven  Golden  Candlesticks,  p.  I. 

1840]  SMYRNA  175 

Caria,  Lydia,  and  a  great  part  of  Phrygia.  Within  this 
r^on  all  the  Seven  Churches  of  Asia  were  situated. 
It  is  now  known  as  Anatolia,  or  AnadoH  (the  "  sun  rising," 
or  "  East "),  a  name  originally  bestowed  by  the  Byzantine 

Smyrna  is  the  largest  city  of  Anatolia,  and,  indeed,  of  Asia 
Minor,  with  a  population  of  200,000,  consisting  of  89,000 
Mohammedans,  59,000  Orthodox  Greeks,  25,000  Jews,  5,600 
Armenians,  and  and  36,000  Europeans  and  others,  of  whom 
25,000  are  Greeks.  It  has  a  splendid  and  commodious 
harbour,  and  is  the  centre  of  the  trade  of  the  Levant,  and  a 
rendezvous  of  merchants  from  all  parts  of  the  world.  Import- 
ant as  Smyrna  was  in  Grecian  and  early  Christian  days,  it  is 
still  more  so  in  the  present  day  ;  it  shares  with  Damascus  the 
distinction  of  being  one  of  the  two  ancient  cities  of  the  East 
which  have  not  declined,  but  rather  increased  in  importance. 
Smyrna  has  been  destroyed  many  times  by  earthquake ;  has 
been  partially  destroyed  by  fire  ;  was  ravaged  by  plague  in 
1814,  and  by  cholera  in  1831  and  1848.  It  has  four  quarters, 
the  European,  the  Turkish,  the  Jewish  and  the  Armenian. 

We  cannot  go  into  the  most  fascinating  early  history  of 
Smyrna,  an  account  of  which  will  be  found  in  Sites  and 
Scenes,^  by  the  author.  It  must  suffice  here  to  say  that  it  be- 
longed to  the  Greek  Christian  Empire  for  some  hundreds  of 
years.  It  afterward  passed  through  many  vicissitudes  and 
encountered  the  fortunes  of  prolonged  warfare,  being  frequently 
captured.  In  1004  Tzachas,  a  Turkish  rebel,  took  possession 
of  the  Ionian  coast  and  islands,  and  made  Smyrna  the  capital 
of  his  new  kingdom.  It  was  sacked  by  Tamerlane  in  1402  ; 
and  finally  taken  in  1424  by  the  Turks,  who  called  it  Ismir. 

The  Rev.  W.  B.  Lewis  visited  Smyrna  in  1825,  and  reported 
that  it  was  a  most  desirable  station  for  work  amongst  the 
Jews,  who  at  that  time  numbered  about  7,000,  whilst  many 
resided  in  the  neighbouring  towns,  so  that  a  wide  sphere 
of  missionary  usefulness  might  be  found  there.  The  Jews 
were   said   to   be   sunk    in   ignorance  and  fanaticism.     Two 

•  Sites  and  Scenes^  vol.  i.  pp.  142,  ^ 

176  MISSIONS    IN    THE    OTTOMAN    EMPIRE  [1830 

years  later,  in  1827,  Joseph  Wolff  visited  Smyrna,  and 
during  his  stay  addressed  a  characteristic  letter  to  the  Greek 
Government  at  ^Egina,  on  behalf  of  his  oppressed  brethren. 
He  preached  the  Gospel  to  the  Jews,  also  distributing 
many  Hebrew  Testaments  amongst  them.  He  visited  the 
Jewish  synagogue,  and,  without  any  preamble,  said,  "  I  have 
come  to  proclaim  to  you  redemption  by  the  Lord  Jesus 
Christ."  He  then  expounded  Isaiah  liii.  to  a  crowded  con- 
gregation, and  spoke  of  the  future  restoration  and  conversion 
of  the  Jews.  On  his  way  he  had  visited  Cephalonia  and 
Corfu,  and  in  both  islands  he  addressed  the  Jews ;  and 
in  all  places  he  stirred  up  much  enthusiasm  amongst  the 
resident  English  and  Europeans. 

Lewis  commenced  work  in  Smyrna  on  December  4th, 
1829.  He  sent  home  most  interesting  tidings  of  John  Baptist, 
and  twelve  other  Jews  who  had  become  Christians  at  Con- 
stantinople, and  had  been  banished  to  Kaisarieh  in  Cappadocia, 
John  was  afteru'ard  partially  engaged  in  mission  work. 

Lewis  shewed  unremitting  attention  to  Jews  suffering  from 
cholera  in  1832,  and  this  gave  him  access  to  many  families. 
He  also  attempted  to  establish  a  dispensary  for  the  sick  and 
wretched  victims,  which  further  increased  his  opportunities 
and  brought  him  into  contact  with  Jews  from  Trieste,  Venice, 
Ancona,  the  Ionian  Islands,  Salonica,  Egypt,  and  Syria,  as  well 
as  from  Smyrna.  On  August  19th  he  reaped  the  first-fruits  of 
his  self-denying  labours  in  the  baptism  of  two  young  Israelites. 
In  January  of  the  following  year  (1833),  two  Jews,  natives  of 
Trieste,  were  baptized  ;  and  on  Good  Friday,  a  Venetian  Jew. 
Lewis  thus  received  five  Jews  into  the  Church  within  a  few 
months,  whilst  others  had  been  uhder  Christian  instruction. 

The  Jews  soon  commenced  their  persecution  of  these 
enquirers.  Lewis  was  seriously  thinking  of  sending  twelve  of 
them  to  Patmos,  or  to  Greece,  out  of  harm's  way,  when  his 
purpose  was  frustrated.  The  young  men  were  in  their  own 
Jewish  quarter,  waiting  for  the  moment  of  embarkation,  when 
one  of  them,  Solomon  de  Vidas,  a  lad  of  seventeen,  was 
apprehended  and  taken  before  the  chief  rabbi.  Referring  to 
this  Lewis  said : 


He  bore  testimony  to  the  truth  respecting  the  Messiah  as  well  as  he  was  able, 
and  in  such  a  firm  manner,  in  the  midst  of  a  crowd  of  Jews,  as  to  astonish 
every  one.  The  old  rabbi  could  make  nothing  of  him,  and  he  exclaimed  in  a 
rage,  as  Solomon  was  going  on  quoting  texts  from  the  Bible,  '*Let  him  be 
sent  to  the  wicked  one !  '*  Off  he  was  then  dragged  and  put  into  the  hands 
of  the  Turkish  authorities.  The  horrible  dungeon  was,  of  course,  immediately 
opened  to  receive  him.  The  tortures  common  on  such  occasions  were,  without 
loss  of  time,  prepared,  and  his  feet  and  limbs  were  put  into  them.  He  was  now 
threatened  with  the  hot  irons,  in  order  to  oblige  him  to  declare  the  names  of  all 
the  others  who  were  in  the  habit  of  frequenting  our  house ;  but  notwithstanding 
every  threat  and  everything  that  was  done  to  him,  he  still  stood  firm,  and  betrayed 
no  one.  He  passed  a  dreadful  night,  and  had  been  four  and  twenty  hours  in 
torture,  when  it  was  determined  to  have  him  regularly  bastinadoed. 

Lewis  interfered,  and  got  him  removed  to  a  prison 
attached  to  the  Dutch  Consulate,  where  he  visited  him. 
Compared  with  the  place  from  whence  he  had  been  taken, 
Solomon  must  have  felt  himself  to  be  in  a  palace.    Lewis  said : 

Few  can  imagine  what  the  miseries  of  a  Turkish  dungeon  are,  especially  to  a  Jew 
thrown  in  for  religion's  sake.  From  the  little  Solomon  was  able  at  that  moment 
GO  state,  he  must  have  suffered  dreadfully,  but  indeed  he  seemed  to  be  so  exhausted 
and  worn  down,  though  so  short  a  time  amongst  his  cruel  persecutors,  that  he 
could  scarcely  speak. 

Lewis  endeavoured  to  comfort  and  encourage  him.  He 
sent  him  a  bed  and  brought  him  food  and  the  New  Testament. 
Eventually,  through  the  influence  of  the  Dutch  Consul,  he  was 
released,  and  carried  away  in  triumph.  Lewis  relinquished  the 
work  in  1838,  having  been  appointed  British  Chaplain.  John 
Cohen,*  who  had  been  assisting  Lewis  for  some  years,  now 
took  charge  of  the  mission. 

On  August  1st,  1839,  the  members  of  the  deputation 
appointed  by  the  General  Assembly  of  the  Church  of  Scotland 
to  visit  Jews  in  different  parts  of  the  world,  arrived  at  Smyrna, 
and  have  left  on  record  a  narrative  of  their  experiences,  f 

*  See  page  173. 

t  Narrative  of  a  Mission  of  Enquiry  to  thejews^  p.  442. 




NIcolayson  iiudce«  farther  attemiyts  to  settle  In  Pale«tlae— Perman  and  Calnuui— 
Troables  occasioned  by  Mehemet  Alt— Appeal  for  a  chnrch— Funds  and  plans- 
More  missionaries— Dally  Hebrew  service— Purchase  of  a  site— Medical  work- 
Plans  for  a  hospital— First  baptisms— Building  operations  commenced,  suspended 
and  renewed. 

IN  our  last  chapter  on  the  Jerusalem  Mission  we  saw  how 
opposition  forced  the  Rev.  John  Nicolayson  to  retire 
from  his  post  in  1828,  and  that  Joseph  Wolff  was  able  to 
visit  the  city  shortly  afterward,  though  with  much  difficulty. 
After  three  years*  absence,  Nicolayson  made  another  attempt  to 
settle  in  Palestine.  Mr.  S.  Farman,  who  had  been  appointed  his 
assistant,  reached  Beyrout  on  June  ist,  1831,  and  Nicolayson 
joined  him  on  August  13th  of  that  year.  Having  visited  Safed 
and  Tiberias,  he  was  at  Jerusalem  for  a  few  days  in  the 
autumn,  but  the  cholera  compelled  him  to  leave  the  country 
again  for  Constantinople.  In  April  1832  we  find  him  once 
more  at  Beyrout,  with  Farman  and  Caiman,  the  latter  of  whom 
had  lately  joined  the  Society  as  a  lay  missionary.  Nicolayson 
visited  Jerusalem  in  January  1833,  ^tnd  again  in  April  of  the 
same  year  to  make  arrangements  for  a  permanent  settlement 
in  that  city,  for  which  the  time  now  appeared  to  be  ripe, 
and  he  took  up  his  residence  there  in  the  autumn. 

The  change  in  the  political  state  of  the  country  had  opened  up 
a  way  for  the  arrival  of  many  devout  Jews  in  the  land  of  their 
forefathers.  Very  troublous  times  were  experienced  the  next 
year.  God's  four  sore  judgments  were  upon  the  land — earth- 
quake, war,  pestilence,  and  famine.  Then  there  were  the  dangers 
incident  upon  the  short  Egyptian  occupation  of  Jerusalem  by 
Mehemet  Ali.  Nicolayson  held  his  ground,  though  consumed 
with  anxiety  during  that  fearful  time,  and  was  greatly  helped  in 
his  labours  by  Caiman.     As  yet  there  was  no  English  place 

1830-40]  APPEAL    FOR    A     CHURCH  179 

of  worship  in  the  Holy  City,  and  no  place  for  preaching  to 
Jews,  but  Nicolayson  and  his  friends  met  at  his  house  for 
Divine  worship  as  each  Sunday  came  round.  He  was  fre- 
quently visited  by  several  rabbis,  and  the  names  of  Sachs, 
Schwartz,  Lauria,  Ayach,  Yedidyah,  Mordechai,  and  others 
frequently  occur  in  his  journals  of  that  day. 

The  importance  of  making  a  decided  effort  for  the  Jews  of 
Jerusalem  led  the  Committee  to  issue  in  1835  the  following 
strong  appeal  on  behalf  of  an  English  church  in  the  Holy  City: 

It  is  well  known  that  for  a^es  various  branches  of  the  Christian  Church  have 
had  their  convents  and  their  places  of  worship  in  Jerusalem.  The  Greek,  the 
Roman  Catholic,  the  Armenian,  can  each  find  brethren  to  receive  him,  and  a 
house  of  prayer  in  which  to  worship.  In  Jerusalem  also  the  Turk  has  his  mosque, 
and  the  Jew  his  synagogue.  The  pure  Christianity  of  the  Reformation  alone 
appears  as  a  stranger.  .  .  .  The  prejudice  of  the  Jews  is  against  Christianity  as 
a  system,  as  a  form  of  worship  ;  and  the  only  way  whereby  this  prejudice  can 
be  overcome  generally  is  by  exhibiting  Christian  worship  in  its  purity.  The 
Liturgy  in  Hebrew  would  tend  to  remove  the  other  part  of  the  prejudice,  that 
Christianity  is  a  Gentile  system,  and  as  such  must  be  at  once  rejected.  * 

Funds  were  started  for  a  "  Hebrew  Christian  Church  and 
Mission  at  Jerusalem,"  and  the  sum  of  £$40  was  collected  in 
1835.  By  December  of  1836  the  publication  of  the  entire 
Liturgy  in  Hebrew  had  become  an  accomplished  fact.  Nico- 
layson had  come  home  that  year  in  order  to  confer  with  the 
Committee,  and,  as  a  result  of  this  conference,  the  proposed 
plans  for  a  church  and  other  buildings  were  published  in 
January  1837,  and  formed  the  main  and  absorbing  topics  of 
the  speeches  by  Nicolayson  and  others 'at  Exeter  Hall  in  that 
year ;  and,  indeed,  for  three  years  in  succession,  namely, 
1836-7-8,  resolutions  to  erect  a  church  were  carried  at  the 
Annual  Meeting. 

The  President  of  the  Society,  Sir  Thomas  Baring,  had 
already  been  requested  to  approach  Lord  Palmerston  on  the 
subject.  He  immediately  ordered  the  British  Consul-General 
in  Egypt  to  apply  to  the  Pasha  of  Egypt,  in  the  name  of  His 
Britannic  Majesty's  Government,  for  permission  to  erect,  and 
hold  possession  of,  a  church  and  mission  premises  at  Jerusalem. 

*  Jewish  Intelligence^  1835,  p.  I. 
N  2 

180  JERUSALEM    MISSION  [1830 

Nicolayson  had  been  admitted  to  Holy  Orders  by  the 
Bishop  of  London  in  Lent,  and  was  sent  back  to  Palestine 
in  June,  with  authority  to  purchase  land  for  the  church, 
mission  house,  and  a  burial-ground.  It  was  found,  however, 
impracticable  to  obtain  at  once  the  intended  site  ;  and  so 
he  acquired  buildings  suitable  for  a  temporary  church  and  his 
own  residence. 

It  was  felt  that  a  well-established  and  well-directed 
mission  at  Jerusalem,  with  a  church,  Anglican  Liturgy  in 
Hebrew,  Hebrew  Christian  congregation  and  the  pastoral  care 
of  converts,  would  be  the  means  of  great  good  to  Palestine 
itself,  and  of  incalculable  benefit  to  all  missionary  enterprise 
amongst  the  Jews  of  the  East.  The  staff  of  missionaries  was 
increased  by  the  coming  of  G.  W.  Pieritz  and  A.  Levi, 
and  services  were  commenced  in  the  temporary  chapel,  in 
Hebrew  daily,  and  in  English,  German,  and  Arabic  on  Sunday. 
Shortly  afterward  Nicolayson  completed  the  purchase  of 
a  piece  of  ground  on  Mount  Zion,  at  a  cost  of  ;^8oo. 

The  conversion  of  a  rabbi  about  this  time  alarmed  the 
Jews,  who  were  now  interdicted  by  ban  from  holding  com- 
munication with  the  mission.  This  hindered  progress  for 
a  while. 

The  arrival  of  Mr.  A.  Gerstmann  with  his  medicine  chest, 
and  M.  P.  Bergheim  as  assistant,  at  Jerusalem,  in  the 
early  days  of  1839,  gave  a  new  impulse  to  missionary  activity. 
A  terrible  revelation  of  poverty  and  sickness  amongst  Jerusa- 
lem Jews  was  the  speedy  result  of  their  medical  visits, 
and  Nicolayson  made  up  his  mind  that  means  must  be 
devised  to  alleviate  the  appalling  wretchedness  which  was 
encountered.  "  Our  plan,"  he  wrote  to  Dr.  McCaul,  "  is  to  form 
something  that  may  grow  into  an  hospital."  A  sermon  preached 
by  the  latter  in  the  Society's  Chapel,  Palestine  Place,  as  the 
result  of  this  letter,  produced  ;^I5  4^.,  which  formed  the 
nucleus  of  the  Fund  for  Poor  Sick  Jews  at  Jerusalem. 

The  prospects  of  the  mission  steadily  improved,  and 
Nicolayson  wrote : 

Nothing  was  able  to  stand  against  the  doctor,  or  rather,  against  the  necessity 
and  eagerness  of  the  poor  Jews  for  medical  aid.     Ever  since  his  arrival  Mr. 

1840]  FIJiST    BAPTISMS  181 

Pieritz  (and  Levi,  too,  by  accompanying  Mr.  Gerttmann  on  hb  visits)  has  had 
his  hands  full  again  of  direct  missionary  work  with  the  Jews ;  and  I  am  thankful 
to  God  that  the  appearance  of  things  is  very  promising  at  present 

On  the  second  Sunday  after  Easter,  April  14th,  Nico- 
layson  had  the  privil^e  of  baptizing  an  Israelite  family 
named  Rosenthal,  probably  the  first  Jewish  family  received 
into  the  Church  at  Jerusalem  since  early  Christian  times. 
Mrs.  Rosenthal  afterward  became  quite  a  missionary  amongst 
Jewesses.  This  was  followed,  on  Whitsun-Day,  by  the  baptism 
of  Paul  Hyman  Sternchuss,  who  later  on  entered  the  service 
of  the  Society. 

According  to  the  Rev.  W.  R.  Fremantle,  subsequently  the 
revered  Dean  of  Ripon,  who  visited  Jerusalem  at  this  time, 
there  were  about  12,000  Jews  in  Palestine,  of  whom  5,000 
were  in  the  Holy  City.  He  spoke  very  highly  of  the 
labours  of  Nicolayson,  and  his  four  Hebrew  Christian  fellow- 

On  February  loth,  1840,  the  church  was  commenced  on  the 
old  foundation  of  a  high  wall  built  on  the  solid  rock  of  Zion, 
and  by  the  end  of  March  the  building  was  raised  to  the  first 
story.  Shortly  afterward,  the  work  was  interrupted  by  the 
death  of  Mr.  Hillier,  the  surveyor  and  architect,  who  had 
recently  been  sent  from  London  to  conduct  the  building 
operations :  whilst  hostilities  between  the  European  Powers 
and  the  Viceroy  of  Egypt  compelled  the  British  Consul, 
and  almost  all  the  mission  staff,  to  quit  Jerusalem  on 
September  8th,  Nicolayson  and  his  family  only  remaining. 
Progress  was  now  stopped  for  a  time.  A  little  later,  Nicolay- 
son came  to  London,  but  left  again  for  Palestine  on  April 
22nd,  with  Mr.  J.  W.  Johns,  the  newly-appointed  architect,  a 
farewell  service  having  been  held  in  the  Episcopal  Jews'  Chapel 
the  preceding  evening.  Bergheim,  the  medical  assistant, 
returned  thither  on  August  31st,  with  the  good  tidings  that 
Dr.  E.  Macgowan,  who,  in  a  spirit  of  devotion  to  the  cause, 
was  resigning  a  lucrative  practice  at  Exeter,  would  shortly 
arrive  to  take  charge  of  the  hospital.  The  new  church 
was  to  be  called,  "  The  Apostolic  Anglican  Church  at 



Pioneer  Work—NecoMlty  and  advantages— Arabia— Provinces  and  people- 
Jews  of  Yemen— Wolff  s  and  Stem's  descriptions— Introduction  of  Ciirlstlanlty 
-The  Koran  or  the  Sword— Jewish  victims— Conquests  of  Islam— Wolff  In  Yemen— 
His  preaching— Baptisms. 

WE  must  now  turn  to  the  very  interesting  remnant 
of  Israel  inhabiting  Arabia.  Here,  as  elsewhere, 
Dr.  Wolff,  and  later  on  Dr.  Stern,  did  yeoman 
service.  They  went  here,  there,  and  everywhere,  and  in  fact 
very  few  Jewish  communities  in  the  East  were  not  visited  by 
one  or  other,  or  both,  of  these  distinguished  missionaries  of 
the  Society. 

It  is  absolutely  necessary  for  a  missionary  society  to  have 
some  one  in  its  ranks  able  to  act  the  part  of  explorer  and 
pioneer  to  regions  as  yet  beyond  the  scope  of  its  operations. 
The  Rev.  A.  A.  Isaacs  makes  some  very  relevant  and  apposite 
remarks  on  this  kind  of  work  : 

The  inadequacy  of  the  agency,  through  which  an  attempt  is  made  to  go  into  all 
the  world  and  preach  the  Gospel  to  every  creature,  is  a  fact  which  no  one  can 
gainsay.  The  fields  of  labour  which  are  continually  presenting  themselves  to  the 
attention  of  missionary  committees,  are  not  only  numerous,  but  they  occasionally 
offer  new,  or  changed  aspects,  which  demand  new,  or  increased  effort.  These 
exigencies  cannot  be  met  with  the  very  inadequate  resources  over  which  such 
Committees  have  control ;  and  they  sometimes  necessitate  the  relinquishment  of 
one  sphere  of  operation,  in  order  that  another  may  be  occupied.  Nor  is  it  always 
possible  to  form  definite  conclusions  on  the  wisdom  of  these  changes,  until  the 
trial  has  been  made.  It  is  possible,  that  the  new  base  of  operation  may  not 
prove  as  advantageous  and  successful  as  there  may  have  been  reason  to 
anticipate.  To  meet  the  necessities  of  these  cases,  missionary  journeys 
are  an  almost  invariable  characteristic  of  missionary  work.  The  many  towns  and 
villages  which  may  be  accessible  are  in  this  way  reached,  even  when  they  cannot 
be  occupied.  The  living  voice  of  the  messenger  arrests  and  instructs  if  only  for  a 
time  ;  and  the  circulation  of  Bibles,  books,  and  tracts,  are  the  precious  seed  when 
the  messenger  has  withdrawn,  which  in  the  hand  of  the  Lord,  is  oft  times  fruitful 
in  blessing. 

1830-40]  YEMEN    DISTRICT  183 

Nor  b  this  mode  of  operation  without  its  distinctive  advantages.  Continued 
aggression  on  any  one  of  the  strongholds  of  Satan  very  generally  leads  to  combined 
and  organised  effort  to  resist  and  undermine.  Rabbinical  intolerance  gathers 
together  its  forces,  and  uses  its  influence  to  destroy  the  effects  of  the  Gospel.  But 
when  the  soldiers  of  Christ  pass  in  rapid  succession  from  one  stronghold  to 
another,  the  enemies  of  the  truth  are  not  always  prepared  for  the  assault.  An 
interest  in  their  message,  and  an  anxiety  to  become  better  acquainted  with 
revealed  truth,  very  often  are  the  results  of  these  desultory  operations,  and  before 
any  prejudicial  influence  can  be  exercised,  the  agents  pass  on  to  another  part 
of  the  field. 

From  every  missionary  station,  arrangements  are  almost  invariably  made  for 
these  periodical  campaigns.     Old  ground  is  revisited,  and  new  ground  is  broken.* 

A  brief  description  of  this  ancient  land  and  its  peoples, 
is  necessary.  Arabia,  called  by  the  Turks  Arabistan,  and  by 
the  Arabs  "The  Island  of  the  Arabs,"  forms  the  most  westerly 
peninsula  of  Southern  Asia,  with  an  area  of  1,172,000  square 
miles,  length,  1,500  miles,  and  breadth,  800  miles.  The 
division  of  Arabia  into  three  provinces,  viz.,  Arabia  Petroea 
(the  stony),  Arabia  Felix  (the  blest),  and  Arabia  Deserta  (the 
desert),  dates  from  the  time  of  the  Greek  geographers,  Strabo 
and  Ptolemy. 

The  chief  ports  are  Jeddah  and  Hodeida,  on  the  Red  Sea, 
Islam  is  the  religion  of  the  country,  which,  with  its  holy  cities 
of  Mecca  and  Medina,  is  the  very  centre  of  Mohammedanism. 
The  followers  of  Mohammed,  who  was  born  at  Mecca  in  571, 
conquered  the  whole  territory,  and  Mohammedanism  had 
displaced  Judaism  and  Sabaism,  the  previous  prevailing 
forms  of  worship,  by  the  end  of  the  sixth  century.  The 
Koran  was  written  in  Arabic  (622-632).  Arabia  was  con- 
quered by  the  Turks  (1518-39). 

Yemen  is  the  southern  and  most  fertile  part  of  Arabia 
Felix,  bordering  on  the  Red  Sea  from  Jizan  to  the  Straits  of 
Bab-el-Mandeb,  with  an  area  of  77,000  square  miles,  and  a 
population  of  about  three-quarters  of  a  million.  According 
to  E.  Stanley  Poole,  in  Smith's  Dictionary  of  the  Bible^ 
Yemen  embraced  originally  the  most  fertile  districts  of 
Arabia,  and  the  frankincense  and  spice  country.  Its  name, 
signifying  "the  right  hand"  (and  therefore   "south"   cf,  St 

♦  Biography  of  the  Rev.  H,  A.  Stem,  D,D,,  p.  95, 

184  WOLFF    IN   ARABIA  [1830 

Matthew  xiL  42),  is  supposed  to  have  given  rise  to  the  appella- 
tion €v8aiii<ov  (Felix),  which  the  Greeks  applied  to  a  much 
more  extensive  region.  Sana,  or  Sanaa,  is  the  capital,  about 
88  miles  north-east  of  Hodeida.  The  present  population  is  from 
40,000  to  50,000,  of  whom  20,000  are  said  to  be  Jews.  The 
first  mention  of  these  in  the  Society's  literature  occurs  in  the 
Journal  of  Dr,  Wolff,  for  1825,  who  was  then  visiting  Persia. 
He  says : 

The  acquaintance  of  the  Jews  of  Yemen  must  be  of  the  highest  importance 
to  all  the  friends  of  Israel.  They  are  the  descendants  of  those  Jews  who 
were  taken  from  Jerusalem  by  Nebuchadnezzar,  and  then  settled  themselves  in 
Yemen.  ...  No  Jews  whom  I  ever  saw  have  such  Abrahamic  countenances,  and 
manner  of  expressing  themselves,  as  those  few  Jews  of  Yemen  whom  I  saw  at 
Bussorah  and  Bushire. 

According  to  Dr.  Stern,  the  time  when  the  Jews  first  settled 
there  is  involved  in  uncertainty :  their  own  tradition  asserts, 
that,  during  the  invasion  of  Palestine  by  Nebuchadnezzar 
they  fled  to  Egypt,  and  subsequently  wandered  farther  south- 
ward, till  they  came  to  the  mountains  of  Arabia,  where  they 
permanently  established  their  homes.  The  fertility  of  the 
soil,  the  salubrity  of  the  climate,  and  the  picturesqueness  of 
the  scenery,  rapidly  augmented  the  little  colony  by  attracting 
fresh  immigrants,  who,  on  those  distant  plains  and  woody 
slopes,  found  that  peace  and  quiet,  which  their  own  fated  and 
distracted*  country  no  longer  afforded.  Inured  to  hardships, 
and  nurtured  in  war,  these  foreign  colonists,  by  a  dexterous 
application  of  their  prowess  and  valour,  soon  gained  an  ascen- 
dency over  the  wild  tribes  by  whom  they  were  surrounded  ; 
and  the  exiles  from  Judaea  in  a  very  short  time  reigned,  where 
at  first  they  had  only  been  tolerated.  For  nearly  six  hundred 
years  the  power  and  religion  of  the  Hebrews  predominated 
throughout  Arabia  :  trade,  under  their  sway,  increased  ;  agri- 
culture flourished,  and  the  flocks  and  herds  multiplied  on 
every  tract  of  pasture-land.  * 

Christianity  was  introduced  into  Southern  Arabia  toward 
the  close  of  the  second  century,  and  about  a  century  later  it 

*  Dr.  Stern  in  Journal  of  a  Missionary  Journey  into  Arabia  Felix,  Jnvish 
Intelligence,  1857,  p.  146, 

I&io]  JEWS    OF    ARABIA  186 

had  made  great  progress.  It  flourished  chiefly  in  the  Yemen, 
where  many  churches  were  built,  and  also  rapidly  advanced 
to  other  portions  of  Arabia  through  the  kingdom  of  Htreh 
and  the  contiguous  countries,  Ghass&n,  and  other  parts.  The 
persecutions  of  the  Christians,  and  more  particularly  of  those 
of  Nejr&n  by  the  Tubba'  Zu-n-Nuw4s,  brought  about  the  fall 
of  the  Himyarite  dynasty  by  the  invasion  of  the  Christian 
ruler  of  Abyssinia.  Judaism  was  propagated  in  Arabia 
probably  during  Biblical  times,  and  became  very  prevalent 
in  the  Yemen,  and  in  the  Hij^z,  especially  at  Kheybar  and 
Medina,  where  there  are  said  to  be  still  tribes  of  Jewish 
extraction.  In  the  period  immediately  preceding  the  birth 
of  Mohammed,  another  class  had  sprung  up,  who,  disbelieving 
the  idolatry  of  the  greater  number  of  their  countrymen,  and 
with  leanings  toward  Judaism,  looked  to  a  revival  of  what 
they  called  *  the  religion  of  Abraham.'  The  promulgation 
of  the  Mohammedan  religion  overthrew  Paganism,  and 
also  almost  wholly  superseded  the  religions  of  the  Bible 
in  Arabia.* 

The  Jews  of   Arabia  were  the  earliest   victims.      Dean 
Milman  thus  relates  the  wars  against  them  : 

The  Jews  were  amon^  the  first  of  whom  Mohammed  endeavoured  to  make 
proselytes — the  first  opponents — ^and  the  first  victims  of  the  sanguinary  teaching 
of  the  new  Apostle.  For  centuries,  a  Jewish  kingdom,  unconnected  either  with 
the  Jews  of  Palestine  or  Babylonia,  had  existed  in  that  district  of  Arabia  called, 
in  comparison  to  the  stony  soil  of  one  part  and  the  sandy  waste  of  the  other, 
Arabia  the  Happy.  .  .  .  Though  they  had  lost  their  royal  state,  the  Jews  were  still 
nnxnerous  and  powerful  in  the  Arabian  peninsula ;  they  formed  separate  tribes,  and 
maintained  the  fierce  independence  of  their  Ishniaelitish  brethren.  Mohammed 
manifestly  designed  to  unite  all  those  tribes  under  his  banner.  While  his  creed 
declared  implacable  war  against  the  worshippers  of  fire,  it  respected  the  doctrine 
of  the  Jews.  .  .  .  But  the  Jews  stood  aloof  in  sullen  unbelief;  they  disclaimed 
a  Messiah,  sprung  from  the  loins  of  Hagar,  the  l)ondwoman.  Nothing  remained 
but  to  employ  the  stem  proselytism  of  the  swurd  ;  the  tone  of  Mohammed  changed 
at  once.t 

Tribe  after  tribe  was  defeated ;  their  castle-fastnesses  could  not  sustain  the 

*  Smith's  Dictionary  of  the  Bible^  sub  verb.  **  Arabia." 
\  History  of  the  Jews  y  Bk.  xxii.,  p.  85  et  seq. 

186  WOLFF    IN    ARABIA  [1830 

assaults  of  the  impetuous  warriors  who  now  ¥rent  forth  under  the  banner  of 
Islam.  • 

The  rapid  spread  of  Mohammedanism  under  Mohammed 
himself,  and  his  successors,  Abu-beker,  Omar,  Othman,  AH, 
and  succeeding  Caliphs,  was  wonderful  indeed.  The  conquest 
of  Syria  occupied  but  five  years  ;  of  Persia,  twenty  ;  of  Egypt, 
three,  and  of  all  North  Africa,  fifty.  The  ultimate  dominion 
of  Mohammedanism  was  extensive  and  widespread  ;  as  Dean 
Mil  man  eloquently  says,  its  work  had  been 

to  reduce  the  followers  of  2^roaster  to  a  few  scattered  communities,  to  invade 
India,  and  tread  under  foot  the  ancient  Brahminism,  as  well  as  the  more  wide- 
spread Buddhism,  even  beyond  the  Ganges ;  to  wrest  her  most  ancient  provinces 
from  Christianity ;  to  subjugate  by  degrees  the  whole  of  the  Eastern  dominions, 
and  Roman  Africa  from  Egypt  to  the  Straits  of  Gibraltar  ;  to  assail  Europe  at  its 
western  extremity  ;  to  possess  the  greater  part  of  Spain,  and  even  to  advance  to 
the  banks  of  the  Loire  ;  more  than  once  to  make  the  elder  Rome  tremble  for  her 
security,  and  finally  to  establish  itself  in  triumph  within  the  new  Rome  of 

In  1836  Wolff  paid  a  visit  to  the  Jews  of  Yemen.  He 
was  told  by  More  Joseph  Alkaree,  the  chief  rabbi  of  Sanaa, 
that  they  received  all  their  books  from  the  Jews  of  India  ;  and 
also  that  the  Jews  of  Yemen  did  not  return  to  Jerusalem  after 
the  captivity  of  Babylon  :  and  when  Ezra  wrote  a  letter  to  the 
princes  of  the  captivity  residing  at  Tanaan,  one  day*s  journey 
from  Uzal,  />.,  Sanaa,  inviting  them  to  return  to  Jerusalem, 
they  replied, 

Daniel  predicts  the  murder  of  Messiah,  and  another  destruction  of  Jerusalem 
and  the  Temple,  and  therefore  we  will  not  go  up  until  He  shall  have  scattered 
the  power  of  the  holy  people,  until  the  2,900  days  are  over. 

Wolff  expounded  to  the  Jews  of  Sanaa  the  fifty-third 
chapter  of  Isaiah ;  and  shewed  them  that  the  sufferings  of  Jesus 
Christ  are  described  therein.  He  baptized  the  Jews  Menahem, 
More  David,  and  Yehya-Zaleh,  together  with  their  whole 
families,  in  the  Jewish  quarter,  which  was  called  Kahal  Alye- 
hood  ;  and  he  left  them  New  Testaments.  Polygamy  exists 
among  the  Jews  of  Yemen.   Wolff  asked  them  how  many  wives 

•  History  of  Latin  Christianity^  Bk.  iv.,  ch.  i.,  p.  184, 
ild.  Bk.  iv.  ch.i.,  163. 

1840]  JEWS    OF    SANAA  187 

they  married  in  general  ?  They  reph'ed,  "  Only  two ;  and  even 
then  there  is  a  devil  among  them."  This  they  said  with  the 
greatest  simplicity.  They  had  eighteen  synagogues,  and  the 
name  of  the  greatest  was  Keneese  Beit  Alusta.  They  desired 
Wolff  to  dine  with  them,  but  his  health  did  not  allow  him  to 
accept  their  hospitality.  The  name  of  another  Jew  whom 
he  baptized  was  Joseph  Nagash.* 

We   shall   return  to  this  interesting   country  in   Chapter 

*  Travels  and  Adventures  of  Dr.  Wolffs  vol.  iL  pp.  301-3. 



Andent  Klairdom  of  Barbary— Tripoli— Tool*— Alirerla  and  Morocco— Ptonoor 
work  io  Tripoli  and  Tools  by  Nicolaysoo  aod  Panoao— VUlt  to  Alfflor»— Ewald 
also  gotM  tboro— Toola  MUaloo  estabUslMd  by  Ewald— AoccoMfol  bcgloolog-  *'  Io 
laboors  mora  aboodant*'— MUsiooary  Jonmeya— Oroat  desire  for  the  Bible— Visible 
effects  of  the  work— Other  ageots— Mission  suspended* 

THE  attention  of  the  Committee  had  been  drawn  in  the 
year  1828  to  the  very  large  number  of  Jews  living 
in  the  Barbary  States.  Before  describing  the  efforts 
consequently  made  on  their  behalf,  it  may  be  necessary  to  say 
that  the  ancient  country  of  Barbary  was  co-extensive  with 
that  district  of  Africa  bordering  on  the  Mediterranean  Sea, 
reaching  from  Egypt  to  the  pillars  of  Hercules  in  the  Atlantic 
Ocean,  and  lying  between  25^  E.  and  10^  W.  It  comprised 
the  countries  of  Barca,  Tripoli,  Tunisia,  Algeria  and  Morocco, 
and  was  2,000  miles  from  east  to  west  The  original  inhabit- 
ants, or  Berbers,  from  which  the  name  of  the  country  was 
derived,  came  from  Arabia  and  other  parts  of  Asia.  Its 
position,  indeed,  gave  great  facilities  to  European  as  well 
as  to  Asiatic  and  African  colonization,  and  consequently  the 
population  became  of  a  very  mixed  character :  Phoenicians, 
Arabs,  Moors  (from  Mauritania  about  A.D.  1400),  Turks,  Jews, 
Italians,  Spanish,  Egyptians,  Persians,  etc. 

The  whole  district  was  under  the  sway  of  Carthage  for  some 
hundreds  of  years,  eventually  falling  to  the  Roman  power. 
The  Vandals,  under  Genseric,  conquered  it  A.D.  439,  and,  after 
a  short  Roman  re-conquest,  it  was  finally  seized  in  697  by 
the  Arabs,  who  call  it  Moghreb,  />.,  "the  West,"  and 
the  inhabitants  Moghrebin.  The  Jews  form  a  very  consider- 
able part  of  the  population  of  these  countries,  numbering 
over  250,000,  and  are  very  widely  known  as  Moehrebi,  or 
Mugrabiy  />.,  "  western  "  Jews. 

1830-40]  TUNISIA    AND    ALGERIA  189 

Tripoli  is  the  least  fertile  province  of  ancient  Barbary,  and 
including  Barca, extends  along  the  coast  from  Egypt  to  Tunisia, 
being  bounded  on  the  south  by  the  Deserts  of  Libya  and 
Sahara.  It  is  under  Turkish  sovereignty,  which  is  merely 
nominal  in  that  part  of  the  province  bordering  on  the  barren 
land.  The  total  population  is  only  about  1,200,000;  with  an 
average  of  hardly  three  persons  to  the  square  mile.  There 
are  about  10,000  Jews  throughout  the  country. 

Tunisia,  the  Jezirat-el-Moghreby  "  Isle  of  the  West "  of  the 
Arabs,  and  Africa  Propria  of  the  Romans,  is  the  smallest  of 
the  old  Barbary  States,  having  an  area  of  about  45,000 
square  miles,  and  lying  between  Tripoli  on  the  east,  and 
Algeria  on  the  west.  It  is  simply  covered  with  remains  of 
the  old  Roman  occupation.  The  population  amounts  to  two 
millions,  mostly  Arabs,  and  Berbers,  or,  as  they  are  called  in 
the  regency,  Kabyles,  with  60,000  Jews,  and  45,000 
Europeans — French,  Italians,  Spanish  and  Maltese.  Tunisia 
came  under  the  sovereignty  of  Turkey  in  1575,  and  was 
governed  by  an  hereditary  Bey.  Since  1881  it  has  been  a 
French  Protectorate. 

Algeria,  the  middle  State  of  Barbary,  comprising  the  pro- 
vinces of  Algiers,  Oran,  and  Constantine,  covers  an  area  of 
184,474  square  miles.  The  country,  originally  inhabited  by 
Berbers,  came  under  the  power  of  the  Romans,  Vandals  and 
Arabs  successively,  like  the  other  Barbary  States.  In  the 
sixteenth  century  it  was  invaded  from  Spain,  but  the  country 
belonged  to  the  Turks  from  its  conquest  in  15 16,  by  the 
corsair  Barbarossa,  until  1830,  when  it  became  a  French 
colony.  The  Kabyles  and  Arabs  withstood  the  French  until 
1847,  when  these  warlike  tribes  were  overcome.  The  total 
population  of  Algeria  amounts  to  about  four  millions,  of 
whom  the  Berbers  (Kabyles)  and  Arabs  form  the  greatest 
proportion  ;  there  are  about  200,000  French,  a  considerable 
number  of  Italians,  Spanish,  Maltese,  and  57,000  Jews. 

The  country  of  Morocco,  answering  to  the  ancient 
Mauritania,  is  from  200,000  to  220,000  square  miles  in  extent, 
and  stretches  from  the  Mediterranean  Sea  and  the  Atlantic 
Ocean,  on  the  north  and  west,  to  the  Sahara  desert  on  the 

190  BARBARY   STATES  [1830 

south,  and  Algeria  on  the  east.  The  land  bordering  on  the 
coast,  called  the  Tell  country,  is  the  most  fertile,  although 
the  Atlantic  shore  is  flat  and  sandy.  The  population  is  about 
six  millions.  The  Moors  are  the  dominant  race.  They  are 
descendants  of  those  expelled  from  Spain  in  the  fifteenth 
century,  after  the  conquest  of  Granada  by  Ferdinand  and 
Isabella,  and  inhabit  the  coast  towns  principally.  There  are 
also  Arabs,  Berbers  (found  in  the  south,  or  hill  country,  beyond 
the  Atlas  Mountains),  Europeans,  Negroes,  and  1 50,000  Jews. 

As  Messrs.  Nicolayson  and  Farman  were  at  Malta,  whither 
they  had  retreated  when  obliged  to  leave  Palestine,  they  were 
deputed  to  visit  the  northern  coast  of  Africa  on  a  mission 
of  enquiry.  They  set  sail  from  Malta  on  November  loth, 
1829,  and  arrived  at  Tripoli,  the  capital  of  the  regency  of  the 
same  name,  on  the  i6th,  bringing  with  them  a  large  supply  of 
Holy  Scriptures  and  tracts.  The  Jews  then  numbered  6,000  in 
the  province,  and  from  3,000  to  5,000  in  the  town  of  Tripoli, 
principally  natives,  speaking  Arabic,  with  a  good  sprinkling 
of  European  Jewish  settlers.  They  were  much  oppressed 
by  the  Turkish  officials,  and  relegated  to  a  separate  quarter 
of  the  city  of  Tripoli.  Nicolayson  and  his  fellow-labourer 
visited  their  synagogues.  The  former  having  observed  to  an 
old  rabbi  that  he  would  probably  live  and  die  in  Tripoli, 
received  for  answer,  "  No,  no !  in  Jerusalem,  please  God  ;  in 
Jerusalem,  in  Terra  Santa." 

The  missionaries  visited  the  island  of  Gerba,  then  went  on  to 
Sfax,  and  Susa,  and  arrived  at  Tunis,  the  capital,  on  December 
26th.  There  they  found  30,000  Jews,  comprised  of  three 
classes — native  Arabic,  Italian  or  Livornese  from  Leghorn, 
and  Spanish,  descendants  of  those  expelled  from  Spain 
in  1492.  After  a  stay  of  nearly  three  weeks,  till  January 
iSth,  1830,  the  deputation  came  to  the  conclusion  that  it  was 
desirable  to  establish  a  mission  station  at  Tunis,  and  that 
although  Jewish  fanaticism  was  extreme  and  obstacles  great, 
there  was  reason  to  believe  that  missionary  prospects  were 

Nicolayson  landed  at  Algiers  on  April  ist,  1831,  with 
Hebrew,    Arabic,   French,  Italian    and    Spanish   Scriptures. 

l84o]  EWALD    AT    ALGIERS  191 

The  Jews  were  numerous,  numbering  4,cxx>  families,  and 
greatly  elated  at  their  sudden  and  complete  emancipation  by 
the  French  in  the  previous  year.  The  Jews  spoke  every 
language  current  in  the  Mediterranean,  but  chiefly  Arabic. 
From  his  enquiries,  and  the  intercourse  he  was  able  to  have 
with  the  Jews  of  Algiers,  where  he  remained  till  May  2ist, 
Nicolayson  came  to  the  conclusion  that  the  time  had  come  for 
a  missionary  effort  amongst  the  Jews  of  both  town  and 

Accordingly,  the  Rev.  F.  C.  Ewald  was  sent  to  Algiers, 
where  he  arrived  on  September  17th,  1832.  His  reception 
was  not  encouraging.  The  moment  he  landed  he  was  told  by 
the  Custom  House  authorities,  when  they  saw  the  Bibles 
which  he  had  brought  with  him  for  distribution,  "  You  have 
chosen  the  worst  part  of  the  world  for  your  good  intentions  ; 
there  is  nothing  to  be  done  in  that  way  here."  His  answer 
was,  "  This  book,  the  Bible,  has  already  done  great  things, 
and  I  trust  the  Lord  will  bless  it  also  in  this  country." 

Discouragement  crossed  Ewald  at  every  turn.     He  said  : 

AH  those  whom  I  met  with,  and  to  whom  I  stated  the  object  of  my  mission, 
told  me  that  there  was  nothing  to  be  done  here,  because  the  people  are  too  bad — 
that  the  Jews  are  the  worst  set  of  people  that  exist  in  the  world — and  that  most 
of  the  Europeans  who  have  come  over  are  the  outcasts  of  human  society.  I 
believe  this  to  be  true,  but  I  think,  because  this  is  true,  I  am  in  my  proper  place  : 
the  Gospel  of  Christ  is  able  to  convert  men,  to  convert  even  publicans  to 

Ewald  commenced  to  work  amongst  the  Jews,  speaking  to 
them  and  selling  his  Hebrew  Bibles.  On  one  day  he  sold  as 
many  as  nineteen  copies  for  twenty-six  francs,  a  large  sum 
from  poor  Jews ;  but  they  would  not  take  the  New  Testa- 
ment. He  also  hired  a  house,  intending  to  have  services  there 
for  Jews,  when  the  French  Governor-General  sent  him  a 
letter  forbidding  him  to  preach.  This  was  a  great  blow,  vir- 
tually suspending  missionary  operations,  and  Ewald  left 
Algiers  for  Malta.  The  French  authorities  subsequently 
forbade  the  Rev.  P.  J.  Oster  to  settle  in  Algeria  as  the 
Society's  missionary.  The  Committee  had  to  submit  to  this 
decision  and  await  a  more  convenient  season. 

The  Society's  mission  at  Tunis  was  established  in  1834  by 

192  BARBARY   STATES  [1830 

Ewald.  His  first  experience  on  landing  before  his  entry  into 
the  city  on  June  30th,  threw  great  light  upon  the  way  in 
which  Jews  were  oppressed  at  that  period.     He  said  : 

This  afternoon,  there  came  down  to  the  Goletta  from  Tunis  more  than  300 
Jews— males,  females,  and  children,  to  accompany  some  of  their  relations,  who 
are  leaving  this  country  to  go  to  Jerusalem.  I  was  informed  that  there  were  five 
who  were  leaving  for  the  Holy  City.  At  the  Goletta  they  took  leave ;  the  one 
party  proceeded  to  Alexandria,  and  the  other  returned  to  Tunis.  Here  I  saw  a 
specimen  of  the  cruel  treatment  the  poor  Jews  meet  with  in  this  country.  Some  of 
those  who  accompanied  their  brethren  to  the  Goletta  sat  down  upon  a  bank,  from 
which  they  could  look  to  the  ships  where  they  embarked  for  Jerusalem  ;  but  soon 
there  came  a  Moor  with  a  stick  in  his  hand,  and  drove  them  away.  An  old  Jew, 
with  a  white  beard,  spoke  some  words  to  the  man  which  I  could  not  hear,  as  I 
was  standing  too  fieur  off :  on  this  the  Moor  got  into  a  passion,  and  smote  the  poor 
Jew  repeatedly  in  his  face.  I  cannot  express  what  I  felt  when  seeing  this—"  O  ! 
that  the  salvation  of  Israel  would  come  out  of  Zion  ;  O  I  that  the  I^rd  would 
bring  back  the  captivity  of  His  people ;  then,"  and  only  then,  "  will  Jacob  rejoice, 
and  Israel  be  glad  ! "    Now  poor  Israel  is  oppressed  everywhere  more  or  less.* 

Ewald's  early  journals  are  of  extreme  interest,  and  shewed, 
as  he  said,  that  "  the  Lord  has  opened  a  door  for  His  Word  in 
this  dark  and  benighted  country."  Want  of  space  forbids  ex- 
tracts, but  the  following  summary  of  three  months'  labour 
speaks  for  itself: 

I  forward  you  my  journal  from  June  22nd  to  September  30th,  by  which  you  will 
perceive  that  it  seems  the  Ix)rd  will  open  a  door  of  usefulness  in  this  country. 
You  will  observe  that  our  gracious  Ix)rd  and  God  has  afforded  me  an  opportunity 
of  preaching  the  Gospel  of  salvation  to  numbers  of  Jews,  Mohammedans,  and  to 
some  Christians.  You  will,  I  am  sure,  rejoice  with  me  to  learn  that  the  Holy 
Scriptures  have  found  their  way  into  the  houses  of  Jews,  Mohammedans,  and 
Roman  Catholics. 

The  number  of  copies  sold  within  the  three  months  amounted 
to  392  ;  180  whole  Bibles,  in  Hebrew,  Arabic,  Italian,  Spanish, 
and  French  ;  33  New  Testaments,  in  Hebrew,  Arabic,  Italian, 
and  Greek ;  179  Psalms,  in  Hebrew,  Arabic,  and  Greek. 
During  the  same  time  Ewald  sold  about  300  tracts,  mostly 
Italian  and  Arabic,  and  gave  away  about  50  copies  of  the 
Holy  Scriptures.  The  establishment  of  mission  schools  also 
engaged  his  attention.  He  soon  after^\'ard  commenced  a 
service   on    Sunday,  and   had  much  intercourse  with   Jews, 

*  Monthly  Intelligence^  1834,  p.  27. 

1840]  ElVALD     VISITS    TOWNS    ON    THE    COAST  193 

including  several  rabbis,  one  of  whom  was  excommunicated  for 

visiting  him.     He  used  to  go  to  the  Jewish  quarter  with  his 

pockets  full  of  tracts,   and   his    journals   abound    in    most 

interesting  incidents. 

In  July  i834Ewald  went  to  Malta  for  a  short  time,  as  he 

was  suffering  much  from  ophthalmia  ;  and  on  his  way  back  to 

Tunis  he  visited   Monastir  and    Susa,  and   at  both  places 

was  able  to  proclaim  the  Gospel  to  numbers  of  Jews.     He 

arrived   at   Tunis  in   September,  and   at  once  resumed  his 

missionary  work     He  said  : 

I  have,  from  morning  till  night,  every  possible  opportunity  for  preaching  the 
unsearchable  riches  of  Christ  Jesus  our  Lord  to  Jews  and  Mohammedans,  sometimes 
in  my  own  dwelling-place — at  other  times  in  their  habitations,  or  shops,  S3ma- 
gogues,  or  in  the  market-place.  The  effect  is  known  only  to  Him  who  has 
promised  that  His  word  shall  not  return  void,  but  shall  accomplish  that  which  He 
pleases.  The  desire  to  read  and  to  possess  the  Word  of  God  is  daily  increasing 
among  the  remnant  of  Israel  in  this  country.  Even  the  very  poor  save  a  few 
shillings  in  order  to  buy  the  pearl  of  great  price.  Others  who  are  even  too  poor 
to  follow  their  example,  made  an  agreement  to  pay  a  few  pence  every  week. 
Doors  have  been  opened  for  the  circulation  of  the  Scriptures  along  the  coast  and 
in  some  places  in  the  interior.  * 

In  1835  Ewald  visited  places  along  the  northern  coast 
of  Africa — Soliman,  Nabal,  Hammamet,  Susa,  Monastir, 
Medea,  El-Djem,  Sfax,  Gabes,  Menzel,  Shara,  the  Island  of 
Gerba,  and  Tripoli,  and  he  preached  the  Gospel  to  multitudes 
of  Jews.  Thousands  of  copies  of  the  Bible  were  placed 
in  their  hands,  and  tens  of  thousands  of  tracts  circulated. 
Most  interesting  records  of  this  journey  remain,  to  one 
of  which  we  cannot  refrain  from  referring.  Ewald  was 
preaching  on  the  wild  shores  of  Gabes,  where  the  Jews  had 
never  so  much  as  heard  of  Christ,  when  the  general  cry 
was,  "  Give  me  a  Bible,  give  me  a  Bible  ;  here  is  the  money 
for  it ! "  so  great  was  the  demand  that  he  had  none  left  for 
other  places,  at  which  he  said,  the  poor  Jews  cried  out  for  the 
Word  of  God,  like  children  perishing  with  hunger. 

In  1836  Ewald  came  to  England  to  receive  ordination, 
leaving  Mr.  J.  Richardson,  an  African  traveller,  in  charge  of 
Tunis  ;    but    he    was    back    again   in   the    spring   of   1837, 

*  Monthly  Intelligence^  1835,  p.  72. 

104  BARBARY   STATES  [1830 

and  was  welcomed  by  Jews  and  Mohammedans  alike.    He 
then  wrote : 

For  years  I  have  laboured  in  this  dark  place,  have  sown  the  seed  often  in  tears, 
anxiously  waiting  for  the  heavenly  dew  to  fructify  it ;  here  and  there  I  saw  also 
the  seed  spring  up ;  I  beheld  blossoms,  but  the  ripe  fruit  in  the  ear  I  was  till  now 
not  privileged  to  see  ;  a  new  period  of  our  mission  seems,  however,  now  to  dawn 
upon  us.  We  perceive  that  the  work,  begun  in  the  name  of  the  Lord,  and  in 
dependence  upon  His  promises,  has  not  been  in  vain.  There  are  many,  and 
particularly  among  the  young  Jews,  who  are  convinced  of  the  truth  of  Christianity, 
yet  have  not  faith  enough  to  confess  it  publicly.  * 

There  could,  however,  be  no  doubt  that  a  great  work  had 
been  accomplished.     On  December  31st,  1838,  Ewald  wrote  : 

I  have  now  been  since  1832  on  the  coast  of  Africa.  It  has  been  my  privilege 
to  proclaim  the  Gospel  of  salvation  to  many  thousands  of  the  sons  of  Abraham 
during  that  period.  To  thousands  I  have  been  permitted  to  present  the  oracles  of 
God,  and  tens  of  thousands  of  tracts  have  been  put  into  circulation  among  the 
great  mass  of  the  Jewish  population  of  this  country.  The  effect  produced  by  these 
various  means  of  grace  may  be  thus  described  : — ^The  greater  part  of  the  Jews 
know  now  that  Christianity  is  not  a  system  of  idolatry,  but  a  revelation  of 
God  built  upon  the  Scriptures ;  that  the  precepts  of  the  Gospel  are  very  good 
and  beneficial  to  mankind.  They  acknowledge,  for  the  most  part,  thai  the  only 
difference  which  exists  between  the  Christians  and  the  Jews  is,  that  the  former 
maintain  the  Messiah  is  come,  and  Jesus  Christ  is  the  Messiah,  whilst  the 
latter  deny  both,  which  may,  however,  fairly  be  decided  by  the  Word  of 
God.  They  perceive  that  true  Christians  are  not  the  enemies  of  the  Jews,  but, 
on  the  contrary,  their  well-wishers,  who  provide  them  with  the  Scriptures,  and 
pray  for  their  real  welfare.  The  greater  part  of  them  are  now  acquainted  with 
the  written  Word  of  God,  and  we  are  able  to  appeal  with  more  effect  to  the 
testimony  of  Scripture  without  being  constantly  told,  **  These  passages  do  not 
occur  in  our  Bibles,  but  are  a  fabrication  of  yours,  in  order  to  make  us  believe 
that  Jesus  is  the  Messiah."  Some  have  also  a  favourable  opinion  of  Christianity ; 
a  few  are  convinced  of  the  truth  of  the  same;  but  as  long  as  those  obstacles 
mentioned  in  former  letters  remain,  there  is,  humanly  speaking,  no  possibility  that 
any  one  will  make  a  public  confession  of  Christ  Jesus.  Some  of  the  greatest 
admirers  of  the  Talmud  have  been  led  seriously  to  consider,  whether  that  book 
proceeded  from  God  or  from  the  imagination  of  man,  and  some  others  have  boldly 
declared  that  the  Talmud  is  contrary  to  the  Word  of  God.  These  are  some  of  the 
visible  effects  produced  by  the  establishing  of  a  mission  on  this  coast ;  and  as  yet 
nothing  more.     We  can,  therefore,  look  on  our  past  labours  only  as  preparatory,  t 

The  field  which  the  Barbary  States  offered  was  extensive, 
and  the  arduous  work  called  for  an  increase  of  workers.     Mr. 

*  fewish  Intelligence t  1837,  p.  251. 
t  IcU,  1839,  p.  84. 

i840]  CONVERTS    AND    ENQUIRERS  195 

N.  Davis,  therefore,  and  subsequently  Mr.  H.  London,  a  convert 
of  many  years*  standing,  were  sent  out  to  assist  Ewald. 
Unfortunately,  London  was  soon  called  away  to  his  rest 

A  learned  Leghorn  Jew  named  Kastenbaum,  converted 
through  Ewald's  instrumentality,  was  baptized  at  Tunis ;  an 
event  which  caused  no  small  stir  amongst  the  Jews,  who 
offered  him,  in  vain,  large  sums  of  money  to  return  to  Judaism. 

The  very  distressed  state  of  the  country  at  this  time  added 
to  the  difficulties  and  hindrances  in  the  work.  Speaking  of 
them,  Ewald  said  : 

The  line  of  separation  between  Jews  and  Christians  is  so  broad  and  so  plainly 
marked,  that  the  enquirer  after  truth  often  finds  it  almost,  if  not  altogether, 
impossible  to  obtain  the  most  scanty  subsistence,  if  he  does  not  continue  as 
heretofore  to  live  as  a  Jew.  If  he  shows  any  disposition  to  embrace  Christianity, 
he  is  cut  off  and  cast  out  to  beggary  and  want. 

Nineteen  enquiring  Israelites  were  all  of  them  more  or  less 
exposed  to  suffering  and  distress  on  account  of  their  conviction 
of  the  truth  of  Christianity. 

It  was  most  unfortunate  that  at  this  juncture,  owing  to 
repeated  attacks  of  ophthalmia,  Ewald  was  obliged  to  return 
home  in  1841.  During  his  residence  of  seven  years  in  North 
Africa,  a  vast  number  of  copies  of  the  Holy  Scriptures  had 
been  put  into  circulation  amongst  the  Jews  ;  and  this  was 
in  itself  a  great  missionary  achievement. 

O  2 



JewUh  Connanities^TarkesUm— Dr.  Wolff  at  Sarakhs,  Merv  and  Khiva— 
Jews  of  Balkh  and  Afghanistan— Wolff  at  Bokhara  In  iSaa-Aflrain  in  1846— His 
strange  welcome— Jews  and  the  Ameer— His  opinion  .of  Wolff. 

COMMUNITIES  of  Jews  are  to  be  found  in  the  various 
countries  of  Central  Asia,  including  Turkestan  and 
Afghanistan,  and  their  number  may  be  approxi- 
mately set  down  as  35,000.  Moreover,  some  of  the  smaller 
races  in  Central  Asia  have  been  thought  by  some  travellers  to 
be  remnants  of  the  Ten  Tribes,  resembling  somewhat,  as  they 
do,  the  Jews  in  physiognomy,  religious  customs,  and  certain 
traits  of  character.  All  this  is  uncertain,  and,  at  the  best, 
merely  tradition  or  conjecture. 

That  intrepid  missionary  and  traveller.  Dr.  Joseph  Wolff, 
so  often  quoted  in  these  pages,  who,  in  the  words  of  General 
Sir  Charles  Napier,*  had  "worked  harder  for  religion,  and 
gone  through  more  dangers  for  it,  with  a  brave  heart,  than 
any  man  living,"   said  : 

There  cannot  be  the  slightest  doubt  that  the  Jews  in  Khorassan,  Bokhara, 
Samarcand,  and  Balkh,  and  also  in  Shahr-sabz ;  as  well  as  the  descendants  of 
Tchingis  Khan,  and  the  Nogay  Tartars,  and  those  called  of  the  tribe  of  Naphtali, 
are  all  remnants  of  the  Ten  Tribes.  This  is  not  an  hypothesis,  but  a  relation 
of  their  own  assertions,  t 

Wolff's  travels  in  these  distant,  and  formerly  inaccessible^ 
regions  were  undertaken  after  he  had  ceased  to  be  a  missionary 
of  the  Society  ;  indeed,  as  we  have  seen  in  Chapter  XIV.,  it 
was  his  determination  to  make  this  journey,  instead  of 
coming  home,  which  led  him  to  sever  his  connexion  with 
the  Society.J  He  expressed  himself  grateful  for  the  kindness 
and  benefits  he  had  received,  and  anxious,  in  his  individual 

*  Travels  attd  Adventures  of  Dr.  Wolffs  vol.  ii.,  Preface,  p.  x. 
t  Ibid,  p.  62.  5:  See  page  155. 

1830.40]  WOLFF    AT    MERV  197 

capacity,  to  render  any  service  to  the  cause  that  might  be 
in  his  power.  His  object  now  was  to  proclaim  the  Gospel  to 
the  Jews  in  Bokhara  and  all  over  Afghanistan  and  India ;  as 
also  to  look  for  traces  of  the  Ten  Tribes  of  Israel,  and  to 
acquaint  himself  with  the  history  of  the  Jews  in  those  regions. 
On  his  way  he  passed  through  Sarakhs,  a  frontier  town  of 
Persia  and  Turkestan,  where  he  found  200  Jews,  called 
Moosaaee^  />.,  "followers  of  Moses."  They  dressed  like 
Turcomans  and  lived  in  tents.  He  stayed  with  them  several 
weeks  preaching  the  Gospel. 

At  Merv,  once  the  seat  of  the  Seljuk  Tatar  dynasty, 
formerly  belonging  to  Turkestan  but  now  in  Russian 
territory,  with  a  population  of  10,000,  Wolff  stayed  in 
the  tent  of  a  Jew,  and  made  acquaintance  with  one  Abd- 
Arrahman,  who  had  the  title  of  "  King  of  Righteousness."* 
Wolff  found  many  Jews  who  had  turned  Moslems,  and 
preached  to  all  alike.  He  then  proceeded  to  Khiva,  the  capital 
of  the  province  of  that  name,  with  a  population  of  12,000. 
The  Jews  of  Merv  and  Bokhara  told  him  that  the  in- 
habitants of  Khiva  were  chiefly  descendants  of  Hittites, 
Hivites,  and  Jebusites,  whose  ancestors  were  expelled  from 
Canaan  by  Joshua.  The  Jews  called  them  Philistines.! 
Wolff  next  went  to  Balkh,  one  of  the  oldest  cities  in  the 
world,  and  formerly  of  immense  size.  Its  ruins  extended  to  a 
circuit  of  twenty  miles.  Wolff  thought  it  must  have  been  a 
mighty  and  most  extensive  town, 

like  Rome  itself ;  for  one  goes,  often  for  a  whole  day,  through  a  desert  filled 
with  ruinous  houses,  and  then  one  comes  again  to  one  of  the  gates  of  Balkh  ;  by 
which  one  sees  what  were  the  dimensions  of  the  city.  J 

It  is  famous  as  the  supposed  birthplace  of  Zoroaster,  and 
the  capital  of  the  Greek  kingdom  of  Bactria,  founded  by  the 
successors  of  Alexander  the  Great.  It  is  still  called  the 
^*  Mother  of  Cities,"  but  its  present  population  is  only  about 
6,000.  Wolff  found  the  Jewish  quarter  the  best  in  the  town, 
like  a  city  of  its  own,  and  the  Jews,  who  numbered  500, 
kindhearted  and  hospitable  to  strangers.    They  looked  upon 

•   Travels  and  Adventures^  vol  i.  528. 

t  Id.^  vol.  ii.  pp.  121,  152.  +  Ibid,  p.  32, 

198  /EWS    IN    CENTRAL    ASIA  [1830 

him  as  a  "  Hadjee,"  because  he  had  been  to  Jerusalem. 
"  The>'  permitted  me,"  said  Wolff,  "  to  read  the  Law  of  Moses 
in  their  s}-nagogue.  and  to  preach  Christ  to  them." 

At  Dooab  the  people  naturally  took  offence  at  his  being 
called  '^  Hadjce,"  a  distinction  for  Mohammedans  only.  They 
c\'en  threatened,  "  \Vc  will  sew  ^-ou  up  in  a  dead  donkey,  bum 
>-ou  alive,  and  make  sausages  of  you "  unless  he  repeated 
their  creed. 

Wolff  as  also  Sir  Alexander  Barnes,  Sir  W.  Jones,  Carey, 
and  Mar^hman.  believed  the  Afghans  to  be  of  Jewish  descent, 
an  opcnioQ  held  by  many  in  the  present  day.  Wolff  speaks  of 
the  Sjtrmdi-Zdifyt.  that  is,  **  the  sons  of  Banich,"  as  betraying 
tibetr  Jewish  descent  by  this  name,  and  says  that  the  Afghans 
are  of  the  tribe  of  Benjamin,  and  not  of  the  Ten  Tribes,  who, 
OKXoniit^  to  the  Arab  tradition,  migrated  to  Afghanistan, 
when  they  ^-ere  driven  out  of  Kheybar,  in  Arabia,  by  Moham- 
med Wolff  stayed  at  Cabul  for  some  weeks  in  April  and 
May  1S32.  and  discussed  the  merits  of  Christianity  with  the 
Je^":!^  there*  They  quoted  to  him  the  saying  of  Maimonides, 
that  our  Lord  ^-as  the  cause  why  Israel  perished  by  the  sword  ; 
tv>  which  Wolff  made  reply  : 

Ye&  v«$  :  my  njitk»  was  scattered,  on  account  of  having  crucified  the  Lord  of 
i^'ffv  :  tvc  they  had  shed  the  blood  of  the  Just  One.  Maimonides  was  right  that 
?tfsu$  Chnst  vGod  tOessed  for  ever !)  was  the  cause  that  Israel  perished  by  the 

Twice  was  Wolff  in  Bokhara — in  1832,  and  again  in  1846. 
On  hi^  first  visit  he  was  dressed  like  a  Turcoman.  Having 
stattvl  his  object  U^  the  Prime  Minister,  the  latter  obtained 
S.>r  him  AU  Audience  \rith  the  Ameer,  when  he  was  denounced 
Ivy  Jews  AS  A  Russian  sp>\  By  his  wonderful  adroitness 
\Vv>lV  v^xvrcAme  aII  opposition,  and  received  the  royal 
ix-^wissivM^  ^^  gv^  wherxrwr  he  liked  among  the  Jews,  but 
hs^  WAX  ivM^^ivKlcu  U^  talk  about  religion  with  the  Mussulmans. 
Hs^  ^^^xx  twk  uj^  his  AUxie  with  a  Jew,  and  was  visited  by 
xvM\s^ \st  hi^  ^^^t^^^v  They  asserted  that  their  forefathers  had 
K\^^  x>AMtv>i  AX\A,v  by  the  kings  of  Assyria,  and  brought  to 
UaU^  v^t  J^<kh\  llAbixr  ^U  Samarcand),  Hara  (/>.  Bokhara), 
#hUW  m\V^  li>^A«  v*>^  theOxus).    They  numbered  from 

i84D]  IVOLFF    AT    BOKHARA  199 

lo^ooo  to  15,000,  and  were  distinguished  from  the  other 
inhabitants  by  their  dress,  physiognomy,  trades  and  pursuits. 
They  were  like  an  island  in  the  midst  of  the  surrounding 
ocean  of  a  large  mixed  population  of  180,000,  composed  of 
Tatshiks,  Nogays  (supposed  by  the  Jews  to  be  descendants 
of  Cain),  and  Tartars  (whom  the  Jews  believed  to  be  also  of 
Jewish  descent),  Afghans,  Marwee,  and  Osbecks.  The  city 
was  surrounded  by  a  wall,  fifteen  miles  in  circumference  with 
eleven  gates,  and  contained  360  mosques,  100  Mohammedan 
Colleges,  all  of  the  Sunni  sect,  many  caravanserais,  baths, 
bazaars,  and  an  old  palace  called  "The  Ark,"  built  1,000 
years  ago.  The  Jews  wore  a  small  cap,  and  a  girdle  round 
the  waist ;  they  were  dyers,  silk  traders,  charm-writers,  and 
medicine  men. 

Wolff  was  informed  that  there  was  a  colony  of  Polish  Jews 
in  Eastern  Turkestan.  Jews  from  Samarcand  and  Khokand 
came  to  see  him.  He  heard  that  300  Jews  had  turned 
Moslems.*  He  spent  three  months  in  Bokhara  conversing 
with  Jews,  especially  of  the  learned  class,  and  had  the 
satisfaction  of  baptizing  as  many  as  twenty.  These  men  had 
all  remained  faithful  when  he  visited  Bokhara  again. 

This  second  visit,  to  anticipate  a  few  years,  was  made  with 
the  purpose  of  ascertaining  the  fate  of  Stoddart  and  Conolly, 
two  Englishmen  who,  as  it  transpired,  had  been  murdered. 
Wolff's  arrival  in  the  city  was  witnessed  by  20,000  people, 
who  shouted,  "Welcome!"  and  his  costume,  consisting  of 
gown,  doctor*s  hood,  and  a  shovel  hat,  excited  no  small 
amount  of  astonishment.  Not  only  was  Wolff  dressed  in  full 
canonicals,  but  he  also  held  the  Bible  open  in  his  hand.  "  I 
felt,"  he  said,  "  my  power  was  in  the  Book,  and  that  its  might 
would  sustain  me."  The  collection  of  such  a  vast  crowd  was 
also  a  protection,  since  if  he  were  doomed  to  death,  it  would 
be  widely  known. 

Wolff,  describing  the  event,  says  : 

It  was  a  most  astonishing  sight ;  people  from  the  roofe  of  the  houses,  the  Nogay 
Tartars  of  Russia,  the  Cossacks  and  Girghese  from  the  deserts,  the  Tartar  from 

•  Researches  and  Missionary  Labours ^  p.  198. 

200  JEIVS    IN    CENTRAL    ASIA  [183040 

Yarkand  or  Chinese  Tartaiy,  the  merchant  of  Cashmeer,  the  Grandees  of  the  King 
on  horseback,  the  A%hans,  the  numerous  water-carriers,  stopped  still  and  looked 
at  me  ;  Jews  with  their  little  caps,  the  distinguishing  badge  of  the  Jews  of  Bokhara, 
the  inhabitants  of  Khokand,  politely  smiling  at  me ;  and  the  mullahs  from 
Chekarpoor  and  Sinde  looking  at  me  and  saying,  *'  Inglese  Saib  "  ;  veiled  women 
screaming  to  each  other,  "  Englees  Eljee  "  (English  Ambassador) ;  others  coming 
by  them  and  saying,  "  He  is  not  an  Eljee,  but  the  Grand  Derveesh."  * 

The  Jews  of  Bokhara  had  a  very  old  synagogue,  and  during 
WolfTs  stay  the  Ameer  gave  them  permission  to  repair  it 

The  Jews  also  possessed  an  ancient  MS.  of  the  Book  of 
Daniel  The  Ameer  shewed  a  predilection  for  the  Jewish 
religion,  and  frequently  attended  the  celebrations  of  the  Feast 
of  Taoemacles.t 

The  Ameer  asked  if  Wolff  could  raise  the  dead,  and  if  he 
knew  when  the  day  of  resurrection  would  take  place.  The 
Ameer  declared  that  Wolff  was  the  most  singular  being  he 
had  ever  seen.  He  was  not  like  an  Englishman,  or  a  Jew,  or 
a  Russian !  J  And  he  was  probably  right.  His  very 
singularity  saved  him  from  the  fate  of  Stoddart  and  Conolly. 

*  Narrative  of  a  Mission  to  Bokhara,  vol.  i.  p.  313. 
t  Id,  vol.  ii.  p.  2. 
X  Ibid,  p.  27. 

jflftb    pedob, 


6iolr  isL^  set  some  in  ti^e  c(inre(,  first  apostles. 

X  Cor.  xil  a8. 

tMit  f)ttn  tfierefore  nnto  Qonrselties,  anlr  to  all  ti^e  flocii,  ober  t(ie  todicf^ 
tf^e  Holp  Gf^ost  (at^  malre  pon  oberseers,  to  feelr  t^e  (f^nxtff  of  Golr,  to^fc^ 
l^e  datt  pnrdl^aselr  toitf)  1|is  oton  bloolr. 

Acts  xx.  a8. 

FIFTH  PERIOD,  184H849. 



Necessity  for  BpUcopal  Patronage  —  Patron  and  Vice- Patrons— History  of 
the  Jemsalem  Bishopric  movement— Predericic  William  IV.  — Chevalier  Bansen— 
The  5ociety  leads  the  way  —  Tmstees  —  5election  of  a  Bishop— Michael  5. 
Alexander—His  previous  career  as  rabbi— Baptism  and  Ordination— Consecration— 
His  farewell  sermon  and  departure— Deputation  to  King  of  Prnsshi— W.  B. 
Qhidstone— Death  of  the  Patron  and  the  President— Archbishop  of  Canterbury, 
the  new  Patron- Lord  Ashley  President— Annual  Sermons— By  the  Patron, 
Bishop  Blomfield  and  Bishop  Wliberforce-Other  preachers— Annual  meet- 
ings and  spealcers  —Vice- Patrons  —  Vice-Presidents— Committee  —  Trustees  — 
Secretariat— Establishment  of  other  Jewish  Missionary  Societies. 

THE  year  1841,  Mr.  Stock  tells  us,  was  an  epoch  in  the 
history  of  the  State,  the  Church  and  the  Church 
Missionary  Society,  and  he  gives  facts  to  support  this 
statement*  This  year,  which  commences  our  present  Period, 
was  a  most  important  one  also  in  the  history  of  our  Society, 
from  the  fact  that  its  constitution  was  to  a  considerable 
extent  modified  by  a  vast  accession  of  Episcopal  patronage. 
Hitherto,  for  some  reason,  the  Bishops  were  not  among  the 
patrons  of  the  Society.  That  this  was  detrimental  to  its  best 
interests  we  can  well  believe.  We,  even  in  this  day,  appreciate 
the  extreme  difficulty  which  the  Society  has  in  making  its 
way  in  a  diocese  the  Bishop  of  which  is  not  in  official  connex- 
ion with  it,  and  the  great  need  of  securing  his  patronage. 
In  days  gone  by,  when  no  territorial  bishops  were  amongst 
the  ranks  of  Vice-Patrons,  the  difficulty  must  have  been 
vastly  greater.    We  know  that  some  of  our  friends  do   not 

*  History  of  the  CAf.S,,  vol.  i.  pp.  367/. 


see  the  Society's  need  of  Episcopal  patronage,  especially  when 
the  particular  bishop  happens  to  be  an  advanced  Church- 
man, but  rather  deprecate  it.  That  this  is  a  short-sighted 
policy  we  are  convinced.  It  ought,  for  the  sake  of  extend- 
ing the  Society's  clienteUy  to  be  the  policy  to  obtain  as 
Vice-Patron  every  Bishop  who  is  willing  to  become  such. 
The  Society  thought  so  in  1841,  and  resolved  to  secure  "the 
other  Bishops  "  />.,  all  the  Bishops,  in  addition  to  the  then 
Patron,  the  Bishop  of  Ripon,  who  was  the  sole  Episcopal 
supporter.  This  is  evident  from  the  fact,  that  on  August 
2 1  St  of  that  year,  a  special  General  Meeting  of  the  Society 
was  held  in  Exeter  Hall,  Sir  Thomas  Baring  presiding,  to 
adopt  measures  with  a  view  "to  securing  to  the  Society 
the  sanction  and  patronage  of  the  Archbishops  and  Bishops 
of  the  United  Church  of  England  and  Ireland,"  when  the 
following  resolutions  were  unanimously  adopted  : 

Moved    by   the   Right   Hon.    Lord  Ashley,   M.P.;  seconded  by    Rev.    W. 
Marsh,  D.D.,  incumbent  of  St.  Mary's,  Leamington: — 

**  That  all  questions  relating  to  matters  of  ecclesiastical  order  and  discipline, 
respecting  which  a  difference  shall  arise  between  any  Colonial  Bishop, 
or  any  Bishop  of  the  United  Church  of  England  and  Ireland,  in  foreign 
parts,  and  the  Committee  of  the  Society,  shall  be  referred  to  the  Arch- 
bishops and  Bishops  of  the  United  Church  of  England  and  Ireland, 
whose  decision  thereon  shall  be  final. 
Moved  by  the  Right  Hon.  Sir  G.  H.  Rose,  M.P.;  seconded  by  Rev.  E. 
Bickersteth,  rector  of  Watton  : — 

*'That  the  Rule  which  is  now   Rule  XII.  of  the  Society  shall  stand  as 

follows : — 
**  *  The  oflSce  of  sole  Patron  shall  be  reserved  for  his  Grace  the  Primate  of  All 
England,  it  he  shall  accept  it ;  but  if  his  Grace  shall  not  accept  the  same, 
the  Committee  shall  nominate  a  Patron  or  Patrons,  as  well  as  the  Vice- 
Moved  by  J.  Trotter,  Esq.;  seconded  by  the  Rev.  A.  McCaul,  D.D.:— 

"That  the  most  cordial  thanks  of  this  Meeting  be  offered  to  the  Lord  Bishop 

of  Ripon,  for  the  zeal  and  kindness  with  which  he  has  hitherto  filled  the 

office  of  Patron,    and  for  the  readiness  with  which  his  Lordship  has 

consented  now  to  accept  the  office  of  Vice-Patron." 

Moved  by  the  Hon.  William  Cowper,  M.P.;  seconded  by  the  Hon.  and  Rev. 

Henry  Montagu  Villiers,  rector  of  St.  George's,  Bloomsbury  :— 

**That  the  Archbishop  of  York,  the  Bishop  of  London,  and  the  other 
Bishops,  be  applied  to,  to  accept  the  office  of  Vice- Patrons  of  the 


The  Archbishop  (Dr.  Howley)  replied  on  the  23rd  of  the 
same  month,  accepting  the  office  of  Patron ;  and  we  may  say,  in 
anticipation,  that  since  then,  all  subsequent  Archbishops  have 
filled  the  office,  namely,  Dr.  Sumner  ( 1 848),  Dr.  Longley  ( 1 862),. 
Dr.  Tait  (1869),  Dr.  Benson  (1883),  Dr.  Temple  (1897),  and  Dr. 
Davidson  (1903).  Most  of  the  Bishops  also  agreed  to  become 
Vice-Patrons;  and  at  the  Annual  Meeting  (1842)  the  following 
were  formally  elected :  the  Archbishop  of  York  (Harcourt),  the 
Bishops  of  London  (Blomfield),  Durham  (Maltby),  Winchester 
(Charles  R.  Sumner),  Bath  and  Wells  (Law),  Lincoln  (Kaye),. 
Worcester  (Pepys),  Llandaff  (Copleston),  Chester  (John  Bird 
Sumner).  Oxford  (Bagot),  Gloucester  and  Bristol  (Monk),  Ely 
(Allen),  Exeter  (Phillpotts),  Ripon  (Longley),  Salisbury  (Deni- 
son),  Hereford  (Musgrave),  Peterborough  (Davys),  Lichfield 
(Bowstead),  St.  Davids  (Thirlwall),  Sodor  and  Man  (Short),, 
and  Jerusalem  (Alexander).  At  the  same  time  his  Excellency 
Chevalier  Bunsen,  the  Earl  of  Chichester,  and  Lord  Claud 
Hamilton,  M.P.,  also  were  appointed  Vice-Patrons.  "  I 
cannot  but  see  in  that  patronage  a  blessing,  not  merely  to- 
our  Society,  but  a  rich  blessing  to  our  Bishops  themselves,, 
and  a  rich  blessing  to  our  whole  Church,"  said  Edward 
Bickersteth,  in  moving  a  resolution  of  thanks  for  the  same. 

Shortly  afterward,  the  Archbishop  of  Armagh  (Lord  John 
George  Beresford)  became  Patron  of  the  Irish  Auxiliary,  and 
the  Archbishop  of  Dublin  (Whately),  and  the  Bishops  of  Meath 
(Stopford),  Clogher  (J.  G.  Beresford),  Killaloe  (Tonson),  Cork 
(Kyle),  Derry  (Ponsonby),  and  Kilmore  (Leslie),  became. 

This  "  so  long  desired  event,'*  as  the  obtaining  of  Episcopal 
patronage  was  called  in  the  Annual  Report  for  1842,  resulted 
from  another  of  equal  importance  and  consequences,  namely,, 
the  creation  of  the  Anglican  Bishopric  in  Jerusalem.  This 
act,  which  caused  great  commotion  in  the  religious  world,, 
came  about  in  the  following  way. 

In  1 841  King  Frederic  William  IV.,  of  Prussia,  desired  to- 
ameliorate  the  condition  of  Protestants  in  the  Holy  Land,  and 
to  secure  for  them  equal  privileges  with  the  Greek,  Latin,  and 
other  Churches,  and,  taking  advantage  of  the  re-establishment 


of  the  Turkish  Suzerainty  by  the  aid  of  Christian  Europe, 
proposed  to  Her  Majesty's  Government,  through  Chevalier 
Bunsen,  a  united  effort  to  place  a  Bishop  as  the  Protestant 
representative  in  the  Holy  City.  This  offer  was  cordially 
accepted.  Owing  chiefly  to  the  exertions  of  Lord  Ashley, 
(afterward  Earl  of  Shaftesbury),  Lord  Palmerston,  then 
Foreign  Secretary,  who  advanced  the  plan,  the  Archbishop  of 
Canterbury  (Dr.  Howley),  and  the  Bishop  of  London  (Dr. 
Blomfield),  who,  we  are  told,  exhibited  throughout  the  full 
fervour  of  Evangelical  light,  spiritual  courage  and  Christian 
patriotism.  Parliament  passed  a  Bill  to  found  and  endow  a 
Bishopric,  which  received  the  Royal  assent  on  October  5th. 

The  King  of  Prussia,  learning  that  the  Society  was  building 
a  church  at  Jerusalem  desired  to  associate  his  scheme  with  the 
same,  and  offered  half  the  endowment — ;f  15,000 — of  the 
Bishopric.  As  a  matter  of  fact,  the  capital  sum  was  never 
paid,  but  the  yearly  interest  was  regularly  forthcoming  until 
1886,  when  the  Germans  withdrew  from  the  arrangement. 

The  Society  in  1841  voted  ;f  3,000  toward  the  English 
portion  of  the  endowment,  and  opened  a  fund  for  receipt  of 
donations.  Lord  Ashley,  Sir  George  Rose,  Sir  Thomas  Baring, 
Sir  Robert  H.  Inglis,  Sir  Thomas  Dyke  Acland,  and  Mr.  John 
Labouchere  being  appointed  trustees  of  it ;  whilst  the  Arch- 
bishops of  Canterbury  and  York,  and  the  Bishop  of  London 
were  selected  by  the  King  of  Prussia  as  trustees,  and  also 
charged  with  the  "  direction  "  of  the  whole  of  the  Jerusalem 
Bishopric  Endowment  Fund. 

The  Anglican  Bishop  was  to  be  nominated  alternately  by 
the  Crowns  of  England  and  Prussia,  and,  as  a  matter  of 
fact,  the  former  appointed  twice.  Bishops  Alexander  and 
Barclay,  both  missionaries  of  the  Society,  and  the  latter  once, 
Bishop  Gobat. 

The  authorized  "  Statement  of  Proceedings  relating  to  the 

Establishment  of  the  Bishopric,"  contained  this  direction  : 

His  spiritual  jurisdication  will  extend  over  the  English  clergy  and  congregations, 
and  over  those  who  may  join  his  Church  and  place  themselves  under  his  Episcopal 
authority  in  Palestine,  and,  for  the  present,  in  the  rest  of  Syria,  in  Chaldea, 
Egypt,  and  Abyssinia ;  such  jurisdiction  being  exercised,  as  nearly  as  may  be 
according  to  the  laws,  canons,  and  customs  of  the  Church  of  England  ;  the  Bishop 


having  power  to  frame,  with  the  consent  of  the  Metropolitan,  particular  rules 
and  orders  for  the  peculiar  wants  of  his  people.  His  chief  missionary  care  will 
be  directed  to  the  conversion  of  the  Jews,  to  their  protection,  and  to  their 
useful  employment. 

He  will  establish  and  maintain,  as  far  as  in  him  lies,  relations  of  Christian 
charity  with  other  Churches  represented  at  Jerusalem,  and  in  particular  with 
the  Orthodox  Greek  Church ;  taking  special  care  to  convince  them,  that  the 
Church  of  England  does  not  wi^  to  disturb,  or  divide,  or  interfere  with 
them ;  but  that  she  is  ready,  in  the  spirit  of  Christian  love,  to  render  them 
such  offices  of  friendship  as  they  may  be  willing  to  receive. 

Having  founded  the  See  the  next  step  was  to  secure  the 
man  to  fill  it.  By  desire  of  the  King  of  Prussia,  and  with  the 
hearty  concurrence  of  the  heads  of  the  Church,  the  bishopric 
was  offered  to  Dr.  McCaul  "  the  worthiest,  perhaps,  of  the 
Gentiles  for  that  high  honour."  He,  however,  very  quickly 
declared  that  the  Episcopate  of  St.  James  ought  to  be  held  by 
a  descendant  of  Abraham.  Consequently,  the  most  con- 
spicuous Hebrew  Christian  in  England  was  selected,  Michael 
Solomon  Alexander,  of  whose  work  in  London  we  have  already 
spoken  on  page  158. 

This  is  a  fitting  opportunity  to  give  some  particulars  of 
the  man  himself.  He  was  bom  of  Jewish  parents  in  Schon- 
lanke,  a  small  town  in  the  grand  duchy  ofPosen,  in  1799, 
and  trained  in  the  strictest  principles  of  rabbinical 
Judaisnj.  At  the  age  of  sixteen  he  became  a  teacher  of  the 
Talmud  and  the  German  language.  In  1820,  when  in  his 
twenty-first  year,  he  came  to  England  to  engage  in  a  similar 
pursuit,  and  also  to  perform  the  duties  of  a  shochet  At  that 
time  he  had  not  the  slightest  acquaintance  with  Christianity, 
and  did  not  even  know  of  the  existence  of  the  New  Testa- 
ment. His  knowledge  of  the  Lord  Jesus  was  limited  to 
strong  impressions  of  prejudice  against  that  Holy  Name. 
Disappointed  of  a  situation  in  London,  he  settled  down  as  a 
tutor  at  Colchester.  There  the  sight  of  a  handbill  of  the 
Society,  notifying  its  local  meeting,  aroused  his  curiosity, 
and  he  obtained  and  read  the  New  Testament,  which 
W.  Marsh,  then  vicar  of  St.  Peter's  in  that  town,  had 
previously  recommended  him  to  read.  Shortly  afterward, 
he  accepted  the  post  of  rabbi  at  Norwich,  and  sub- 
sequently at  Plymouth,  and  in  1821    married  Miss  Levy  of 


that  town.  He  there,  in  the  providence  of  God,  became 
acquainted  with  the  Rev.  B.  B.  Golding,  curate  of  Stonehouse, 
to  whom  he  gave  lessons  in  Hebrew,  and  from  the  conversations 
which  ensued  from  time  to  time,  Alexander,  after  much  inward 
conflict,  almost  came  to  the  conviction  of  the  truth  of  Christ- 
ianity. The  struggle  was  now  most  heart-rending.  He 
used  to  steal  silently  down  to  Stonehouse  Church  on  Sunday 
evenings,  and,  under  the  shadow  of  its  walls,  would  stand 
riveted  to  the  spot,  while  he  listened  to  the  songs  of  Christian 
praise,  in  which  he  dared  not  as  yet  take  part.  His  congre- 
gation, however,  soon  got  to  hear  of  his  leanings  to  Christianity, 
and  he  was  suspended  from  his  duties  as  rabbi.  He  now 
regularly  attended  Mr.  Golding's  ministry,  and  was  baptized, 
on  June  22nd,  1825,  in  St.  Andrew's  Church,  Plymouth,  by  the 
vicar  the  Rev.  John  Hatchard,  in  the  presence  of  1,000  people. 
His  wife,  who  had  been  a  secret  enquirer  unknown  to  her 
husband,  was  baptized  six  months  later  in  Exeter.  Owing  to 
Alexander's  position  his  conversion  aroused  much  interest, 
and  proved  of  great  encouragement  to  all  workers  in  the  cause. 
He  was  ordained  deacon  in  Dublin  in  1827,  by  Archbishop 
Magee,  at  a  time  when  the  ordination  of  a  Hebrew  Christian 
was  of  very  rare  occurrence  indeed,  and  appointed  to  a  small 
charge  in  that  city.  In  December  of  that  year  he  was 
ordained  priest  by  the  Bishop  of  Kildare.  He  served  the 
Society  as  missionary  to  the  Jews,  in  Danzig,  from  1827  to 
1830,  and  in  London  from  1830  to  1 841,  as  we  have  already 
seen.  In  1840  Alexander's  name  appeared  at  the  head  of 
some  sixty  names  of  leading  converts  from  Judaism,  who 
subscribed  to  a  formal  "protest  of  Christian  Jews  in  England" 
against  the  Blood  Accusation,  or  charge  against  the  Jews  of 
using  Christian  blood  in  their  passover  rites.  This  was  a 
remarkable  document,  emanating  as  it  did  from  so  many  who 
were  by  nationality  Jews,  and  who  had  lived  to  maturity  in 
the  faith  and  practice  of  modern  Judaism.  He  held  the  post 
of  Professor  of  Hebrew  and  Rabbinical  Literature  in  King's 
College,  London.  He  was  thus  well  prepared  for  the  high 
position  to  which  he  was  now  advanced. 

Just  after  the  selection  of  Alexander,  Chevalier  Bunsen 


g^ve  a  dinner  in  his  honour  at  the  "  Star  and  Garter "  at 
Richmond,  in  reference  to  which  Lord  Ashley  wrote  in  his 
diary  : 

Gladstone  stripped  himself  of  a  part  of  his  Puseyite  garments,  spoke  like  a  pious 
man,  rejoiced  in  the  Bishopric  of  Jerusalem,  and  proposed  the  health  of  Alexander. 
This  is  delightful ;  for  he  is  a  good  man,  and  a  clever  man,  and  an  industrious 

Alexander  was  consecrated  first  Bishop  of  the  new  See 
on  Sunday,  November  nth,  1841,  in  Lambeth  Palace,  by  the 
Archbishop  of  Canterbury,  assisted  by  the  Bishops  of  London 
(Blomfield)  Rochester  (Murray)  and  New  Zealand  (Selwyn). 
A  distinguished  companywas  present, including  his  Excellency 
Chevalier  Bunsen,  as  representing  the  King  of  Prussia ;  Sir 
Stratford  Canning,  Her  Majesty's  Ambassador  Extraordinary 
to  the  Porte ;  Baron  Schleinitz,  Prussian  Charg^  d*Affaires  ; 
the  Prussian  Consul-General  Hebeler ;  Lord  Ashley ;  the 
Right  Hon.  W.  E.  Gladstone ;  the  Right  Hon.  Dr.  Nicholl ; 
Sir  Robert  H.  Inglis ;  Sir  Claudius  Hunter ;  and  the  Rev.  Dr. 
Abeken,  chaplain  to  the  King  of  Prussia.  It  was  a  solemn 
service.  Dr.  McCaul  preached  the  sermon  from  Isaiah  Hi.  7. 
The  reading  by  Bishop  Selwyn  of  the  passage,  "  Now,  behold, 
I  go  bound  in  the  spirit  unto  Jerusalem,  not  knowing  the 
things  that  shall  befall  me  there,"  etc.  (Acts  xx.  22-24), 
moved  the  Bishop  of  London  to  tears.t 

The  next  morning  the  Holy  Communion  was  celebrated 
in  the  Episcopal  Jews'  Chapel  by  the  new  Bishop,  who  preached 
his  last  sermon  there  in  the  evening  from  the  same  appro- 
priate, and,  as  events  proved,  prophetically  pathetic  words. 
On  the  13th  a  farewell  meeting  was  held  in  Palestine  Place, 
and  an  address  presented  to  the  Bishop,  who  with  Mrs. 
Alexander,  the  Rev.  G.  Williams,  his  private  chaplain,  after- 
ward well  known  as  the  author  of  the  book  The  Holy  City^ 
the  Rev.  F.  C.  and  Mrs.  Ewald,  and  Dr.  E.  Macgowan, 
sailed  from  Portsmouth,  on  December  7th.  H.M.  Steam 
Frigate  "  Devastation "    was  kindly  granted  for  the  voyage 

*  Life  of  Lord  Shaftesbury ^  vol.  i.  p.  377. 
t  Memoir  of  E.  Bickersteth^  vol.  ii.  p.  183. 



by  the  Government.     We  must  pursue  the  further  career  of 
the  Bishop  in  a  subsequent  chapter. 

A  great  event  of  the  year  1842  was  the  visit  of  the  King  of 
Prussia  to  England,  and  his  gracious  reception  of  a  deputa- 
tion from  the  Society,  consisting  of  the  President,  Sir  Thomas 
Baring,  Lords  Bexley  and  Ashley,  Sir  R.  H.  Inglis,  Sir 
W.  Farquhar,  the  Hon.  W.  F.  Cooper,  the  Hon.  W.  Ashley, 
the  Hon.  A.  Kinnaird,  Archdeacon  Wilberforce  (afterward 
Bishop  of  Oxford  and  of  Winchester)  and  others,  who  thanked 
his  Majesty  for  the  part  he  had  taken  in  the  establishment  of 
the  Bishopric.  The  King,  in  reply,  said  that  he  looked  upon  the 
Society  as  prominently  instrumental  in  the  execution  of 
the  plan,  and  graciously  became  a  Life  Member  by  giving 
a  donation  of  ;f  125,  and  an  annual  subscription  of  ;f25,  which 
was  continued  by  His  Majesty  and  his  successors  till  the 
year  1895. 

We  may  mention  that  Mr.  Gladstone  was  an  annual  sub- 
scriber to  the  Society  from  1837  to  1841. 

The  Society  suffered  a  twofold  loss  in  1848  by  the  death 
of  both  the  Patron  and  the  President.  The  venerable 
Patron,  Dr.  Howley,  Archbishop  of  Canterbury,  had  rendered 
much  service  to  the  Society,  in  whose  work  he  shewed  great 
interest,  and  had  taken  an  active  part  in  the  establishment  of 
the  Bishopric.     Archbishop  Sumner  succeeded  him  as  Patron. 

Sir  Thomas  Baring  had  occupied  the  position  of  President 
for  thirty-three  years,  during  which  he  watched  over  the 
affairs  of  the  Society  with  earnest  attention  and  affectionate 
care  ;  helping  it  in  adversity  and  rejoicing  in  its  prosperity. 
He  was  permitted  to  see  it  overcome  all  its  early  difficulties, 
enlarge  its  labours,  and  eventually  take  a  leading  position 
amongst  the  Church  Societies.  He  was  succeeded  by  Lord 
Ashley,  Vice-Patron,  who  also  had  been  a  warm  friend  of  the 
Society  for  many  years. 

As  might  have  been  expected  from  the  very  extensive 
Episcopal  patronage  bestowed  upon  the  Society  in  1841, 
several  Bishops — six  in  all — were  called  upon  to  preach  the 
Annual    Sermon    during    our    Period   of  nine  years.     For 

Sir    Thomas    Baring,    Bart., 
President     1815—1848. 

1849]  PROPHETICAL     VIEWS  #211 

example,  the  Bishop  of  Durham  (Longley)  preached  in  1841, 
in  which  year  he  ceased  to  be  Patron ;  London  (Blomfield) 
in  1843  ;  Winchester  (C.  R.  Sumner)  in  1844;  Chester  (J.  B. 
Sumner)  in  1845  I  ^^^d  Oxford  (Samuel  Wilberforce)  in  1848. 
The  sermon  of  the  late  Patron,  Bishop  Longley,  who  had 
become  Bishop  of  Durham  in  1 841,  on  Romans  xi.  12,  was  a 
model  of  brevity,  for  those  days  at  all  events,  and  is  notable  for 
his  prophetic  interpretation  of  that  passage.  He  said,  speak- 
ing of  the  "  fulness  "  of  the  Jews  : 

By  this  term  is  to  be  understood  the  restoration  of  the  Jewish  nation  to  their 
ancient  privileges,  by  their  admission  into  the  Christian  Church. 

In  fact,  up  to  about  this  time  most  of  the  advocates  of  the 
Society  believed  in  the  gradual  conversion  of  the  Jews  and 
their  complete  incorporation  into  the  Church,  just  as  the 
gradual  conversion  of  the  whole  world  to  Christ  was  the 
popular  belief  The  rise  of  "  Plymouth  Brethrenism,"  with  its 
"  Futurist  "  views  of  unfulfilled  prophecy,  and  the  publication 
of  E.  B.  Elliott's  Horce  Apocalypticce^  advocating  "Presen- 
tist"  views,  gradually  introduced  into  Evangelical  circles 
the  idea  of  the  "  Pre-Millennarian  Advent,"  as  it  is  called, 
common  to  both  schools  of  interpretation,  but  opposed  to 
the  general  Church  teaching  of  that  day — and  probably  of 
this  day  also — a  teaching  grounded  on  the  Prayer  Book 
interpretation  of  Holy  Scripture.  These  new  views  were 
resisted  by  Edward  Bickersteth,  for  a  time,  and  by 
Scott,  Simeon,  Bishop  Waldegrave  and  others,  as  crude 
speculations  injuring  the  missionary  cause.*  Again,  it  was 
held,  in  the  early  part  of  last  century,  that  the  Jews  would 
return  to  Palestine  as  a  converted  nation  ;  but  later,  when 
"  Pre-Millennarian  "  views  began  to  spread,  that  they  would 
return  in  an  unconverted  state ;  and  now,  once  again,  the 
opinion  seems  to  be  gaining  ground  that  the  Jews  will  not  be 
settled  in  Palestine  except  as  a  Christian  nation.  We  ought 
to  repeat,  however,  that  the  Society,  as  such,  has  never  held  any 
particular  or  special  prophetical  views,  its  platform  being 
solely  a  missionary  one.t 

*  See  Balleine,  History  of  the  Evangelical  Party ^  p.  208. 
t  See  also  pages  35  and  71. 

P  2 

212  •  EPISCOPAL  PATRONAGE  [1841 

The  sermon  of  the  Bishop  of  London  (Blomfield)  contained, 
as  might  have  been  expected,  a  reference  to  recent  events  : 

I  entirely  concur  with  an  earnest  and  eloquent  member  and  ornament  of  our 
Society,  •  in  the  opinion,  that  the  establishment  of  a  Hebrew  Bishop  at  Jerusalem 
is  more  important,  and  more  efficient  for  promoting  Christianity  amongst  the 
Jews  than  all  other  means  employed,  not  only  by  the  Society,  but  by  all  the 
Gentile  Churches  since  the  dispersion. 

Of  the  other  Episcopal  sermons,  Wilberforce*s  is  certainly 
the  most  eloquent  and  striking,  as  one  would  expect. 

The  other  four  preachers  in  this  Period  were  the  Rev. 
Chancellor  Raikes,  in  1842,  whose  sermon  contains  the 
barest  mention  of  the  event  of  the  day  ;  Hugh  McNeile,  in 
1846;  William  Dalton,  in  1847  ;  and  Canon  the  Hon.  Montagu 
Villiers,  subsequently  Bishop  of  Carlisle  and  of  Durham,  in 
1849.  The  sermons  from  1841  to  1845  were  preached  in  the 
Society's  Chapel,  and  from  1846  to  1849  in  Christ  Church, 
Newgate  Street. 

At  the  Annual  Meetings  within  this  Period,  Sir  Thomas 
Baring  presided  five  times  ;  and  Lord  Ashley  four  times,  twice 
as  Vice-Patron,  and  twice  as  President.  The  speakers 
were  ;  W.  R.  Fremantle,  Rector  of  Claydon,  afterward  Dean  of 
Ripon,  (eight  times);  E.  Bickersteth,  Hugh  Stowell,  and  Marsh 
(seven  times)  ;  T.  S.  Grimshawe  (six  times) ;  the  Bishop  of 
ipurham  (Longley),  the  Hon.  VV.  R.  Cowper,  Sir  G.  Rose,  Hal- 
dane  Stewart,  and  W.  W.  Pym  (three  times) ;  the  Bishop  of 
Chester  (J.  B.  Sumner),  Sir  R.  Inglis,  John  Labouchere,  C.  J. 
Goodhart,  and  H.  McNeile  (twice) ;  and  the  following  once 
each,  the  Bishop  of  Oxford  (Wilberforce)  the  Bishop  of  Win- 
chester (C.  R.  Sumner),  the  Marquis  of  Cholmondeley,  Lord 
Glenelg,  Lord  Claud  Hamilton,  M.P.,  the  Dean  of  Salisbury, 
Canon  the  Hon.  Montagu  Villiers,  Sir  Claudius  Hunter,  Sir 
Matthew  Blakiston,  Sir  Digby  Mackworth,  the  Revs.  T.  R. 
^  Birks,  J.  W.  Cunningham,  Alexander  Dallas,  Dr.  Nolan, 
Tilson  Marsh,  Dr.  Stephen  Tyng  of  Philadelphia,  and  Dr. 
Wolff.  The  missionary  speakers  were  but  few  and  far  between, 
McCaul  (three  times),  Ewald,  Hausmeister  and  B.  W.  Wright. 

*  The  Bishop  was  refe^ng  to  Dr.  McCauI. 


In  1843  the  Bishop  of  Chichester  (Gilbert),  the  Bishop  of 
Calcutta  (Wilson),  and  the  Marquis  of  Westminster  became 
Vice- Patrons,  Bishop  Wilson  being  the  first  Indian  or  Colonial 
Bishop  to  be  appointed  ;  the  Bishop  of  Lichfield  (Lonsdale) 
in  1844;  the  Bishops  of  Ely  (Turton),  Oxford  (Wilberforce), 
and  Jerusalem  (Gobat),  in  1846;  Sodor  and  Man  (Eden) 
and  Lord  Glenelg  in  1847  J  the  Bishop  of  Manchester  (Prince 
Lee)  in  1848:  the  Marquis  of  Blandford,  M.P.,  and  Lord 
Henry  Cholmondeley  in  1849.  Three  new  Vice-Presidents 
were  elected  in  1841,  the  Hon.  William  Cowper,  M.P.,  the 
Hon.  Arthur  Kinnaird  and  Sir  Walter  R.  Farquhar ;  Major- 
General  Touzel  in  1845  ;  and  Sir  Brook  Bridges  in  1847. 
The  Revs.  T.  S.  Grimshawe  and  H.  J.  Hare  were  added  to 
the  Honorary  Life  Governors  in  1842. 

Amongst  the  new  members  of  Committee  elected  during 
the  Period  were:  R.  C.  L.  Bevan,  Captain  Trotter,  Hon. 
W.  Ashley,  Sir  Harry  Verney,  Bart,  James  Finn,  F.  S.  W. 
Sheppard,  J.  Payne,  Lord  H.  Cholmondeley,  Captain  (after- 
ward Admiral)  Vernon  Harcourt,  C.  Arbuthnot,  A.  Beattie, 
and  J.  M.  Strachan.  The  more  prominent  clergy  attending 
for  the  first  time  were  the  Hon.  Montagu  Villiers,  J.  Carver, 
J.  Charlesworth,  J.  Cohen,  R.  W.  Dibdin,  W.  R.  Fremantle, 
and  W.  M.  Mungeam.  The  ranks  of  the  Trustees  were 
recruited  by  Lord  Ashley,  Sir  Walter  Farquhar,  Bart.,  and  the 
Rev.  T.  S.  Grimshawe.  R.  B.  Todd,  M.D.,  became  Honorary 
Physician  in  1845. 

A  few  words  must  be  given  to  the  Secretariat  in  this  Period. 
In  1 84 1  the  Rev.  W.  Ay  erst,  who  had  been  a  missionary  of  the 
Society  for  24  years,  was  appointed  Foreign  Secretary,  in  place 
of  the  Rev.  J.  B.  Cartwright,  who  retained  the  chaplaincy  only. 
In  1845  the  Rev.  A.  H.  Stogdon  was  appointed  as  Home 
Secretary  in  place  of  Rev.  J.  J.  Reynolds.  In  1847  Mr.  J.  C. 
Holm  was  appointed  his  assistant.  In  1849  Captain  Henry  L. 
Layard  was  appointed  Lay  Secretary.  Just  after  this,  in  1850, 
the  distinction  of"  Home,"  "  Foreign,"  and  "  Lay  "  disappeared, 
and  both  Ayerst  and  Layard  were  called  merely  "  Secretaries." 
In  1843  ^he  Rev.  C.  J.  Quartley,  who  held  the  post  for  a 
short  time  only,  and  the   Rev.   A.  Taylor,  were  appointed 

214  EPISCOPAL  PATRONAGE  [1841-49 

"  Visitors  of  Associations  " ;  but  in  1845  the  Society  adopted 
the  system  of  clerical  Association  Secretaries.  Three  were 
appointed,  J.  J.  Reynolds  to  the  northern  district,  A.  Thomas^ 
formerly  Secretary  of  the  Dublin  Auxiliary,  to  the  south- 
western district,  whilst  A.  H.  Stogdon  looked  after  the  eastern 
district  In  1846  the  Revs.  W.  Seaton  and  Henry  Jarvis 
succeeded  to  the  midland  and  south-western  districts  respec- 

Several  other  British  missionary  Societies  to  the  Jews  were 
founded  about  this  time.*  The  Church  of  Scotland  Jewish 
Mission,  in  1840;  the  Free  Church  of  Scotland  Mission,  in 
1841  ;  the  Presbyterian  Church  in  Ireland  Mission,  in  1841  i 
and  the  British  Society  for  the  propagation  of  the  Gospel 
among  the  Jews,  in  1842. 

See  note  on  page  12. 



Hebrew  Christian  Community— Servicer— Oemian  lecture— Additional  mission- 
aries—Hebrew College  under  McCaul  and  his  successors— Jubilee  of  the  C.M.5.— 
Baptisms— Rev.  J.  B.  Cartwright— Results— Palmy  days  of  the  Mission— Provinces 
—Efforts  on  behalf  of  Jewesses— Mrs.  Hlscock— Fund  for  Widows  and  Disabled 
'  Missionaries— Temporal  Relief— Rule  Iv.— Special  Funds. 

TURNING  to  the  work  in  the  Metropolis  at  the  begin- 
ning of  the  Period  under  review,  we  find  a  number 
of  encouraging  facts;  as  many  as  130  Hebrew 
Christians,  including  the  school-children,  attended  at  the 
Society's  Chapel.  For  many  years  from  twelve  to  twenty 
Israelites  had  been  annually  presented  to  the  Bishop  of 
London  for  Confirmation,  and  there  were  twenty-six  being 
prepared  for  that  ordinance  in  1841.  The  Sunday  Hebrew 
service  was  taken  regularly  by  McCaul  and  Alexander,  under 
circumstances  of  great  encouragement.  The  daily  service 
was  held  in  Hebrew  in  the  morning,  and  in  English  in  the 
evening.  In  order  to  meet  the  wants  of  a  large  influx 
of  foreign  Jews,  "many  of  whom  came  over  to  England 
for  the  express  purpose  of  investigating  Christianity,"  in 
1843,  a  German  lecture  was  commenced  every  Friday  even- 
ing in  the  chapel  This  was  now  the  recognized  Church 
of  England  centre  of  the  Society's  missionary  operations 
in  London,  and  also  of  the  pastoral  care  of  the  Hebrew 
Christian  community.  Bible  classes  and  Confirmation  classes 
were  held  for  converts,  and  the  Holy  Communion  was 
celebrated  twice  a  month,  at  eight  o'clock  in  the  morning  and 
at  midday.  Several  tract  distributors,  principally  converts, 
were  set  to  work  to  visit  the  Jews  and  to  direct  them  to  the 
Gospel ;  amongst  them  J.  H.  Pieritz,  D.  Alvarez,  T.  Davis, 
and  M.  Van  Emelen — all  Israelites.  The  Rev.  T.  Fancourt 
and  A.  Kuttner  were  added  to  the  missionary  staff  at  this 
time,  and  S.  Hoga  appointed  translator. 


The  Hebrew  College  had  been  opened  in  Palestine  Place  in 
1840,  for  the  training  of  missionaries,  and  placed  in  charge 
of  Dr.  McCaul  whose  experience  and  special  qualifications 
rendered  him  an  ideal  Principal.  He  held  the  post  till  1850, 
when  he  was  appointed  to  the  rectory  of  St.  James',  Duke's 
Place,  Doctors'  Commons.  It  may  here  be  stated  that  the  , 
Rev.  J.  B.  Cartwright  was  Principal  from  1850  to  1856,  and 
the  Rev.  D.  T.  Halsted  from  1857  to  i860.  The  institution 
turned  out  a  large  number  of  missionaries  who  left  their  mark 
upon  the  Society.  Amongst  them  we  may  mention  the  well- 
known  names  of  H.  Poper,  Moses  Margoliouth,  A.  I.  Behrens, 
F.  G.  Kleinhenn,  J.  O.  Lord,  H.  Winbolt,  H.  A.  Stem,  Murray 
Vicars,  H.  C.  Reichardt,  J.  H.  Bruhl,  E.  A.  Page,  E.  M. 
Schlochow,  W.  Fenner,  N.  Niimberg,  C.  S.  Newman,  J.  M. 
Eppstein,  G.  H.  Handler,  and  C.  Urbschat 

It  is  interesting  to  note  that  a  celebration  of  the  Jubilee 
of  the  Church  Missionary  Society  (1849)  took  place  in  the 
Episcopal  Jews'  Chapel.  To  quote  from  the  Annual  Report 
of  that  year : 

Great  interest  was  excited  both  amongst  the  Jewish  and  Gentile  Christian 
members  of  the  congregation ;  and  at  the  celebration  of  the  Holy  Communion, 
twenty  clergymen  assembled  romid  the  Table  of  the  Lord,  together  with  a 
considerable  number  of  the  usual  communicants,  both  Jew  and  Gentile.  Thus 
Hebrew  Christians  have  openly  begun  once  more  to  rejoice  in  the  conversion  of 
the  Heathen,  and  it  cannot  but  be  hoped  that  the  encouragement  amongst  them, 
of  an  interest  in  this  work,  may  prove  highly  useful,  under  the  Divine  blessing,  to 
their  own  comfort,  instruction,  and  growth  in  grace. 

To  State  briefly  the  direct  results  of  this  Period  ;  there  were 
twenty-three  baptisms  of  adults  and  children  in  1843,  thirty- 
six  in  1844,  thirty-seven  in  1845,  twenty-two  in  1846,  seventeen 
in  1847,  twenty-five  in  1848,  and  twenty  in  1849 — making  a 
total  of  542  Israelites  received  into  the  Church  of  Christ  in  the 
Society's  Chapel  since  its  opening.  In  one  year,  1848, 
as  many  as  fifty-five  Hebrew  Christians  were  confirmed. 
Cartwright,  who  had  the  pastoral  charge  of  the  converts,  was 
able  in  1847  to  enumerate  as  many  as  350  personally  known 
to  him. 

To  use  the  words  of  the  Annual  Report  in  the  last  year  of 
our  Period  : 


The  average  number  of  regular  communicants  of  the  Hebrew  nation  is  from 
fifty  to  sixty;  but  those  numbers  might  be  doubled  if  we  take  into  account 
occasional  visitors,  and  those  that  have  passed  away  to  other  neighbourhoods 
during  the  past  year.  On  the  whole,  it  may  be  said  that  in  the  Episcopal  Jews' 
Chapel,  the  Society  possesses  in  its  London  Mission,  that  which  it  is  seeking  to 
establish  in  all  its  principal  stations — a  Jewish  Mission  Church.  In  this  house 
of  prayer,  it  may  be  safely  said,  providential  circumstances  have  gathered 
together  the  largest  number  of  Israelites  that  have  ever  assembled  together  for 
prayer  and  praise  to  the  Redeemer,  since  the  decay  of  the  early  Hebrew 
Christian  Church. 

Indeed,  the  twenty  years  ending  in  1850  may  be  considered 
the  palmy  days  in  the  entire  history  of  the  London  mission, 
which  then  reached  its  highest  level.  The  work  of  those 
years  has  never  been  surpassed. 

There  is  little  to  be  said  about  the  work  in  the  Provinces 
during  this  Period.  J.  H.  Pieritz  was  stationed  in  1844 
at  Bristol,  where  he  found  a  somewhat  restricted  sphere 
amongst  the  eighty  resident  Jewish  families,  and  consequently 
spent  much  time  in  visiting  the  Jews  in  Bath,  Cheltenham, 
Swansea,  Exeter,  Plymouth,  Portsmouth,  Southampton, 
Birmingham,  Dublin,  and  other  places. 

Another  important  branch  of  the  work  was  commenced 
during  this  Period,  namely,  work  amongst  Jewesses,  who 
were  deplorably  neglected  by  their  own  people.  Judaism, 
especially  rabbinism,  tended  to  their  degradation  and  con- 
tempt. Allowed  to  attend  synagogue  worship  as  sightseers 
only,  and  that  in  a  far-away  and  screened  gallery,  they  had 
no  part  or  lot  in  the  worship  of  the  Almighty.  Many  Polish 
Jews  used  to  think  that  a  woman  has  no  soul,  and  a  Jew  even 
now  thanks  God  that  he  has  not  been  made  an  idiot,  a 
Gentile,  or  a  woman !  Is  it  any  wonder  that  the  ordinary 
state  of  things  was  reversed,  and  that  the  women  were  less 
religious  than  the  men,  or  that  prejudice  and  ignorance 
prevailed  amongst  them?  It  was  no  uncommon  thing,  in 
the  experience  of  missionaries,  to  find  the  wife,  daughters, 
and  female  relatives  violently  opposed  to  an  enquiring  Jew 
who  had  been  influenced  by  Christianity.  In  1847  ^^ 
Society  sought  out  the  Jewesses  of  London.  Mrs.  Hiscock, 
the  widow  of  the  Rev.  T.  Hiscock,  formerly  missionary  at 
Frankfort-on-the-Main,  was  entrusted  with  this  special  work^ 

218  SPECIAL    FUNDS  [1841 

and  a  house  in  Palestine  Place  was  opened  for  their  reception. 
Her  labours  went  on  for  five  years  with  a  fair  amount  of 
success,  but  were  given  up  in  1852. 

The  deaths,  in  1842,  for  the  first  time  in  its  history, 
of  some  of  the  Society's  missionaries,  J.  D.  Marc  of 
Offenbach,  Davenport  of  Frankfort,  and  Gerstmann  of 
Constantinople,  leaving  widows  and  children,  made  it  neces- 
sary to  commence  a  "Fund  for  Widows,"  to  which  was  after- 
ward added  "  Disabled  Missionaries." 

The  question  of  the  advisability,  or  otherwise,  of  helping 
Jewish  enquirers  and  converts  with  monetary  or  equivalent 
assistance,  has  always  been  a  "  vexed  "  one,  and  cannot  even 
now  be  regarded  as  definitively  settled.  When  the  Society 
was  first  formed,  the  temporal  benefit  of  Jews  was  as  much 
an  object  as  their  spiritual ;  but  as  early  as  18 19  the  first  of 
the  then  "Rules  and  Regulations"  was  altered,  and  the 
Society's  sole  object  was  declared  to  be  purely  spiritual.  For 
many  years  subsequent  to  that  period  the  temporal  relief  of 
Jews  was  not  acknowledged  as  part  of  the  duty  of  the  Society. 
In  1844,  however,  when  the  question  once  more  came  to  the 
front,  and  even  threatened  to  be  a  rock  on  which  the  Society 
might  split,  a  kind  of  compromise  was  effected.  The  Society 
then  passed  the  following  resolution,  which  still  forms  its 
Fourth  Rule  : 

Hereafter  it  shall  not  be  the  object  of  the  Society  to  grant  temporal  aid  to  adult 
Jews  out  of  its  General  Fund  :  a  separate  fund,  however,  may  be  opened  for  that 
purpose,  in  which  case  moneys  subscribed  for  such  temporal  relief  shall  be  appro- 
priated by  a  Special  Committee,  appointed  by  and  out  of  the  General  Committee  ; 
— Provided  always,  that  nothing  in  this  law  shall  be  considered  as  a  hindrance 
to  the  prosecution  of  the  following  objects— The  Hospital  and  School  of  Industry 
at  Jerusalem. 

"A  Temporal  Relief  Fund  for  Baptized  and  Enquiring  Jews" 
was  accordingly  started,  the  average  annual  income  of  which 
has  been  about  £200,  This  is  in  addition  to  the  Abrahamic 
Society,  originally  connected  with  the  Episcopal  Jews*  Chapel, 
which  renders  quiet  and  unobtrusive  help  to  many  a  poor 
and  deserving  son  and  daughter  of  Abraham. 

The  whole  subject  of  Temporal  Relief  is  beset  with  difficul- 
ties.    Whilst,  on  the  one  hand,  it  is  absolutely  necessary  to 

1849]  TEMPORAL  RELIEF  219 

abstain  from  anything  which  has  even  the  appearance  of 
bribery — and  the  Jews  are  not  backward  in  levelling  such  a 
charge — on  the  other  hand,  the  poor  of  Christ's  flock,  be  they 
Jews  or  Gentiles,  need  the  loving  care  and  help  of  those  who 
are  blessed  with  this  world's  goods.  Some  means  must  be 
found  of  assisting  them.  It  is  here  that  the  Temporal  Relief 
Fund,  and  such  charitable  establishments  as  the  Operative 
Jewish  Converts'  Institution  and  the  Wanderers'  Home,  meet 
a  very  real  need. 



Holland  Mission  re-opened— Rev.  C.  W.  H.  Paul!— Zion's  Chapel— NetherUnds' 
Auxiliary— ^Saul  at  Brussels— Poland  Mission— Rabbi  5chwartzenberg— A  rich  and 
boundless  field— Warsaw  and  other  stations— Posen— Sowing  the  seed— Mission 
Schools— Changes  in  sUfff— Hlscock,  C.  J.  Behrens  and  Hofff  at  Cracow— Paull  at 
Berlin— Rev.  R.  Bellson  and  others— McCaul's  visit— Many  Jewish  Christians- 
Rev.  B.  W.  Wright— Revolutions  of  1848— Dr.  Biesenthal— His  Early  Ages  0/  the 
Christian  OfcwrrA- Franlcfort-on-the-Main— Rev.  J.  Stockfeld  in  Lower  Rhine  dis- 
trict-Baltic Provinces— Bergfeidt  and  the  Scriptures— Roumanla— Early  days  of 
the  Mission— Pierltz— Mayers  and  Sander— Spanish  Peninsula— Salonlca. 

WE  now  cross  the  North  Sea  in  order  to  ascertain 
what  was  going  on,  during  the  years  under 
review,  at  the  European  Stations.  Naturally, 
events  at  home  and  in  the  East  overshadowed  all  other 
operations  of  the  Society  ;  but  still,  good  solid  work  was 
being  done  elsewhere. 

We  saw  in  Chapter  XVI.  that  the  missionaries  working  in 
Holland  during  the  first  decade  of  last  century  had  to  leave 
the  country  in  1835,  owing  to  difficulties  with  the  authorities. 
Nine  years  later,  in  1844,  the  way  was  opened  for  the  re-estab- 
lishment of  the  mission,  and  the  Rev.  C.  W.  H.  Pauli,  one 
of  the  most  eminent  of  the  Society's  Hebrew  Christian 
missionary  staff,  was  entrusted  with  its  charge.  He  had 
previously  done  excellent  work  at  Berlin,  where,  within 
the  space  of  two  and  a  half  years,  he  had  led  as  many 
as  forty-one  Jews  to  the  baptismal  font.  He  thus  went  to 
his  new  station  with  a  good  record,  which  he  more  than 
maintained  there.  He  threw  his  whole  ardour  and  zeal 
into  the  fight  with  Jewish  ignorance  and  darkness,  preaching 
the  Gospel  throughout  the  length  and  breadth  of  the  land. 
There  were  then  35,000  Jews  in  Amsterdam,  all  in  rabbinical 
bondage,  especially  the  Polish  and  German  sections  of  the 

1841-49]  POLAND  MISSION  221 

community.  PauH's  work  soon  made  itself  felt.  The  rabbis 
did  all  they  could  to  thwart  his  efforts  and  retard  the  progress 
of  the  Gospel,  sometimes  resorting  to  violent  proceedings  for 
the  purpose  of  preventing  intercourse  between  Jews  and  the 
missionary,  but  without  success.  Within  two  years  as 
many  as  thirty  Jews  joined  the  Christian  Church,  and  the 
work  was  placed  on  a  satisfactory  basis,  and  in  a  flourishing 

Permission  was  next  sought  and  obtained  from  the  King 
of  Holland  for  the  erection  of  a  mission  church,  and  the  new 
place  of  worship  for  converts,  enquirers,  and  Jews  was  opened 
on  May  30th,  1847,  under  the  name  of  "Zions  Kapelle,"  the 
present  chapel  of  the  mission.  It  is  a  commodious  building, 
capable  of  seating  upward  of  three  hundred  and  fifty 
persons.  The  services  in  this  church  were,  from  the  outset, 
attended  by  good  numbers,  some  Jews  always  being  present. 
The  liturgy  used  is  the  version  of  the  S.P.C.K.,  which  was 
prepared  for  the  Dutch  members  of  the  Anglican  Church  in 
South  Africa.  A  Netherlands'  Auxiliary  for  providing  for 
the  wants  of  converts  and  enquirers  was  founded  at  this  time, 
and  exists  to  the  present  day.  A  deputation  visiting  Amster- 
dam two  years  later,  namely,  in  1849,  reported  that  in  no 
station  had  they  found  the  work  on  such  an  efficient  and 
desirable  footing.  By  this  time  fifty-five  Israelites  had  been 
baptized.    Mr.  A.  Saul  was  missionary  at  Brussels  in  1842-3. 

Turning  to  Poland  we  find  that  eight  missionaries  were 
residing  in  Warsaw  at  the  beginning  of  this  Period.  In  1842 
the  Rev.  R.  Smith,  who  was  also  British  Chaplain,  retired. 
The  first  event  to  notice  within  this  Period  is  the  death  on 
June  30th,  1842,  in  his  eightieth  year,  of  Rabbi  Abraham 
Jacob  Schwartzenberg,  who  was  brought  to  Christ  through 
reading  a  New  Testament  given  him  by  the  Rev.  F.  W.  Becker 
in  1828.  He  was  baptized  by  Dr.  McCaul  on  November  9th, 
1828,  when  he  was  sixty-four  years  of  age,  receiving,  in  addi- 
tion to  his  former  name  of  Abraham,  that  of  Jacob,  which  he 
chose  from  Micah  vii.  20,  saying,  "  Thou  wilt  perform  the  truth 
to  Jacob,  and  the  mercy  to  Abraham,  which  thou  hast  sworn 


unto    our    fathers    from  the  days  of  old."     He  expressed  a 

wish  to  retain  his  beard  and  Jewish  costume,  in  order  to  prove 

to   his   brethren   that  no  mere  worldly  motive  had  induced 

him  to  renounce  Rabbinism.     He  said  : 

The  Jews  often  think  that  persons  are  baptized  in  order  to  escape  reproach,  or 
to  live  in  Christian  quarters  of  the  city,  or  to  walk  in  the  **  Saxon  Garden  "  (from 
which  Polish  Jews  were  then  excluded),  but  I  will  show  them  that  none  of  these 
things  move  me.  I  am  a  Jew  still — formerly  I  was  an  unbelieving  Jew,  but  now 
I  am  a  believing  Jew,  and,  whatever  inconvenience  or  reproach  may  result,  I 
wish  to  bear  it  with  my  brethren. 

This  confession  caused  great  discontent  to  his  rabbinic 
countrymen,  who  had  him  summoned  before  the  police  to 
account  for  his  Judaizing  habits.  His  observation,  on  that  occa- 
sion, that  Christ  did  not  command  us  to  baptize  the  clothes  but 
the  heart,  satisfied  the  magistrate  ;  and  he  was  afterward  left 
in  undisturbed  possession  of  his  costume.  Another  proof  of 
his  disinterestedness  appeared  in  the  giving  over  to  his  son, 
who  had  suffered  on  account  of  his  father's  baptism,  the 
little  property  that  .  he  had,  himself  trusting  to  the  good 
providence  of  God  and  the  labour  of  his  hands.  His  expect- 
ation of  the  near  approach  of  death  was  not  realized,  as 
he  lived  for  nearly  fourteen  years  after  his  baptism  to  shew,  by 
his  life  and  conversation,  the  sincerity  and  power  of  his  faith. 
He  was  a  man  of  strong  common  sense ;  but  humility,  zeal, 
piety,  kindness,  and  gratitude,  were  the  striking  features  of 
his  character,  and  these  endeared  him  to  all  who  knew  him. 
He  was  a  man  of  prayer,  and  fond  of  reading  the  Word  of 
God.  Before  his  baptism,  even  before  he  had  received  any 
instruction,  he  had  made  himself  thoroughly  well  versed  in 
the  contents  of  the  New  Testament.  He  was  so  well  acquainted 
with  the  argument  of  the  Epistle  to  the  Romans,  and  with 
St.  Paul's  Epistles  generally,  that  he  astonished  those  who 
examined  him  when  he  applied  for  baptism.  To  the  last  he 
was  deeply  interested  in  the  conversion  of  his  brethren  ;  and, 
though  often  pelted  with  stones  and  mud,  he  continued  to 
visit  the  Jewish  quarters  of  the  city,  and  to  proclaim  Christ 
crucified.  He  died,  as  he  had  lived,  in  unwavering  faith 
in  the  Redeemer. 

Dr.  McCaul,  who  had  been  stationed  in  London  since  1833, 


was   deputed  by  the  Committee   to  visit  the  scene  of  his 

former  labours  in  1844.      He  was  treated  with  the  utmost 

courtesy  by    the  authorities  and  made  the  following  report 

of  the  work  : 

Poland  still  continues  the  same  rich  and  boundless  field  of  labour  that  it  ever 
was.  The  labours  of  the  Society  for  so  many  years  have  produced  a  most  happy 
change  in  the  tone  and  feeling  of  the  Jews  toward  Christianity.  Those  who  still 
reject  it  understand  better  its  doctrines  and  its  precepts ;  and  are  especially  much 
more  kind  toward  their  brethren,  whose  conscientious  convictions  have  led  them 
to  confess  Christ.  The  missionary  journeys  this  last  summer  were  particularly 
successful.  In  every  place  crowds  of  Jews  assembled  in  the  missionary's  lodgings 
to  hear  and  dispute ;  and  thousands  of  books  and  tracts  were  circulated.  In 
Warsaw  itself,  the  missionaries  are  never  without  visits  from  Jews,  and  several  are 

always  under  instruction There  are  many  converts  in  Warsaw  and 

other  parts  of  Poland,  who  walk  worthy  of  their  profession,  and  now  fill  respectable 
stations  in  society.* 

McCauPs  words  found  verification  the  very  next  year,  1845, 
when  no  less  than  thirty  Jewish  baptisms  were  recorded  in 
the  mission ;  and  six  other  of  its  enquirers  were  baptized  in 
the  Roman  Catholic  Church.  The  Operative  Institution  at 
Warsaw  continued  its  p^ood  work,  and,  on  an  average, 
there  were  twenty  enquirers  each  year,  learning  the  trades  of 
printing  and  bookbinding. 

In  1847  there  were  four  stations  in  the  country,  Warsaw, 
Lublin,  Zgierz  and  Suwalki ;  and  T.  W.  Goldinger,  a 
Lithuanian  convert,  F.  G.  Kleinhenn,  and  the  Rev.  A.  I. 
Behrens,  were  added  to  the  staff.  The  missionaries  went  forth 
in  every  direction,  circulating  the  Old  and  New  Testaments  and 
distributing  tracts  and  books.  In  this  manner  a  great  extent  of 
the  kingdom  of  Poland  was  traversed  each  year,  and  the  sound 
of  the  Gospel  penetrated  into  almost  every  nook  and  comer 
of  the  land.  Most  of  the  proselytes  who  embraced  the 
Christian  faith  went  forth  as  living  witnesses  of  the  success 
of  these  efforts.  These  were  perhaps  the  smallest  results  of 
the  activity  of  the  mission  in  Poland.  Thousands  and  tens  of 
thousands  heard  of  the  way  of  salvation.  A  wide-spread 
spirit  of  enquiry  was  abroad  in  the  Jewish  world,  instigated 
in  a  very  large  measure  by  the  circulation  of  the  Old  Paths. 

*  Thirty-seventh  Report  (1845),  P»  57« 

224  EUROPEAN    MISSIONS  [1841 

A  dying  Jew,  when  requested  by  his  friends  to  say  some- 
thing that  they  might  treasure  in  their  memories,  spoke  the 
following  striking  words : 

Now,  my  beloved,  listen  to  me.  I  die  certain  of  two  things,  but  uncertain  of 
one,  I  am  certain  that  I  die  a  Jew!  I  am  certain  that  my  grandchildren 
will  die  Christians ;  but  I  am  uncertain  whether  my  sons  will  die  as  Jews  or 

The  work  was  interrupted  in  1846  by  the  second  Polish 
Revolution,  and  in  1848  by  a  severe  outbreak  of  cholera. 

We  must  now  cross  over  into  Prussian  Poland,  which  we 
have  not  visited  since  1830,  and  where  in  Chapter  XII.  we 
left  Wcrmclskirch,  Hartmann,  and  Graf  at  work  at  Posen. 
In  1834  the  last  two  were  transferred  to  Fraustadt ;  where 
they  remained  till  1843,  when  Graf  returned  to  Posen,  and 
Hartmann  prcx:eeded  to  Frankfort-on-the-Oder,  where  he 
remained  till  1849.  Wermelskirch  withdrew  from  the  service 
of  the  Society  in  1835.  His  place  at  Posen  was  filled  in  1838 
by  K.  Ikllson,  and  in  1844  by  Graf,  who  was  joined  by  C.  J. 
Hchrcn.M  in   1847,  and  by  E.  Blum  in   1848,  both  Christian 


It  will  thus  be  seen  that  Posen  was  considered  a  very 
liniK^rtant  station,  and  such  it  was  for  an  extensive  sow- 
ln({  of  the  seed.  The  work  naturally  divided  itself  into  two 
br;mrheM,  evangelistic  and  aggressive,  and  educational.  By 
thiT  year  1H50,  when  the  mission  had  been  established  25 
yrjifft,  but  few  baptisms  had  been  recorded.  We  find  that 
|ff:II«win  baptized  only  one  Jew  ;  Graf,  three ;  and  Hartmann, 
ni:v«ri ;  although  42  baptisms  of  Jewish  converts  known  to 
Omf  had  taken  place  at  Posen  and  eight  other  towns  in 
fill:  dihtrict.  The  harvest  of  the  Posen  mission  was  reaped 
#Tl*ewhcre,  few  Jews  daring  to  make  an  open  profession 
//f  (.;hri8tianity  in  the  duchy,  on  account  of  the  persecu- 
\\ti%\  which  would  certainly  come  upon  them.  In  fact, 
ffn;  (jrcat  majority  of  Jews  baptized  in  Europe,  during  the 
(ifnt    half  of  the    century,  came    from    Posen  and  Russian 

♦  Thirty-ninth  Report  (1847),  p.  60. 

i849]  POSEN    SCHOOLS  225 

Poland,  where  they  were,  in  the  first  instance,  awakened 
to  the  truth  by  the  Society's  missionaries.  Graf,  Hartmann, 
and  others,  annually  visited  the  towns  in  the  duchy,  and 
addressed  large  numbers  of  Jews,  who  became  more  acces- 
sible, though  in  a  different  way.  The  experience  of  the 
missionaries  was  that  Jews  more  and  more  readily  attended 
Christian  churches,  but  became  less  ready  to  visit  the 
missionary  at  his  residence  or  lodgings. 

The  establishment  of  a  mission  school  in  the  city  of  Posen 
by  J.  G.  Wermelskirch,  in  1827,  eventually  led  to  remark- 
able results.  This  particular  school  was  a  success  from  the 
very  beginning.  It  had  more  children  than  that  of  the  Jewish 
teachers  paid  by  Government,  and  enjoyed  more  of  the  love  and 
confidence  of  the  Jews  in  general  than  that  did.  And  it 
was  but  the  first  of  a  number  of  mission  schools  subse- 
quently opened  at  the  following  places: — Margowin  (1828), 
Storchnest  (1829),  Inowraclaw  (1830),  Rogasen  (1833), 
Kempen  (1834),  a  second  at  Kempen  (1844),  Bomst  (1849), 
and,  to  finish  the  list,  Obomick  (1850),  Exin  and  Gnesen- 
(1854),  Sandberg  (1854),  Adelnau  (1855),  Lekno  (1858), 
Wronke,  and  Kosmin  (1861),  and  Lulmirzyce  (1863).  In 
these  schools  about  six  hundred  children  were  instructed 
annually  for  forty  years.  In  spite  of  the  opposition  of 
the  rabbis,  this  branch  of  the  Society's  work  prospered. 
The  Jews  did  not  object  to  their  children  reading  the 
Old  Testament  without  rabbinical  commentary,  or  even 
to  a  thoroughly  Christian  exposition  of  the  Messianic 
prophecies :  but,  when  the  New  Testament  was  introduced, 
the  numbers  declined,  and  the  schools  were  gradually  given 
up,  the  last  one  being  surrendered  in  1874.  Thousands  of 
children  had  been  educated  in  them ;  from  1828  to  1849  as  many 
as  2,520  had  passed  through  them  ;  and  we  may  infer  that  at 
least  an  equal  number  were  admitted  during  the  subsequent 
25  years.  These  schools  were,  doubtless,  a  g^eat  blessing ; 
they  exercised  a  widespread  influence  in  favour  of  Christianity, 
even  if  they  did  not  accomplish  a  direct  missionary  work. 

It  is  impossible  to  chronicle  every  change  which  took 
place   in    the    disposition    and    personnel    of   the    mission 

226  EUROPEAN   MISSIONS  [1841 

Staff.  In  1849  E.  Blum  was  stationed  at  Lissa,  which 
had  a  Jewish  population  of  5,000,  and  J.  Skolkowski  at 

Let  us  pass  to  Austrian  Poland.  We  saw  in  Chapter  XVI. 
that  the  Rev.  T.  Hiscock  was  actively  engaged  at  Cracow. 
In  1840  he  was  joined  by  C.  J.  Behrens,  formerly  a  lay-reader 
in  the  synagogue.  Hiscock  retired  to  Frankfort-on-the- 
Main  owing  to  his  health,  and  was  succeeded  in  1841  by 
the  Rev.  L.  Hoff.  The  widow  of  Dr.  Gerlach  was  employed 
as  a  teacher  in  the  small  school.  The  public  services  were 
well  attended,  and  several  Jews  joined  the  .missionaries* 
family  prayers  in  the  mission  house.  All  this  was  carried 
on  till  1846,  when  the  incorporation  of  the  Republic  within 
the  Austrian  dominions  put  a  stop  to  missionary  effort.  Hoff 
proceeded  to  Ratiboh,  in  Silesia,  in  1847,  and  Behrens  was 
sent  to  Posen.  Hoff  returned  to  Cracow  in  1848.  The  work 
revived,  and  the  next  year  he  was  able  to  distribute,  at 
Cracow  and  elsewhere,  as  many  as  1,238  copies  of  the 
Scriptures,  whole  or  in  parts.  In  1849  Hoff  was  again 
ordered  to  quit  Cracow,  but,  on  appealing  to  Vienna,  he  was 
allowed  to  remain. 

Berlin  was  occupied  by  the  Rev.  C.  W.  H.  Pauli  from  1841 
to  1844.  He  found  1,000  Christian  Jews  there,  and  was 
instrumental  in  adding  forty-one  to  their  number,  during  his 
short  residence  of  two  years  and  a  half  The  Rev.  R.  Bellson 
succeeded  Pauli  in  1844,  and  during  his  first  year  baptized 
twenty  Jews.  Dr.  McCaul  visited  Berlin  at  this  juncture, 
and  reported  that  the  field  of  labour  was  immense,  and  of 
peculiar  interest,  and  that  students,  schoolmasters  and 
Jewesses,  crowded  round  Bellson,  and  attended  his  services. 
Indeed,  about  this  time.  Reform  Jews  were  not  slow  to 
avail  themselves  of  Christian  privileges,  and  over  1,000  of 
their  children  were  attending  nine  different  Christian  schools, 
whilst  the  attendance  at  Jewish  schools  amounted  only  to 
355.  It  was  estimated  that  2,000  Jews  had  actually  joined 
the  Church,  an  estimate  increased  to  2,500  a  few  years  later. 

1849]  REVOLUTIONS    OF    1848  227 

Subsequently  the  Rev.  B.  W.  Wright  was  sent  out  to  assist 
Bellson,  and  to  take  full  advantage  of  the  friendly  disposition 
of  the  Jews  in  favour  of  Christianity.  A  new,  commodious, 
and  convenient  mission  church  was  opened  in  1846,  and 
the  number  of  enquirers  and  candidates  for  baptism  increased. 
The  Gospel  was  also  regularly  preached  to  the  Jews  in  the 
towns  and  villages  surrounding  Berlin  ;  Frankfort,  Leipzig, 
and  Brunswick  being  repeatedly  visited.  A  periodical, 
entitled  Records  of  IsraeVs  State  and  Prospects^  was  issued 
by  Bellson,  for  the  purpose  of  arousing  interest  in  Missions 
to  Jews. 

The  revolutions  which  agitated  Europe  in  1848  necessarily 
interfered  with  mission  work,  and  their  tendency  was  to  lead 
the  Jews  further  and  further  away  from  God.  The  services  of 
the  learned  Dr.  Biesenthal,  and  of  A.  Ludewig,  were  placed 
at  the  disposal  of  the  Society  in  1849.  '  The  great  literary 
attainments  of  the  former  were  turned  to  good  account ;  he 
prepared  a  history  of  the  Early  Ages  of  the  Christian  Churchy 
intended  for  the  special  use  of  Jews,  and  also  commentaries 
in  Hebrew  on  the  Gospels  and  the  Epistles  to  the  Romans 
and  the  Hebrews,  which  proved  of  immense  value. 

Turning  to  Frankfort-on-the-Main,  where  we  left,  in 
Chapter  XVI.,  Davenport  at  work,  it  must  suffice  to  say  that 
he  conducted  the  agency  until  his  death  in  1842,  when  the 
Rev.  J.  E.  Hiscock,  who  had  travelled  with  him  in  Germany 
during  the  previous  autumn,  succeeded  to  the  charge.  Owing 
to  ill-health,  however,  he  held  it  for  a  short  time  only, 
dying  in  1844.  H.  Poper,  subsequently  the  Rev.  Dr.  Poper, 
who  had  been  assisting  him,  took  up  the  task. 

A  word  must  be  said  about  the  work  in  the  district  of  the 
lower  Rhine.  Since  1839  the  Rev.  J.  Stockfeld  had  been 
stationed  at  Kreuznach,  where  he  remained  for  thirty  years, 
until  his  retirement  in  1868.  Throughout  his  long  service  of 
forty-three  years,  he  visited  many  thousand  Jews  in  his  large 
district,  where  his  great  achievement  was  a  very  extended 
circulation  of  the  Scriptures.     For  example,  during  the  years 


1836-48,  he  distributed  in  the  district  over  20,cxx>  copies,  or 
portions  of  the  same,  and  1 5,000  Old  Paths  and  tracts.  He 
was  instrumental  in  arousing  in  Christian  circles  a  wide-spread 
interest  in  Jeuish  Missions  ;  and,  in  1843,  founded  at  Cologne 
the  West  German  Union  for  Israel,  which  continues  its  good 
work  to  the  present  day. 

A  word  atx)ut  the  Baltic  provinces.  The  Rev.  J.  G. 
Bergfeldt,  who  was  stationed  at  Konigsberg  in  1827,  continued 
his  wonderful  work  of  distribution  of  the  Scriptures,  and 
during  the  last  five  years  of  his  ministry',  from  1839  to  1S43, 
when  he  died,  more  than  7,000  copies,  or  portions,  u-ene  put 
into  circulation,  realizing  upward  of  jf  soa  The  bulk  of 
these  silent  messengers  found  their  way  into  Russia,  into 
parts  inaccessible  to  the  Christian  missionary.  Bergfeldt's 
successor,  the  Rev.  C.  Noesgen,  continued  this  important 
branch  of  the  work,  and  bore  testimony  to  the  advantages 
and  results,  of  which  he  received  many  proofs,  of  thus  being 
able  to  reach  the  Russian  Jews.  The  Rev.  E.  M.  Tartakover 
assisted  Noesgen  in  1843,  and  was  then  removed  to 
Danzig,  where,  in  July  1844  the  Rev.  H.  Lawrence  had 
commenced  his  long  term  of  labour.  Noesgen  remained  at 
Konigsberg  till  1850,  when  he  also  was  transferred  to  Danzig. 

A  most  important  mission  field  was  opened  during  this 
Period,  in  the  Principality,  as  it  then  was,  of  Roumania, 
where,  whilst  many  of  the  Jews  are  Sephardim,  or  Spanish, 
there  is  also  a  large  number  of  German  Jews  in  the  countr>% 
speaking  the  Judaeo-German  jargon.  Nowhere  are  the  Jews 
more  diligent  and  industrious,  and  nowhere  do  they  exercise 
a  greater  influence  upon  the  business  transactions  of  the 
country  in  which  they  live.  They  are,  as  in  other  countries, 
bankers,  shopkeepers,  peddlers  and  artisans ;  and  although 
many  are  exceedingly  poor,  others  are  wealthy  and  prosperous. 
Unhappily,  a  great  proportion  of  them  are  in  a  deplorable 
religious  condition.  Infidelity  is  rife,  and  many  who  still 
profess  adherence  to  the  faith  of  their  fathers  are  indifferent 
and   careless.      But,  notwithstanding  this,   there  has  always 

1849]  ROUMANIA  229 

been  a  fairly  large  section  of  the  Jewish  community 
composed  of  earnest-minded,  thoughtful  men,  impressed  with 
a  deep  sense  of  the  importance  of  religious  truth,  and  devoting 
their  time  and  energies  to  the  study  of  their  religion.  Here, 
as  in  neighbouring  lands,  the  descendants  of  Jacob  have  had 
to  suffer  many  things  at  the  hands  of  their  Gentile  neighbours. 
The  Kingdom,  as  it  now  is,  of  Roumania,  comprises  the  old 
Turkish  provinces  of  Moldavia  and  Wallachia,  and  contains  no 
less  than  200,000  Jews,  and  is  thus  one  of  the  most  important 
mission  fields  of  Eastern  Europe.  In  Roumania  the  name 
for  a  Jew  is  "  Zid,"  meaning  a  "  blot "  or  "  stain." 

Bucharest,  the  capital,  has  40,000  Jews,  and  was  first 
occupied  in  184 1,  when  G.  W.  Pieritz  spent  a  few  months 
there.  In  1846  Joseph  Mayers  and  C.  S.  Sander  took 
up  their  permanent  residence  in  the  city.  At  first  they 
were  cordially  welcomed  by  the  Jews  ;  but  when  their  purpose 
was  clearly  manifested,  the  "  offence  of  the  Cross  "  prevailed, 
and  Jewish  opposition  declared  itself.  Enquirers  were  threat- 
ened with  imprisonment  or  banishment  by  the  Epitrope^  the 
Jewish  police  functionaries,  who  possessed  plenipotentiary 
powers  over  all  Jews.  These  threats,  however,  were  almost  a 
dead  letter,  most  of  the  anxious  enquirers  continuing  their 
visits  to  the  missionaries.  Their  number  was  considerable  and 
seven  of  them  had  grace  and  courage  to  proceed  to  baptism 
within  two  years.  A  school  was  established  in  1848,  and  by 
the  next  year  had  an  attendance  of  twenty  scholars.  The 
missionaries  visited  other  places  in  Turkey,  such  as  Jassy, 
Galatz,  and  Braila,  and  found  the  Jews  willing  to  listen  to 
the  doctrines  of  Christ,  and  anxious  for  Christian  books. 
In  1848  cholera  and  the  Revolution  hindered  missionary 
operations  for  a  time.  By  1850  eleven  Jews  had  been  in- 
structed by  Joseph  Mayers  and  baptized,  and  he  then  com- 
puted the  number  of  Christian  Jews  in  Wallachia  at  between 
eighty  and  ninety.  He  was  ordained  at  Christmas  of  that 
year,  and  S.  Mayers  and  P.  Davis  were  appointed  to  assist 
him  at  Bucharest. 

The  Jews  of  the  Spanish  Peninsula  do   not   come  n[iuc\v 

230  EUROPEAN   MISSIONS  [1841 

into  our  history,  but  when  Dr.  Ewald  visited  the  Jews  of 
Lisbon  in  1841,  he  found  that,  in  addition  to  those  who 
attended  the  synagogue  in  that  city,  there  were  many  crypto- 
Jews,  who,  while  outwardly  conforming  to  the  Roman  Catholic 
worship,  secretly  kept  the  Jewish  feasts.  In  1843  A.  Levi 
resided  for  some  time  at  Gibraltar,  and  subsequently  at  Cadiz, 
whilst  waiting  for  an  opportunity  to  cross  over  into  Morocco. 
This  he  did  in  1844,  but  the  outbreak  of  war  between  France 
and  Morocco  compelled  his  retreat  to  Gibraltar  the  same 

Our  last  reference  in  this  chapter  must  be  to  the  Jews  of 
Salonica  in  Turkey,  which,  with  its  35,000  Jews,  in  addition 
to  its  many  thousands  of  Diinmeh,  or  Mohammedan  Jews,* 
was  second  only  to  Constantinople  in  importance  as  a 
mission  centre,  and  was  occupied  in  1847  by  J.  O.  Lord, 
who  was  joined,  in  the  following  year,  by  J.  B.  Goldberg. 
At  the  commencement  of  their  labours  the  missionaries 
found  ready  access  to  the  Jews,  even  among  the  richest  and 
most  learned  families.  Soon  after,  however,  it  was  found  that 
the  Jews  did  not  call  in  such  numbers  as  before,  nor  were  they 
so  willing  to  receive  visits.  This  proved  to  have  been  caused 
by  a  cherem  covertly  promulgated  by  the  chief  rabbi.  It  was 
evident  that  the  rabbis  had  taken  the  alarm,  and  dreaded  the 
effects  of  missionary  efforts.  Nor  was  this  the  only  precau- 
tion taken  by  them.  An  association  was  formed,  which  met 
once  or  twice  a  week,  for  the  purpose  of  reading  the  Bible, 
and  endeavouring  to  confute  or  explain  away  the  passages 
brought  forward  in  favour  of  Christianity.  A  work  was  also 
published  against  the  New  Testament. 

That  Judaism  cannot  give  its  followers  serenity,  peace, 
and  comfort  in  the  hour  of  death,  was  strikingly  exemplified 
at  this  station  on  the  approach  of  the  cholera  in  1848. 
The  spread  of  this  pestilence  caused  an  extraordinar>' 
degree  of  fear  and  excitement  among  the  Jews,  their  state  of 
terror  is  described  to  have  been  truly  distressing  to  witness. 

♦  Sec  page  173. 

1849]  SALONICA  231 

During  the  month  of  November  of  that  year,  the  mission- 
aries made  a  journey  through  Albania,  Thessaly,  and 
Macedonia,  visiting  those  towns  in  which  Jews  reside.  The 
reception  they  met  with  was  very  satisfactory,  and  they  had 
especially  the  privilege  of  distributing  many  copies  of  Script- 
ures, and  other  books.  They  had  many  interesting  conversa- 
tions with  all  classes,  both  rich  and  poor,  ignorant  as  well  as 
learned.  From  the  hour  they  left  home,  about  ten  o'clock, 
till  after  sunset,  they  neither  ate  nor  drank,  but  either  spoke* 
or  listened  to  what  the  Jews  had  to  say.  At  Janina,  on  the 
Jewish  Sabbath,  the  Jews  flocked  to  the  lodgings  of  the 
missionaries  in  such  numbers,  that  they  filled  two  rooms, 
Lord  speaking  in  one,  and  Goldberg  in  the  other.  At  a 
village  called  Mavra,  where  a  fair  was  being  held,  the  eager- 
ness of  the  people  for  copies  of  the  Bible  and  tracts,  was  so 
great,  that  they  could  not  meet  the  demand  for  them. 

The  friendly  intercourse  which  the  missionaries  were  per- 
mitted to  establish  with  the  Jews  at  Salonica  was  most 
encouraging.  Through  their  instrumentality  as  many  as 
3,000  copies  of  the  sacred  volume  were  put  into  the  hands  of 
the  Jews  in  less  than  three  years  ;  some  of  which  were  carried, 
either  by  the  missionaries  themselves,  or  by  other  means,  far 
into  the  country.  Several  instances  were  known  where 
people  actually  learnt  to  read  at  the  age  of  40  or  50,  that 
they  might  be  able  to  use  the  Bible  for  themselves. 

In  the  course  of  the  summer  of  1849  the  missionaries  visited 
ten  or  twelve  towns,  containing,  upon  a  general  average, 
about  a  hundred  Jewish  families  each  ;  most  of  whom  had 
apparently  never  been  visited  by  any  missionary.  In  nearly 
all  these  places  they  were  well  received  ;  with  one  or  two 
exceptions,  all  the  Jews  were  civil,  and  gladly  bought  the 
books  offered  to  them  at  a  low  price.  The  missionaries  also 
had  interesting  conversations  with  some  of  the  Diinmeh, 
and  found  many  traces  of  their  national  hopes  among  them. 


FIRST     FEW     YEARS     OF     THE     BISHOPRIC     IN 

Previous  difflctiltles  and  hindrances— Consunmuitioii  beyond  expectation— Letter 
Commendatory  to  Greek  Patriarch— Entry  of  the  Bishop  Into  the  City— His  first 
services— Revival  in  the  work— Hebrew  Christian  staff— Building  of  Church  and 
Hospital— Three  Jerusalem  rabbis— Hebrew  College— House  of  Industry— Miss 
Cook's  Munificence— Enquirers*  Home— Influx  of  Jews— logons  family— Bible 
Depot— Opening  of  Hospital— Death  of  Bishop  Alexander— Funeral  services— A 
grand  Testimony— Bishop  Qobat  succeeds— Diocesan  Schools— Society's  Schools 
projected— Consecration  of  Christ  Church— Description  of  Services. 

IN  Chapter  XXII.  we  left  the  newly  consecrated  Bishop 
starting  for  Jerusalem.  To  the  Committee  his  depart- 
ure was  fraught  with  the  highest  hopes  for  the  benefit 
of  the  Society's  work  in  Jerusalem,  of  which  he  was  consti- 
tuted the  head.  They  had  long  desired  to  improve  the 
missionary  establishments  there,  and  to  secure  for  the  mis- 
sionaries, and  those  who  might  become  Christians  by  their 
means,  the  countenance  and  support  of  the  local  Powers. 
Hitherto  the  Ottoman  Government  had  stood  in  their  way, 
and  defeated  every  scheme  that  ingenuity  could  devise.  The 
existence  of  the  mission  was  tolerated,  but  not  officially  re- 
cognized. The  Turkish  authorities  would  deal  with  none  but 
responsible  heads  ;  and  thus,  while  Armenians,  Greeks,  and 
Latins  presented,  in  their  Patriarchs  and  Bishops,  federal 
representatives  of  the  several  communions,  Protestants  alone 
remained  without  recognition.  The  evils  of  this  state  of  things 
were  great  in  many  ways,  but  especially  in  this,  that  a  Jew,  when 
converted  to  the  faith  of  the  Anglican  Church,  was  not  thereby 
enrolled  among  the  members  of  an  acknowledged  community. 
He  quitted  the  shade  of  the  synagogue,  which,  scanty  as  it 
was,  offered  him  at  least  the  protection  of  a  name,  to  join 
himself  to  a  body  enjoying,  in  no  part  of  the  Turkish  empire. 

1841-49]         LETTER    TO    THE    GREEK   ECCLESIASTICS        233 

a  legal  existence,  and  neither  seen  nor  known  beyond  the 
precincts  of  a  single  district. 

Therefore  much  was  expected  from  the  establishment  of  the 
Bishopric.  To  use  the  grateful  language  of  the  Committee :  * 

A  consummation  such  as  this  was  far  beyond  our  most  sanguine  hopes,  and 
almost  beyond  the  contemplation  of  our  prayers  ;  truly  may  we  say,  in  the  pious 
language  of  our  Liturgy,  that  **  God,  who  is  always  more  ready  to  hear  than  we 
to  pray,  and  is  wont  to  give  more  than  either  we  desire  or  deserve,"  has 
exceeded  all  that  we  could  ask  or  think.  We  saw  a  Hebrew  of  the  Hebrews, 
after  centuries  of  contempt,  degradation,  and  suffering,  raised  from  the  mire  in 
which  we  Gentiles  had  trampled  his  nation,  and  elevated  to  the  highest  office 
in  the  Christian  Church, — consecrated  to  those  services  which,  during  seventeen 
hundred  years,  had  never  been  listened  to  form  Jewish  lips, — destined,  in  God's 
mercy,  to  carry  back  the  message  of  peace  to  the  source  from  which  it  had 
originally  flowed,  and  on  the  very  scene  of  the  life  and  passion  of  our  dearest 
Lord,  to  present  the  more  conspicuously  by  his  eminent  station,  the  first-fruits 
of  an  humbled,  penitent,  and  returning  people. 

That  there  might  be  no  mistake  about  the  Bishop's  status 
and  work,  a  Letter  Commendatory  from  the  Archbishop  of 
Canterbury  was  written  to  the  Eastern  authorities.  The 
following  is  a  translation  of  the  Greek  original : 

^^  To  the  Right  Reverend  our  Brothers  in  Christy  the  Prelates  and  Bishops  of  the 
Ancient  and  Apostolic  Churches  in  Syria  and  the  Countries  adjacettt^  greeting  in 
the  Lord:— 

•*  We,  William,  by  Divine  Providence,  Archbishop  of  Canterbury,  Primate  of 
All  England  and  Metropolitan,  most  earnestly  commend  to  your  brotherly  love  the 
Right  Reverend  Michael  Solomon  Alexander,  Doctor  in  Divinity,  whom  we, 
being  well  assured  of  his  learning  and  piety,  have  consecrated  to  the  office  of  a 
Bishop  of  the  United  Church  of  England  and  Ireland,  according  to  the  ordinances 
of  our  Holy  and  Apostolic  Church,  and  having  obtained  the  consent  of  our 
Sovereign  Lady  the  Queen,  have  sent  out  to  Jerusalem,  with  authority  to  exercise 
spiritual  jurisdiction  over  the  clergy  and  congregations  of  our  Church,  which  are  now, 
or  which  hereafter  may  be,  established  in  the  countries  above  mentioned.  And 
in  order  to  prevent  any  misunderstanding  in  regard  to  this  our  purpose,  we  think 
it  right  to  make  known  to  you,  that  we  have  charged  the  said  Bishop  our  brother 
not  to  intermeddle  in  any  way  with  the  jurisdiction  of  the  prelates  or  other  ecclesias- 
tical dignitaries  bearing  rule  in  the  Churches  of  the  East ;  but  to  show  them  due 
reverence  and  honour ;  and  to  be  ready,  on  all  occasions,  and  by  all  the  means  in 
his  power,  to  promote  a  mutual  interchange  of  respect,  courtesy,  and  kindness. 
We  have  good  reason  to  believe  that  our  brother  is  willing,  and  will  feel  himself 
in  conscience  bound,  to  follow  these  our  instructions ;  and  we  beseech  you,  in  the 
name  of  our  Lord  Jesus  Christ,  to  receive  him  as  a  brother,  and  to  assist  him,  as 
opportunity  may  offer,  with  your  good  offices. 

*  Thirty-fourth  Report  (1842),  p.  39. 

234         EARLY    YEARS    OF  JERUSALEM    BISHOPRIC         [1841 

**  We  trust  that  your  Holinesses  will  accept  this  communication  as  a  testimony 
of  our  respect  and  affection,  and  of  our  hearty  desire  to  renew  that  amicable 
intercourse  with  the  ancient  Churches  of  the  East,  which  has  been  suspended  for 
ages,  and  which,  if  restored,  may  have  the  effect,  with  the  blessing  of  God,  of  putting 
an  end  to  the  divisions  which  have  brought  the  most  grievous  calamities  on 
the  Church  of  Christ. 

**  In  this  hope,  and  with  sentiments  of  the  highest  respect  for  your  Holinesses, 
we  have  affixed  our  Archiepiscopal  seal  to  this  letter,  written  with  our  own  hand 
at  our  Palace  of  Lambeth,  on  the  23rd  day  of  November,  in  the  year  of  our  Lord 

The  Episcopal  party  arrived  off  Beyrout  on  January  14th, 

1842;  and  reached  Jerusalem  on  January  21st.    The  Bishop 

has  left  on  record  a  description  of  his  entry  into  the  city  : 

On  Friday  evening  we  arrived  in  the  city  of  our  forefathers  under  circumstances 
of  peculiar  respect  and  honour.  .  .  .  We  formed  quite  a  large  body,—  the  Consul- 
General,  Colonel  Rose,  with  seven  or  eight  of  his  escort ;  Captain  Gordon,  and 
six  or  seven  of  the  officers  of  the  "Devastation";  Mr.  Nicolayson  and  Mr. 
Bergheim,  who  met  us  at  Jaffa,  and  accompanied  us;  Mr.  Johns  and  the 
American  missionaries,  with  escorts,  who  came  to  meet  us  about  three  miles  from 
Jenisalem ;  and,  at  last,  the  chief  officers  sent  by  the  Pasha,  who  had  himself 
come  to  meet  us  in  the  afternoon,  but  was  obliged  to  return,  as  night  came  on, 
and  it  was  damp  (we  arrived  about  six  o'clock),  and  a  troop  of  soldiers,  headed  by 
Arab  music,  which  is  something  like  the  beating  of  a  tin  kettle.  Thus  we  entered 
through  the  Jaffa  gate,  under  the  firing  of  salutes,  &c. ,  into  Jerusalem,  and  were 
conducted  to  Mr.  Nicolayson*s  house,  where  we  were  most  kindly  and  hospitably 
received,  and  all  felt  overwhelmed  with  gratitude  and  adoration.  .  .  .  We  had 
service  in  the  temporary  chapel  on  Sunday  last.  I  preached  my  first  sermon 
from  Isaiah  Ix.  15  ;  Mr.  Williams  preached  in  the  afternoon,  and  Mr.  Nicolayson 
conducted  a  German  service  in  the  evening.  We  had  a  very  good  congregation, 
all  our  friends,  the  Consul- General,  Captain  Gordon,  and  the  officers,  being 
present.  Our  feelings  on  the  occasion  can  be  better  imagined  than  expressed, 
as  you  may  easily  suppose.  We  also  had  the  Sacrament,  and  it  will  be  pleasing 
to  the  ladies  of  Reading  to  know,  that  the  handsome  communion -service  which 
they  presented  to  the  church  was  made  use  of  for  the  first  time  by  the  Bishop  of 

The  Times  contained   a  full  account  of  the  entry  of  the 
Bishop,  and  concluded  with  these  words  : 

The  mission  is  sure  of  the  firm  support  of  tne  British  Government  and  the 
British  Ambassador  at  the  Porte.  As  regards  Syria,  the  Consul-General  has  lent 
all  the  force  of  his  official  authority,  personal  influence,  and  popularity,  to  set  the 
undertaking  afloat,  while  the  mild  and  benevolent  character  of  the  Bishop,  and 
the  sound  practical  sense  and  valuable  local  experience  of  his  coadjutor,  Mr. 
Nicolayson,  are  sure  guarantees  that  caution,  charity,  and  conciliation  will  preside 
at  all  their  efforts. 

*  Jewish  Intelligeme^  1842,  p.   127. 

i849]  REVIVAL    IN    THE     WORK  235 

In  conformity  with  instructions  received  from  Constantinople, 
proclamation  was  made  in  the  mosques,  that  "  he  who  touches 
the  Anglican  Bishop  will  be  regarded  as  touching  the  apple 
of  the  Pasha's  eye." 

The  first  letter  received  from  the  Bishop,  dated  February 
2nd,  1842,  shewed  a  revival  in  the  work  ;  indeed  the  years  of  his 
Episcopate  were  "years  of  plenty."  Speaking  of  the  daily 
services  in  the  temporary  chapel  of  the  mission,  the  Bishop 
said,  "  I  feel'  it  peculiarly  delightful  thus  daily  to  worship  on 
Mount  Zion."  Jews  shewed  themselves  interested  in,  and 
often  watched  the  progress  of,  the  new  buildings,  and  the 
Bishop  had  conversations  with  them. 

In  a  second  letter,  of  March  9th,  the  Bishop  wrote : 

Our  mission  is  beginning  to  be  very  interesting,  and,  I  trust,  efficient.  There 
never  have  been  such  large  congregations  of  Protestants  as  have  been  assembled 
since  my  arrival  here.  On  Sunday  last  our  chapel  was  literally  crowded,  and  never 
did  I  wish  more  that  our  church  was  built.  I  have  laid  the  first  foundation-stone 
on  the  28th  ult. 

The  Bishop  held  his  first  Ordination  on  March  17th,  the 
candidate  being  John  Miihleisen,  C.M.S.  Missionary  for  Abys- 
sinia, and  baptized  a  Jewish  family  on  Whitsun-Day.  On 
October  9th,  he  held  his  first  Confirmation,  when  eight  Hebrew 
Christians  were  presented  ;  the  next  week  he  married  two  con- 
verts, and,  on  October  30th,  ordained  E.  M.  Tartakover,  the 
first  Hebrew  Christian  ordained  at  Jerusalem  since  Apostolic 
days.  There  were  now  a  bishop,  a  priest,  and  a  deacon,  all 
"  Hebrews  of  the  Hebrews,"  ministering  on  Mount  Zion  ;  and, 
within  a  few  months,  every  ordinance  of  the  church  had  been  per- 
formed in  the  chapel.  A  larger  building,  capable  of  seating  1 50 
persons,  was  subsequently  used  in  place  of  the  previous  "  upper 
chamber."     Eight  Jews  were  baptized  during  the  year  1842. 

The  alterations  to  the  hospital  premises  were  approaching 
completion,  and  the  building  of  the  church  was  prosecuted 
with  great  vigour  during  1842  ;  the  foundations,  the  depth  of 
which  in  many  places  exceeded  forty  feet,  were  completed, 
30,000  cubic  feet  of  masonry  having  been  laid  under  ground 
in  three  months  alone;  and  the  walls  were  carried  up  to 
the   height   of  several   feet.      But,   unhappily,   the   relations 

236        EARLY    YEARS    OF  JERUSALEM    BISHOPRIC         [1841 

between  Mr.  Johns  and  the  Committee  became  strained.  He 
ceased  to  be  the  Society's  architect  in  1842  ;  and  the  Com- 
mittee were  compelled  to  protest  in  the  Jewish  Intelligence  of 
June  1844,  against  the  publication  of  an  elaborate  proposal 
which  he  put  forth  as  the  Anglican  Cathedral  Church  of  St, 
James.  Mr.  Johns  explained  that  none  of  these  plans  were 
copies  of  the  drawings  he  had  agreed  to  deliver  to  the 
Committee.  The  King  of  Prussia,  who  at  this  time  took 
deep  interest  in  Jerusalem,  conferred  through  his  Minister 
with  Lord  Shaftesbur>'  and  the  Committee,  and  His  Majesty's 
wishes  were  adopted  as  far  as  practicable.  The  designs  of  Mr. 
M.  Habershon,  who  had  proceeded  to  Jerusalem  to  examine  the 
existing  foundations,  were  finally  approved,  and  Mr.  R.  B. 
Critchlow  superintended  the  work  under  his  direction.  Such 
an  enterprise  could  not  escape  the  political  influence  of  the  land. 
The  further  progress  of  the  church  was  arrested  by  order 
of  the  Pasha  in  the  spring  of  1843,  whereupon  Nicolayson 
repaired  to  Constantinople,  and  was  supported  in  his  efforts 
to  get  the  order  rescinded  by  H.B.M.  Ambassador,  and  also 
by  the  representative  of  H.M.  the  King  of  Prussia.  Nego- 
tiations proving  unavailing,  a  memorial,  signed  by  the  Arch- 
bishop of  Canterbury,  the  Bishop  of  London,  and  other 
prelates,  1,400  clergy  and  15,000  laity,  was  presented  to  Lord 
Aberdeen  by  Lord  Ashley  on  March  i8th,  1845.  In  September 
of  the  same  year  the  firman  to  build  was  obtained  from 
Constantinople,  and  the  munificent  gift  of  £2,600  from  Miss 
Jane  Cook,  a  staunch  friend  of  the  Society  at  Cheltenham, 
enabled  the  building  to  be  completed. 

Much  commotion  was  caused  at  this  time  at  Jerusalem  by 
the  fact  that  three  rabbis,  Abraham,  Benjamin,  and  Eliezer, 
had  placed  themselves  under  Christian  instruction.  Mr. 
Ewald  wrote  home : 

A  deputation  from  the  Jews  of  Tiberias  arrived  here,  to  enquire  whether  the 
report  they  had  heard  was  true,  viz.,  that  fourteen  rabbis  of  Jerusalem  had  em- 
braced Christianity.  The  Jews  of  this  place  are  very  much  exasperated  on  that 
account,  and  do  all  in  their  power  to  avoid  coming  in  contact  with  us.  and  have 
removed  all  the  books  which  they  had  previously  received  through  the  mission,  in 
order  that  they  might  not  be  suspected. 

Shortly  afterward,  two  of  the  rabbis,  Eliezer  and  Benjamin, 

1849]  HOUSE    OF    INDUSTRY  237 

known  henceforth  as  Christian  Lazarus  Lauria  and  John 
Benjamin  Goldberg,  were  baptized  with  two  other  enquirers, 
Isaac  Paul  Hirsch  and  Simon  Peter  Friinkel.  Mr  Nicolayson, 
referring  to  the  event,  said  : 

It  is  not  a  small  thing,  that  the  apparently  impenetrable  phalanx  of  Rabbinism  at 
Jerusalem  has  thus  actually  been  broken  into  ;  and  two  Jerusalem  rabbis  been  in- 
corporated into  the  restored  Hebrew  Christian  Church  on  Mount  Zion.  How  sore 
the  Jews  felt  on  this  occasion  you  can  easily  conceive.  They  were,  in  fact,  after 
all,  taken  by  surprise,  and  felt  sadly  disappointed  in  having  to  yield  up  at  last  any 
lingering  hope  they  might  have  had  of  their  return. 

Of  the  third  rabbi,  Abraham,  Mr.  Ewald  said  : 

There  was,  indeed,  something  which  marred  my  joy  on  that  occasion,  which 
was  the  absence  of  Rabbi  Abraham.  For  years  had  he  been  the  faithful  com- 
panion of  Rabbi  Eliezer  and  Rabbi  Benjamin  ;  he  had  the  same  convictions,  but 
he  could  not  leave  his  wife ;  the  struggles  between  natural  affection  and  spiritual 
blessings  were  too  hard  for  him,  and  he  returned. 

Subsequently  Ewald  wrote,  that  love  for  his  wife  more  than 
the  truth  did  not  serve  the  rabbi,  for  she  refused  to  live 
with  him  any  longer,  stating  that  she  was  sure  he  was  still  a 
Christian,  and  she  requested  to  be  divorced.  Rabbi  Abraham 
would  hear  nothing  of  a  divorce  ;  finally,  however,  he  was 
compelled  to  give  in. 

The  Committee  had  for  some  time  contemplated  the 
establishment  at  Jerusalem  of  an  institution  for  training 
Hebrew  Christian  missionaries.  It  was  opened  by  the  Bishop 
on  May  19th,  1843,  with  four  students,  amongst  them  Goldbergs 
Lauria,  and  Hirsch.  The  Rev.  G.  Williams,  and  the  Rev. 
W.  D.  Veitch,  successively  acted  as  head  of  the  college,  with 
E.  S.  Caiman  as  managing  superintendent.  The  college 
was  discontinued  in  1846  through  lack  of  funds.  Veitch 
resigned,  and  Caiman  was  transferred  to  the  hospital  staff. 

Another  most  useful  and  successful  institution  for  training 
converts  in  carpentry  and  joinery,  and  furnishing  articles  re- 
quired for  the  mission,  was  inaugurated  in  1843.  It  was 
re-opened  and  placed  on  its  present  footing  on  December 
2 1st,  1848,  under  the  superintendence  of  P.  I.  Hershon, 
formerly  in  the  Jerusalem  College.  It  now  became  a  Home, 
as  well  as  a  workshop,  in  which  the  converts  and  enquirers 
were  housed,  maintained,  and  instructed  in  Christianity, 
during  the  time  they  were  learning  a  trade. 

238         EARLY    YEAKS    OF  JERUSALEM   BISHOPRIC        [1841 

Miss  Jane  Cook  generously  supplied  a  fund  of  ;£^io,ooo,  the 
interest  of  which  was  set  apart  toward  the  up-keep  of  the 
institution  ;  she  also  gave  £yoo  for  the  purchase  of  new 

The  work  of  the  inmates  has  become  well-known  of  recent 
years  by  the  beautiful  olive  wood  articles,  which  have  found 
such  a  ready  sale  at  home.  The  trades  of  printing  and 
bookbinding  are  now  taught  as  well  as  carpentry  and  joinery. 

An  Enquirers*  Home  also  was  found  useful  in  providing 
new  enquirers  with  lodging  and  food,  whilst  undergoing 
observation  and  instruction  previous  to  their  admission  into 
the  House  of  Industry  for  permanent  training. 

The  Jewish  population  increased  much  at  this  period,  and 
in  the  latter  part  of  1843  ^^  many  as  150  Jews  arrived  in 
one  party  from  Algeria.  The  large  number  of  African,  or 
Mugrabi  Jews  now  demanded  the  formation  of  a  separate 
congregation  in  Jerusalem.  Another  overwhelming  influx 
was  reported  a  few  months  later,  the  Jewish  quarter  not  being 
large  enough  to  contain  them. 

These  facts  are  the  more  interesting  because  a  Mugrabi  Jew, 
by  name  Rabbi  Judah  Levi  (Lyons),  who  had  previously  met 
Ewald  in  Africa,  at  this  time  became  a  Christian,  and  was 
baptized  with  his  two  children  in  the  Easter  of  1844,  his 
wife  remaining  a  Jewess.  The  troubles,  caused  by  the  Jews 
taking  his  children  away  from  him,  were  heart-breaking. 
One  of  his  sons,  Joshua,  was  afterward  a  dispenser  for  many 
years  in  the  Society's  service. 

A  Bible  dep6t  was  opened  in  the  early  part  of  1844,  and 
the  Holy  Scriptures  circulated  in  Hebrew,  Arabic,  Greek, 
Italian,  French,  German,  and  Spanish ;  also  the  Liturgy,  Old 
Paths,  and  the  Pilgrivis  Progress  in  Hebrew.  This  occa- 
sioned a  great  stir  and  no  small  alarm,  and  an  excommuni- 
cation was  pronounced  by  the  rabbis  against  every  Jew  who 
should  enter  the  premises,  but  it  proved  a  brutum  fulmen. 
That  noble  benefactress,  Miss  Jane  Cook,  having  found  the 
money  for  the  employment  of  a  Scripture  Reader  amongst 
the  Jews,  Judah  Lyons,  the  above  mentioned  convert,  was 
len  for  the  post 


1849]  OPENING    OF    THE    HOSPITAL  239 

We  must  now  return  to  the  Society's  medical  work.  The 
house  which  had  been  secured  on  a  long  lease,  having  been 
altered  and  adapted,  was,  after  many  delays  and  difficulties, 
opened  as  a  Hospital  for  Poor  Sick  Jews  on  December  12th, 
1844,  with  Dr.  Macgowan  as  chief  medical  missionary  and 
Dr.  Nichol  as  assistant.  The  Society's  beneficent  relieving 
of  the  sick  had  already  become  well  known,  for  the  dispensary 
had  been  open  three  years,  and  had  been  numerously  resorted 
to  by  Jews  of  all  classes,  who  manifested  a  great  desire  to  be 
admitted  as  patients  in  the  hospital.  The  first  who  entered 
was  a  Bagdad  Jewess,  the  second  a  German  Jew.  One  of  the 
early  patients  died  under  treatment,  and  this  caused  a  diffi- 
culty about  burial,  which,  however,  did  not  lead  to  anything 
at  that  time.  On  January  21st,  1845,  a  Greek  Jew  died,  where- 
upon the  chief  rabbi  refused  to  bury  the  body  unless  a  pro- 
mise was  given  to  dismiss  all  the  patients,  and  never  again 
to  receive  any  Hebrew.  The  body,  therefore,  was  interred 
in  the  British  burial  ground.  A  Jewish  anathema  was  pro- 
claimed on  January  22nd,  and  in  twenty-four  hours  all  the 
eight  patients  had  left  as  well  as  the  Jewish  servants. 

The  Bishop  traced  the  proceedings  of  the  rabbis  to  the 
recent  re-publication  of  the  Chizzuk  Emunah^  as  a  counterpoise 
against  the  growing  influence  of  the  mission.  This  inspired 
themVith  hatred  and  intolerance,  but  the  panic  caused  by 
their  opposition  was  of  short  duration.  Within  a  fortnight 
our  Jewish  patients  had  been  admitted  into  the  hospital 
and  others  soon  followed.  A  second  anathema,  on  March  ist, 
produced  a  very  slight  effect ;  and  the  truth  of  Dr.  Macgowan's 
forecast  that  the  opposition,  was  only  an  effort  of  bigotry 
which  would  soon  exhaust  itself,  and  in  the  end  turn  out  to 
the  advantage  of  the  Gospel,  was  very  soon  apparent.  Fifty 
years  later  history  was  to  repeat  itself  in  an  organised 
attempt  to  cripple  the  Society's  work  in  its  new  hospital.* 
A  traveller  in  Jerusalem,  in  the  year  1845,  the  Rev.  Dr. 
Aiton,  speaking  of  the  Society's  institutions,  said  > 

Both  in  the  Hospital  and  in  the  House  of  Industry  plenty  of  New  Testaments 

*  Vide  page  549^ 

240  EARLY    YEARS     OF  JERUSALEM    BISHOPRIC      [1841 

in  the  Hebrew  tongue  are  laid  on  the  tables.  But  while  every  facility  is  given  to 
the  reading  of  the  Gospels,  there  is  nothing  like  compulsion,  or  any  indications 
that  the  conversion  of  the  inmates  is  the  sole  but  disguised  object  of  these 
institutions.  On  the  contrary,  everything  is  done,  so  £eir  as  the  funds  will  admit 
of  it,  for  the  benefit  of  the  whole  body  of  the  Jews  in  Palestine.* 

A  great  blow  fell  upon  the  Society  in  the  autumn  of  1845 
by  the  sudden  death,  on  November  26th,  of  Bishop  Alexander, 
after  the  short  episcopate  of  four  years.  The  sad  event 
occurred  in  the  desert  at  Ras-el-Wady,  on  his  way  to  visit 
Egypt,  which  forms  a  part  of  the  diocese  of  Jerusalem.  A 
pathetic  interest  attaches  to  the  Bishop's  last  annual  letter, 
written  before  he  started  for  Cairo,  in  which,  speaking  of  his 
arrangements,  he  alluded  to  the  "  uncertainty  of  everything.*' 
In  this  letter  the  Bishop  joyfully  announced  that  the  firman 
had  been  granted  for  the  erection  of  the  church,  and  spoke 
of  progress  in  the  work. 

Mrs.  Alexander  thus  described  those  last  days  in  the 
desert : 

On  setting  out  through  the  desen,  each  day  my  beloved  husband  and  myself 
rode  our  own  horses ;  we  generally  were  in  advance  of  the  caravan,  and  we 
used  regularly  to  chant  some  of  our  Hebrew  chants,  and  sang  the  following  hymns  : 
"Children  of  the  heavenly  King;''  "Long  has  the  harp  of  Judah  hung"; 
Psalm  cxi.;  "Glorious  things  of  thee  are  spoken;"  all  out  of  our  own  h3rmn- 
book ;  and  never  did  his  warm  and  tender  heart  overflow  so  fully,  as  when  he 
spoke  of  Israel's  future  restoration.  When  I  spoke  to  him  about  his  duties  in 
England,  he  answered,  "  I  hope,  if  invited,  to  preach  my  first  sermon  in  England 
at  the  Episcopal  Jews'  Chapel ; "  and  on  my  asking  what  subject  he  would  take, 
he  replied,  "  I  shall  resume  the  subject  I  adopted  when  I  last  left  that  dear 
congregation ; "  namely,  that  none  of  these  trials  had  moved  him.  (Acts  xx. 

Mrs.  Lieder,  one  of  the  party,  .wrote : 

The  immediate  cause  of  death  was  the  rupture  of  one  of  the  largest  bloodvessels 
near  the  heart ;  but  the  whole  of  the  lungs,  liver,  and  heart,  were  found  in  an 
exceedingly  diseased  state,  and  had  been  so  for  a  length  of  time  ;  the  accelerating 
cause,  doubtless,  was  great  and  continued  anxiety— such  as  the  Bishopric  of 
Jerusalem  and  its  cares  can  best  account  for.  I  hear  it  said  on  this  occasion 
that  had  his  lordship  not  come  into  the  East,  he  might  possibly  have  lived  to  a 
good  old  age  ;  but  the  mitre  of  Jerusalem,  like  the  wreath  of  our  blessed  Lord, 
has  been  to  him  a  crown  of  thorns. 

*  The  Lands  of  the  Messiah^  &c.,  p.  319. 

Bishop    Alexander. 

i849l  STRIKING    TESTIMONY  241 

The  last  act  of  the  Bishop  was  one  of  prayer,  before  he 
retired  to  sleep  to  wake  in  another  world. 

The  body  was  taken  first  to  Cairo,  where  Mr.  Veitch 
preached  the  funeral  sermon  from  the  most  appropriate  text 
that  could  have  been  chosen — "  So  Moses  the  servant  of  the 
Lord  died  there  in  the  land  of  Moab"  (Deut.  xxxiv.  5). 

On  December  6th  a  numerous  and  mournful  caravan 
set  out  from  Cairo,  recalling  the  sad  procession  which 
returned  to  the  Promised  Land  to  bury  Jacob.  The  cortige 
arrived  at  Jerusalem  on  the  20th  of  the  same  month,  at  seven 
o'clock  in  the  evening,  and  proceeded  at  once  to  the  English 
cemetery,  where,  by  torchlight,  the  remains  of  the  beloved 
and  venerated  prelate  were  deposited  in  their  last  resting 
place,  the  Rev.  J.  Nicolayson  reading  the  service.  Funeral 
sermons  were  preached  by  him  in  Jerusalem  the  next  day, 
and  by  the  Rev.  J.  B.  Cartwright*  in  the  Episcopal  Jews' 
Chapel,  London,  on  December  28th. 

A  letter  of  condolence  to  Mrs.  Alexander,  signed  by  thirty- 
one  Jewish  converts  at  Jerusalem,  formed  a  most  eloquent 
testimony  to  the  blessing  which  had  followed  the  successful 
labours  of  the  Bishop,  who  was  looked  upon  as  the  head  of 
the  Society's  mission  and  missionaries.    The  signatories  said  : 

Next  to  yourself  and  your  dear  family,  we  consider  ourselves  the  chief  mourners ; 
for  we  feel  both  collectively  and  individually  that  we  have  lost  not  only  a  true 
Father  in  Christ,  but  also  a  loving  brother  and  a  most  kind  friend.  The  suavity 
and  benignity  of  his  manner,  which  so  greatly  endeared  him  to  all,  and  which 
gained  him  the  highest  and  most  entire  filial  confidence  of  every  one  of  us,  tends 
much  to  increase  the  keen  sense  we  feel  of  our  loss.  The  affectionate  love  he  bore 
to  Israel,  which  peculiarly  characterized  him,  could  not  fail  to  render  him  beloved 
by  every  one  who  had  the  privilege  of  being  acquainted  with  him :  while  his 
exalted  piety,  and  most  exemplary  life  and  conversation,  inspired  the  highest 
reverential  esteem.  He  was  a  burning  and  a  shining  light ;  and  when  he  was 
raised  to  the  highest  dignity  in  the  Church,  he  conferred  the  most  conspicuous 
honour  on  our  whole  nation,  but  especially  on  the  little  band  of  Jewish  believers. 
With  him  captive  Judah's  brightest  earthly  star  has  set,  and  the  top  stone  has  been 
taken  away  from  the  rising  Hebrew  Church,  t 

We  do  not  think  that  any  words  more  expressive  of  the 

*  Two  Sermons  (London  :  Wertheim,  1846). 
^Jewish  Inieliigence^  1846,  p.  128. 

242  CHRIST    CHURCH,   JERUSALEM  [1841 

Sterling  quality  of  the  Bishop's  character  could  have  been 
penned  than  these.  And  yet  we  should  like  to  supplement  them. 

Many  friends  testified  their  love  and  esteem  for  the  Bishop 
by  raising  a  most  gratifying  testimonial  to  his  memory, 
amounting  to  over  ;£^3,ooo,  which  was  handed  to  his  widow 
and  family.  It  is  interesting  to  glance  at  the  list  of  con- 
tributors after  this  lapse  of  time,  for  it  reveals  the  fact  that 
the  Bishop  was  highly  esteemed  by  rich  and  poor  alike. 
Amongst  them  we  notice  the  names  of  the  Dowager  Queen 
Adelaide,  the  Archbishops  of  Canterbury  and  Armagh,  and 
the  Bishops  of  London,  Winchester,  Ripon,  Lichfield,  Lincoln, 
Peterborough,  Llandaff,  Sodor  and  Man,  and  Madras.  The 
Primate  of  All  England  spoke  of  Alexander  having  conducted 
the  affairs  of  his  Church  with  so  much  discretion  and  prudence 
as  to  give  no  cause  of  complaint  to  the  heads  of  other  com- 
munions residing  in  the  same  city,  and  to  win  their  respect 
and  esteem  by  his  piety  and  beneficence,  and  by  his  persevering 
yet  temperate  zeal  in  prosecuting  the  objects  of  his  mission. 

He  lived  and  worked  in  constant  dependence  upon  the 
Holy  Spirit  whose  power  he  conspicuously  honoured.  It  was 
his  invariable  practice  to  impress  upon  those  whom  he  was 
about  to  teach  the  impossibility  of  their  understanding 
divine  things  without  His  aid.  This  was  as  noticeable  in  his 
earlier  years  as  missionary,  as  in  his  later  ones  as  Bishop. 
His  conciliatory  manner  in  dealing  with  Jews,  his  love 
for  his  brethren,  his  calmness  amidst  opposition,  did  much  to 
appease  the  excited  assemblies  at  the  Conferences  in  Alder- 
manbury  (see  page  1 59),  and  the  violent  attitude  of  the  mob 
when  he  revisited  his  Jewish  relatives  at  Schonlanke.  He 
was  bold  and  fearless  in  the  delivery  of  his  message,  faithful 
in  everything,  anxious  above  all  things  to  bear  testimony  to 
the  name  and  glory  of  his  Master,  and  to  make  full  proof 
of  his  ministry,  whether  as  missionary  or  Bishop. 

His  friends,  and  those  who  worked  under  him  at  Jerusalem, 
loved  him  for  his  kind  nature,  for  he  had  an  ear,  heart,  and 
purse  open  to  all,  and  for  his  simple-hearted  piety.  He  was 
an  Israelite  indeed  in  whom  there  was  no  guile.  He  had 
a  ripeness  of  Christian  experience,  and  unaffected  earnestness 

1849]  DIOCESAN    SCHOOLS  243 

of  purpose.  His  was  a  strikingly  interesting  personality, 
rendered  doubly  so  in  that  he  was  a  Hebrew  of  the  Hebrews, 
and  in  his  Episcopal  dignity  a  link  with  the  primitive  Hebrew 
Christian  Church  in  the  mother  city  of  Christendom. 

It  was  announced  in  April  1846  that  the  King  of  Prussia, 
who,  by  arrangement,  had  the  next  presentation,  had  appointed 
the  Rev.  Samuel  Gobat,  Vice-Principal  of  the  Protestant  Col- 
lege of  Malta,  and  formerly  missionary  in  Syria,  Egypt  and 
Abyssinia  (which  formed  a  portion  of  the  diocese  of  Jerusalem) 
to  the  vacant  bishopric.  The  Bishop-elect  was  born  in  Swit- 
zerland in  1799,  had  received  five  years'  missionary  training 
at  Basle,  Paris  and  London  (1820-5),  and  had  encountered 
perils  and  difficulties  of  Eastern  life,  and  was  thus  well  fitted 
for  the  position.  He  was  consecrated  at  Lambeth  on  July 
5th  by  the  Archbishop  of  Canterbury,  assisted  by  the  Bishops 
of  London,  Lichfield  and  Calcutta,  and,  like  his  predecessor, 
he  preached  his  farewell  sermon  in  the  Episcopal  Jews'  Chapel 
the  same  evening.  Travelling  in  a  ship  placed  at  his  disposal 
by  the  Government,  he  arrived  in  Jerusalem  on  December 
30th,  welcomed  by  friends  and  spectators,  amongst  whom  were 
Jews  and  Abyssinians,  who  were  greatly  pleased  at  his  speak- 
ing their  language.  All  immediately  repaired  to  the  mission 
chapel,  where  the  Te  Deum  and  the  Litany  were  recited,  and 
an  address  presented  to  the  Bishop,  who  thus  felicitously 
entered  upon  his  long  Episcopate  of  33  years.  One  of  his  first 
functions  was  to  baptize  five  Jews  on  the  following  Good 
Friday  (1847),  and  he  held  a  Confirmation  on  May  23rd. 

Diocesan  schools,  established  by  Bishop  Gobat,  were 
opened  on  November  loth,  with  10  or  12  boys  and  girls, 
the  number  increasing  to  18  during  1848.  Of  these,  nine 
were  children  of  Jewish  proselytes,  four  of  Christian  parents, 
and  five  of  Jewish.  In  his  annual  letter  for  1850  the  Bishop 
spoke  of  the  children  being  almost  all  of  Jewish  origin.  The 
Society  contributed  ;£i20  per  annum  toward  these  schools  for 
many  years.  They  now  belong  to  the  Church  Missionary 
Society  and  have  doubtless  been  a  great  blessing  to  the  country. 
They  were  formed  before  the  Society's  schools  came  into 
existence,  and  were  not  designed  exclusively,  or  even  mainly^ 

R  2 

244  CHRIST    CHURCH,   JERUSALEM  [1841 

for  Jewish  children,  but  were  attended  also  by  the  children  of 
native  Christians,  Abyssinians,  Germans,  and  others. 

The  Bishop  in  his  same  annual  letter  spoke  of  a  spirit  of 
enquiry  amongst  the  Jews,  and  said  that  many  were  half 
convinced  that  Jesus  is  the  Christ,  whilst  many  secretly  read 
the  New  Testament  He  recorded  that  31  Jews  and  26 
Jewish  children  had  been  baptized  at  Jerusalem  between 
1839  3^J^d  1847.  Plans  were  being  developed  for  the  estab- 
lishment of  mission  schools  at  Jerusalem,  of  which  more  in 
a  subsequent  Period,  and  a  Jewish  Converts'  Relief  Fund 
was  started,  to  which  Miss  Jane  Cook  gave  the  munificent 
sum  of  ;f 4,000.  In  1 85 1  she  also  gave  a  donation  of  ;f  2,000, 
to  be  invested  for  the  benefit  of  the  hospital 

The  general  work  of  the  mission  now  pursued  a  steady, 
uneventful  course. 

On  January  21st,  1849,  the  anniversary  of  the  entrance 
of  the  first  Anglican  Bishop  into  Jerusalem,  the  church  was 
duly  consecrated  under  the  name  of  Christ  Church,  being 
thus  dedicated  to  the  Messiah,  whom  to  proclaim  to  the  Jews 
is  the  supreme  object  of  the  mission.  The  church,  visible 
from  almost  every  part  of  Jerusalem,  is  like  a  beacon  on  a 
hill.  Two  Jews  were  baptized  on  the  same  day,  and  nine 
during  that  year. 

We  may  conclude  this  chapter  by  saying  that  for  many 
years  the  pastor  of  the  German  Reformed  Church  was 
permitted,  by  an  arrangement  sanctioned  by  the  Archbishop 
of  Canterbury,  to  hold  regular  Sunday  services  in  Christ 
Church,  but  these  were  discontinued  some  years  ago,  when 
the  Germans  fitted  up  a  chapel  of  their  own  among  the  ruins 
of  the  ancient  hospital  of  St.  John,  which  had  been  ceded  by 
the  Sultan  to  the  late  Emperor  Frederick,  when,  as  Crown 
Prince  of  Prussia,  he  visited  the  Holy  City  in  the  year  1 869. 
All  readers  of  the  Society's  publications  are  familiar  with 
the  appearance  of  Christ  Church.  Its  form  is  that  of  a 
Latin   cross,  the   transept   forming  a  kind  of  bay  on  each 

*  ^Qt/etoish  IntelUgetue,  1849,  p.  98,  for  "  Petition  for  Consecration,"  and 
'  Deed  of  Consecration." 

i849]  DESCRIPTION    OF    SERVICES  245 

side.  Besides  the  pulpit  and  reading  desk,  there  is  a  special 
seat  for  the  Bishop  of  the  diocese,  which  he  is  accustomed  to 
occupy  when  present  and  not  taking  part  in  the  service.  There 
is  sitting  accommodation  for  about  three  hundred  persons. 
As  the  number  of  the  Hebrew  Christian  community,  of 
children  in  the  mission  boarding  schools,  and  of  young  men 
in  the  Enquirers'  Home  and  House  of  Industry,  is  consider- 
able, the  church  is  usually  well  filled  on  Sundays,  whilst 
on  special  occasions,  and  when  many  strangers  are  present, 
it  is  sometimes  difficult  to  find  seats  for  all. 

The  public  services  are  conducted  in  English,  German, 
Spanish,  and  Hebrew,  so  as  to  meet  the  wants  of  enquirers 
and  converts  from  both  the  Ashkenazic  and  Sephardic  classes 
of  Jews.  When  the  church  was  founded,  it  was  hoped  that 
Jews  would  be  attracted  to  it  by  the  Hebrew  language  being 
used  for  the  prayers  and  lessons  ;  and  this  has  to  some  extent 
been  the  case.  But  the  power  of  the  rabbis  has  always  been 
too  great  for  those  dwelling  in  Jerusalem  to  frequent  the 
church  without  drawing  upon  themselves  persecution  and 
excommunication ;  and  most  of  the  Jews  who  now  attend  are 
either  strangers,  or  enquirers  who  have  already  attached 
themselves  to  the  mission.  Some  of  the  most  esteemed 
missionaries  of  the  Society  have  received  Holy  Orders  within 
its  walls.  It  is  not  only  to  Jews,  Jewish  converts,  and  English 
residents  in  Jerusalem  that  this  church  is  a  means  of  blessing. 
Hundreds  of  the  travellers  who  visit  Palestine  every  year  find 
spiritual  refreshment  in  its  services,  and  many  of  them  have 
warmly  expressed  their  appreciation  of  these  advantages. 
The  judicious  manner  in  which  Divine  worship  is  conducted, 
remote  from  anything  approaching  to  ritualism  on  the  one 
hand  or  laxity  of  ceremonial  on  the  other,  has  won  wide- 
spread approval. 



Jaffa— Depot  opened— Dr.  Kiel  as  medical  missionary— Hebron  an  outpost  of 
Jerusalem  Mission— Visits  of  Bishop  Alexander,  Ewald  and  Veitch— Kerns  attempts 
to  occupy  it— Visited  by  Lord  and  Tymmlm  from  Safed— Work  In  QalUee— 
Tiberias— Safed—Sternchnss  and  A.  J.  Behrens  appointed— Mission  House  purchased 
—Dr.  Kiel  as  medical  missionary— Jewish  hostility— Work  interrupted— Recom- 
menced by  Lord— Fanaticism— J.  Cohen— Encouragringr  work— Wide  distribution  of 
literature— Ewald  visits  Safed. 

WE  must  now  give  an  account  of  the  rest  of  the 
Society's  work  in  Palestine  during  our  Period, 
at  three  different  centres,  Jaffa,  Hebron  and 
Safed.  This  was  not  as  yet  extensive,  owing  to  the  great 
demands  which  the  Jerusalem  mission  made  upon  the 
resources,  both  human  and  material,  of  the  Society :  but, 
such  as  it  was,  it  must  be  chronicled. 

Jaffa  has  naturally  ever  been  an  important  centre  for  work 
owing  to  its  situation  on  the  Mediterranean  as  the  landing  place 
for  Jews  coming  from  the  west,  although,  of  course,  the  open- 
ing of  the  railway  in  1892  increased  both  its  population  and 
importance.  It  had  been  visited  by  Wolff  in  1824,  and  now 
by  Ewald  in  1842,  1843,  and  1844.  In  the  last-mentioned 
year  a  book  dep6t  was  opened  for  the  sale  of  the  Holy  Scrip- 
tures in  Hebrew,  Arabic,  Greek,  German,  Spanish  and  other 
languages.  Bishop  Alexander,  writing  home  in  October  1845, 
thus  referred  to  the  Society's  work  here  : 

A  converted  Israelite  is  stationed  at  Jaffa,  in  charge  of  a  dep6t  of  Bibles  and 
tracts,  and  has  numerous  opportunities  of  usefulness  among  the  many  Jews  who 
land  there  on  their  way  to  Jerusalem,  or  are  leaving  the  land  of  their  forefathers. 
...A  physician,  himself  a  converted  Israelite,  has  also  lately  been  established  there, 
whose  labours  are  chiefly  confined  to  the  Jews.  * 

*  Jewish  InteUigeme^  1846,  p.  4. 

1841-49]  HEBRON  247 

Dr.  Kiel,  previously  stationed  at  Safed,  was  the  medical 
missionary  referred  to  in  the  Bishop's  letter.  After  the 
medical  mission  was  withdrawn,  the  Society  still  carried  on 
its  work  until  1859,  by  means  of  a  depositary  and  Scripture 
reader,  C.  W.  Hanauer,  the  father  of  the  Society's  missionary, 
the  Rev.  J.  E.  Hanauer. 

Hebron,  being  one  of  the  four  holy  cities  of  the  Jews  in 
Palestine,  is  of  much  importance,  from  both  a  Jewish 
and  a  missionary  point  of  view.  The  Jews  there  used  to  be 
intensely  fanatical,  and  their  spiritual  bondage  and  thraldom 
complete.  This  was  when  they  all  resided  in  the  Jewish 
quarter,  and  before  they  found  their  way  outside  the  old  city, 
and  Hebron  began  to  feel  the  effects  of  civilization  and 
progress.  Regarded  as  an  outpost  of  the  Jerusalem  mission, 
frequent  and  periodical  visits  were  made  to  it  In  1843 
Bishop  Alexander  and  the  Rev.  F.  C.  Ewald  preached  in  the 
German  synagogue,  and  were  much  impressed  by  the  manner 
in  which  they  were  received  by  the  Spanish  and  German  sects. 
The  Bishop,  accompanied  by  the  Rev.  W.  D.  Veitch,  visited 
Hebron  again  in  1844.  ^"^  consequence  of  the  Episcopal  and 
missionary  opinion  of  the  suitability  of  Hebron  to  be  a  per- 
manent station  of  the  Society,  the  Rev.  Dr.  Kerns  was  appointed 
to  labour  there,  but  was  unable  to  procure  permission  from  the 
Governor  to  hire  a  house.  In  the  course  of  the  next  year,  1845, 
J.  O.  Lord,  accompanied  by  A.  Tymmim,  both  of  whom  were 
stationed  at  Safed,  paid  a  visit  to  Hebron.  The  latter,  on 
entering  the  town,  was  recognized  by  Jews  who  had  known 
him  in  Hungary,  where  he  had  held  the  office  of  rabbi ;  the 
missionaries  were  introduced  by  them  into  the  Jewish  quarter, 
and  were  generally  well  received.  Considerable  numbers 
were  addressed  in  the  synagogue  ;  some  listened  very  atten- 
tively, while  others  took  offence.  Many  called  on  the  mission- 
aries at  their  lodgings.  Nothing  more  than  visits  could  be 
paid  to  the  place,  but  these  went  on  for  many  years,  until  1890 
when,  as  we  shall  see  later,  a  permanent  mission  was  established. 
We  may  here  mention  that  Nicolayson,  Ewald,  Moses  Margo- 
liouth,  Sinyanki,  Dr.  Macgowan,  Hefter,  Barclay,  Crawford, 
Bailey,  Dr.  Chaplin,  Kelk,  Dr.  Wheeler,  and  others  went  there 

248  OTHER    STATIONS    IN    THE    HOLY    LAND  [1841 

repeatedly  during   the   intervening  years,  and  always  with 
encouraging  experiences. 

We  must  now  ascend  to  Galilee,  which  had  been  the 
scene  of  the  Society*s  labours  since  its  early  days.  Although 
Tiberias  was  never  one  of  its  mission  stations,  it  had 
been  frequently  visited  by  our  missionaries  from  Jerusalem 
and  Safed  from  1831  onward.  It  has  often  been  narrated 
in  the  Society's  publications  how  they  encamped  in  the 
town,  and  had  their  tents  besieged  by  Jews,  eager  to 
have  their  bodily  ailments  attended  to,  and  willing  to  listen  to 
the  proclamation  of  the  Gospel,  and  not  without  result. 

More  important  is  Safed,  which  is  five  hours  distant  from 
Tiberias.  Being  difficult  of  access  from  its  lofty  situation,  and 
lying,  as  it  does,  out  of  the  ordinary  route  of  travellers,  the  Jews 
were  less  liable  to  external  influences,  and  so  were  able  to  carry 
out  rabbinical  observances  to  the  letter.  They  were  thus  most 
exclusive,  self-righteous,  bigoted  and  fanatical,  belonging  to 
the  "  straitest  sect "  of  the  Pharisees.  Some  of  them  told  a 
former  missionary  of  the  Society  that,  if  he  succeeded  in 
making  a  convert,  he  must  dig  a  grave  for  him,  as  he  would 
never  be  able  to  keep  him  alive  there.  In  early  Christian 
times  Safed  was  celebrated  as  a  seat  of  Jewish  learning,  and 
up  to  the  17th  century  flourishing  schools  existed  there. 
Before  the  disastrous  earthquake  in  1837,  which  destroyed 
every  house,  Safed  had  7,000  resident  Jews,  but  afterward  the 
number  was  greatly  reduced. 

The  Society's  missionaries  stationed  at  Jerusalem  had 
frequently  visited  Safed  since  the  year  1825,  when  the  Rev. 
W.  B.  Lewis  and  Dr.  G.  E.  Dalton  were  there;  but,  in 
1843  the  Committee  decided  to  occupy  this  important 
Jewish  centre,  and  P.  H.  Sternchuss  and  A.  J.  Behrens,  who 
had  been  trained  in  the  Society's  College,  were  appointed 
the  first  missionaries.  They  arrived  there  on  June  2nd, 
under  the  guidance  of  Nicolayson,  who  undertook  to  start 
these  young  men  in  their  difficult  and  dangerous  work.  A 
mission  house  had  already  been  purchased.  Of  this  they  took 
possession,  not  without  considerable  opposition,  on  the  17th 

1849]  SAFED  249 

of  the  same  month.  That  very  evening  they  commenced 
a  daily  Hebrew  service,  thus  at  once  giving  it  the  character 
of  a  real  mission  house.  The  Jews,  who  had  tried  to  prevent 
the  missionaries  settling  at  Safed,  resorted  to  persecution 
and,  what  is  now  termed,  "  boycotting."  After  a  time  they 
repented  of  their  former  animosity,  and  the  missionaries  were 
able  to  report  a  spirit  of  enquiry,  and  encouraging  prospects. 
Sternchuss  and  Behrens  were  ordained  deacons  in  Jerusalem, 
on  Trinity  Sunday,  1844.  The  former  was  shortly  afterward 
transferred  to  the  Bagdad  mission. 

Dr.  Kiel,  a  Christian  Jew,  who,  with  wife  and  daughter, 
had  been  baptized  at  Jerusalem,  at  Christmas  1843,  was 
appointed  medical  missionary  about  this  time.  The  Jews 
found  his  medical  services  acceptable,  and  many  of  them  on 
that  account  prayed  for  the  long  life  of  the  Society.  During 
the  months  of  November  and  December  1844  sixty-nine 
Jews  availed  themselves  of  the  doctor*s  skill,  and  much 
excitement  was  aroused  when  two  openly  declared  their 
belief  in  Jesus  as  the  Messiah.  To  Jewish  hostility  a  new 
danger  was  soon  added  by  the  unsettled  state  of  the  country, 
and  the  position  of  Behrens  and  Kiel  became  more  and 
more  perilous.  The  former  was  repeatedly  threatened,  and 
the  Governor  refused  to  guarantee  his  safety  for  the  future. 
He  therefore  thought  it  necessary  to  leave  Safed.  Dr.  Kiel 
and  his  family  likewise  had  to  withdraw. 

Considering  the  importance  of  Safed  as  a  missionary 
station,  and  there  being  reason  to  hope  that  an  Englishman 
would  be  able  to  count  upon  a  larger  share  of  protection 
from  the  local  authorities,  J.  O.  Lord,  having  completed 
his  studies  at  the  Hebrew  College,  was  appointed  to  the  Holy 
Land,  and  directed  to  pay  a  visit  to  Safed.  He  arrived 
there,  accompanied  by  A.  Tymmim,  on  February  26th, 
1845.  Their  difficulties  were  many  and  they  had  to  lament 
the  unbelief  and  hardness  of  heart  which  led  the  Jews  to 
blaspheme  and  hate  the  truth,  and  even  to  desire  to  take 
the  lives  of  those  who  told  them  of  it,  rather  than  hear 
it  preached.  Nevertheless,  large  numbers  of  Bibles,  New 
Testaments,  and  Prayer  Books  were  circulated.     One  Jew,  an 

250  OTHER    STATIONS    IN    THE    HOLY   LAND  [1841 

enquirer,  would  have  been  baptized  if  three  or  four  others  had 
consented  to  come  out  with  him  ;  but  he  feared  that  the  Jews 
would  kill  him  if  he  came  out  alone.  The  following  instance 
of  fanaticism  was  related  by  Lord  : 

A  poor  old  man  came  the  other  day  and  begged  very  hard  for  a  Bible. 
Whilst  he  was  in  the  house  he  took  up  a  JNew  Testament,  and  I  was  very  much 
pleased  to  see  him  read  the  prophecies  and  parables  of  our  blessed  Saviour,  as 
contained  in  St.  Matthew  xxiv.  and  xxv.  He  afterward  asked  me  to  give  it 
to  him.  When  I  consented,  he  read  the  remainder  of  the  history  of  the  trials, 
sufferings,  death,  and  resurrection  of  Jesus  Christ,  and  seemed  much  interested. 
The  next  day  our  old  enquirer  came  bringing  the  Testament  I  had  given  to 
him,  with  one  or  two  of  the  Epistles  of  St.  Paul  torn  out.  He  said  that  some 
of  the  Jews  had  entered  his  room  while  he  was  asleep,  and,  finding  the  Testament, 
had  torn  it  up,  and  were  burning  it,  when  he  expostulated  with  them,  and  saved 
the  fragments.  * 

Ill-health  compelled  Lord  to  leave  his  station  in  1846; 
and  accordingly  Mr.  J.  Cohen  of  Jerusalem  was  sent  to  take 
his  place.  He  was  received  favourably  by  the  Jews,  who 
were  anxious  to  hear  his  message.  Fifty  copies  of  the  New 
Testament  were  circulated  during  the  first  quarter  of  1847  ; 
and  two  enquirers  were  under  instruction.  Opposition,  how- 
ever, subsequently  sprang  up  in  the  form  of  an  anathema 
against  every  one  who  came  in  contact  with  the  missionary, 
and  the  country  once  again  fell  into  a  disturbed  state. 
Ample  encouragement,  however,  shortly  afterward  followed. 
Cohen's  rooms  were  full  of  Jews  enquiring  for  New  Tes- 
taments and  Bibles,  parts  of  the  Scriptures,  Psalms,  the 
Liturgy,  Old  Paths,  and  tracts,  as  if  they  were  their  own 
rabbinical  books.  Many  came  from  distant  villages,  in 
order  to  obtain  a  copy  of  the  Scriptures.  Cohen  had  a 
great  many  very  interesting  conversations  both  with  Jews 
and  Christians.  The  open  declaration,  even  of  some 
of  the  very  bigoted  Jews,  in  favour  of  Christianity,  was 
very  remarkable  ;  also  the  actual  Christian  confession  of  an 
enquirer,  on  his  death-bed^  in  the  presence  of  his  parents, 
friends,  relations,  and  many  other  Israelites.  It  was  said  that 
there  was  scarcely  a  Jewish  house  in   Safed,  or  its  vicinity, 

*  Jewish  Inteiligence,  1846,  p.  223. 


where  a  copy  of  the  New  Testament  was  not  to  be  found, 
kept  either  in  a  cupboard  or  under  the  pillow  of  the  bed,  where 
it  could  readily  be  secreted. 

Ewald  visited  Safed  in  April  1 849,  staying  in  one  of  the 
two  vacant  mission  houses,  the  second  of  which  had  been 
purchased  in  1846. 



SHyma— John  Cohen,  Markheim  and  Soibe— ProgreM^Fire  and  pestHence— 
Syria— Daaascns—**  Blood  AccoMtlon'*— Visited  by  mlssloaaries— Tartakover 
and  Wlnbolt  at  Beyront— Dr.  Kerns  at  Aleppo— Cbald«a— Murray  Vicars  and  Stem 
mt  Bafdad  —  Excommunication— Wide- spread  results  of  the  work— Persia  occupied 
for  a  time— Egypt— Lauria  and  Goldberg— Cholera  ravages— Bishop  Qobat  visits 
Cairo— Levi  at  Mogador,  Tangier  and  Oran. 

WE  must  now  ascertain  what  the  Society  was  doing 
within  this  Period  at  its  other  Asiatic,  and  its 
African  stations.  We  left  John  Cohen,  "John 
the  Evangelist/*  as  he  was  called,  in  charge  of  the  work 
in  Smyrna  in  1840.  Besides  his  other  duties,  most 
faithfully  discharged,  he  carried  into  effect  the  publication  of 
the  Judaeo-Spanish  translation  of  the  Bible  and  of  the  Liturgy. 
His  work,  notwithstanding  opposition  and  persecution,  was 
very  successful.  A  disastrous  fire  in  July  1841,  which  almost 
entirely  destroyed  the  Jewish  quarter,  gave  him  many  oppor- 
tunities to  administer  to  the  needs  of  the  Jews,  and  to  tell  them 
of  Him  who  is  the  only  refuge  in  the  time  of  trouble.  The 
arrival,  on  August  2nd  of  that  year,  of  H.  A.  Markheim, 
who  had  been  appointed  to  assist  him,  was  most  timely.  The 
mission  services  were  well  attended,  many  Bibles  were  distri- 
buted to  Jews  who  had  lost  their  property  in  the  fire,  and  a  Bible 
class  commenced.  One  day  sixty-five  Jews  were  present 
at  a  prayer  meeting,  and  Cohen  was  obliged  to  place  a  man 
at  the  door  to  prevent  unbelieving  Jews  from  coming  in 
whose  desire  was  to  report  the  enquirers  to  the  rabbis.  The 
Gospel  was  daily  proclaimed  to  a  great  number  of  people. 

The  success  indeed  was  so  marked  during  1841  and  1842, 
that  the  Committee  determined  to  strengthen  further  Cohen's 
hands,  and  at  the  same  time  place  the  mission  on  a  more 
eflficient  footing.     The  Rev.  G.  Solbe,  who  had  been  trained  in 

1841-49]  PJK^    AND    PESTILENCE  253 

the  Society's  College,  and  ordained  by  the  Bishop  of  Hereford, 
was  sent  out  to  Smyrna,  arriving  there  in  June  1843.  He 
stated  that  nearly  all  the  Jews  with  whom  he  conversed 
seemed  favourable  to  Christianity,  that  many  were  ready  to 
renounce  Judaism  if  circumstances  permitted,  and  that 
Smyrna  appeared  to  be  a  most  extensive  field  for  usefulness. 
A  service  in  the  Italian  language,  which  many  Jews  spoke,  was 
instituted.  A  school  was  opened  in  May  1844.  Cohen  now  re- 
signed his  missionary  work,  continuing  his  services  as  translator. 
In  1845  some  enquirers,  who  declared  their  intention  of 
becoming  Christians,  were  imprisoned  at  the  instigation  of 
the  Jewish  rabbis,  but  were  liberated  through  the  action  of 
the  British  Consul.  Solbe  was  assisted  from  1844  to  1848  by 
L.  Hirschfeld,  a  student  from  the  Society's  College. 

The  labours  of  the  missionaries  were  interrupted  by  another 
fire  on  July  3rd,  1845,  which  destroyed  nearly  half  the 
town,  and  also  the  Society's  mission  house,  with  a  large 
quantity  of  Hebrew  Scriptures,  tracts,  and  a  great  portion  of 
the  new  Judaeo-Spanish  Liturgy.  In  1846  the  Jewish  popu- 
lation had  reached  15,000,  and  the  missionaries. reported 
full  and  free  intercourse  with  Jews  of  all  classes.  The  school 
had  been  steadily  going  on,  and  the  services  sustained,  except 
during  the  few  weeks  after  the  fire.  Many  Jews  expressed 
their  conviction  of  the  truth  of  Christianity,  and  earnestly 
desired  to  embrace  it ;  but  only  one  dared  to  come  forward, 
and  he  was  baptized  on  June  i  ith,  1847. 

Hard  times  were  now  at  hand,  and  further  trials  for  the 
mission.  The  poverty  and  distress  of  the  Jews,  always  great  at 
Smyrna,  were  aggravated  during  the  winter  of  1847-8,  only  to 
be  followed  by  the  terrible  ravages  of  cholera  in  the  following 
summer,  increasing  the  misery  and  wretchedness  a  hundred- 
fold. The  pestilence  raged  with  great  virulence  in  the  Jewish 
quarter.  "  Many  of  my  Jewish  acquaintances,"  wrote 
Solbe,  "  to  whom  I  preached  the  glorious  Gospel  of  Christ, 
have  been  swept  away."  The  appearance  of  this  once  popu- 
lous and  commercial  place  was  now  wretched  and  gloomy  in 
the  extreme.  The  devoted  missionary  who  stuck  to  his  post 
was  spared  from  danger  of  the  pestilence,  as  he  had  been 

254  ASIATIC    AND    AFRICAN    MISSIONS  [1841 

through  the  fire.  He  said: — "I  have  not  the  heart  to  leave  my 
poor  Jews  in  the  very  midst  of  anguish,  distress,  and  disease, 
no,  not  even  for  a  week."  These  trying  times  produced  their 
effect  on  his  health  ;  he  broke  down  completely  and  had  to 
leave  his  station.  The  expectation  that  he  would  be  able  to 
return  to  the  scene  of  his  faithful  labours  was  not  realized,  and 
he  had  therefore  reluctantly  to  resigpi  his  connexion  with  the 
Society.  The  Scripture  dep6t,  however,  was  kept  open,  in 
charge  of  "  John  the  Evangelist" 

Amongst  the  Jewish  communities  in  Syria,  the  claims  of 
Damascus  on  Jewish  missionary  effort  were  recognized  early 
in  the  history  of  the  Society.  Thus,  in  the  very  year  in  which 
the  Jerusalem  mission  was  founded,  namely  1823,  the  first 
missionary  visit  was  made  to  Damascus  by  Joseph  Wolff.* 

The  revival  of  the  "  Blood  Accusation  "  against  the  Jews  of 
Damascus  and  Rhodes  in  1840,  and  the  persecutions  which 
followed,  aroused  an  extraordinary  interest  throughout  the 
world.  The  story  of  the  alleged  murder,  by  Jews,  of  Father 
Thomas,  a  Capuchin  monk  of  Damascus,  and  the  imprisonment 
of  leading  members  of  the  community,  was  related  by  Sir 
Robert  Peel  in  the  House  of  Commons  on  June  27th,  and  an 
article  in  T/ie  Times  of  June  25th,  1840,  bears  witness  to  the 
strong  English  feeling  aroused. 

The  Society's  missionaries  in  Jerusalem  were  appealed  to 
by  the  Jews  themselves,  and,  as  a  result,  G.  W.  Pieritz  was 
sent  to  Damascus  to  intercede  with  the  consuls  on  behalf  of 
the  persecuted  Jews  ;  and  he  made  a  full  report  of  the  circum- 
stances.! During  his  four  months'  residence  at  Damascus  he  was 
in  constant  communication  with  Jews  of  all  classes,  and  found 
many  opportunities  to  set  before  them  the  consolations  and 
hopes  of  the  Gospel. 

On    September    4th    Mehemet    AH,   Viceroy   of   Egypt, 

*See  page  106. 

\fewish  Intelligence  f  1S40,  p.  209.  No  less  than  50  pages  of  the  August 
number  were  devoted  to  this  subject,  which  was  a  frequently  recurring  topic 
throughout  the  year. 

i849]       TARTAKOVER    AND     WINBOLT    AT   BEYROUT        255 

ordered  the  unconditional  release  of  the  Jews  charged  with 
the  murder  of  Father  Thomas,  and  on  the  6th  they  were  set 
at  liberty.  Permission  to  return  was  given  to  all  Jews  who 
had  fled,  and  a  declaration  issued  that  they  should  have  the 
same  protection  as  all  other  subjects. 

Passing  over  other  visits  made  by  missionaries  from  Jeru- 
salem, and  by  Bishop  Alexander,  we  come  to  the  year  1847, 
when  the  Rev.  H.  Winbolt,  visiting  Damascus  from  Beyrout, 
found  a  great  desire  on  the  part  of  Jews  for  the  Holy 
Scriptures.     But  we  must  give  his  own  expressive  words  : 

Five  hundred  Jews  in  a  lost  and  helpless  state,  all  eager  for  instruction,  all 
earnestly  desiring  Bibles.  I  had  but  few  with  me,  I  think  I  could  have  distiibuted 
i,cxx)  instead  of  the  icx>  which  I  took.  The  learned  and  the  unlearned  came  for 
Bibles.  Fathers  and  mothers  begging  for  Bibles  for  their  children,  apparently 
scraping  the  last  piastre  from  their  pockets  to  buy  them.  Old  men  and  young 
boys,  and  even  children,  all  crowding  and  entreating  for  Bibles,  Pentateuchs,  and 
Psalms,  some  of  all  which  I  had  with  me.  And  what  was  more  extraordinary, 
there  was  such  a  demand  for  New  Testaments,  that  suspicious  of  some  wrong 
motives,  I  put  a  small  price  upon  them,  which  was  readily  paid  ;  and  I  distributed 
all  but  one,  which  I  kept  to  read  prayers  from,  and  this  one  was  continually  asked 
for,  but  I  refused  to  give  it  until  I  left ;  but  whilst  I  was  engaged  in  conversation 
a  Jew  actually  stole  it.* 

Beyrout,  frequently  visited  by  the  Society's  missionaries 
from  1827  onward,  was  occupied  as  a  station  in  1842,  Mr.  E.  M. 
Tartakover  taking  up  his  residence  there  on  August  12th. 
He  was  succeeded,  in  1843,  by  Winbolt,  who  remained  till 
1849.  Besides  the  number  of  resident  Jews,  a  great  many 
were  constantly  arriving  from  Aleppo,  Antioch,  Sidon, 
Tripoli,  and  Damascus.  The  greater  part  of  these  called  on 
Winbolt,  giving  him  an  opportunity  for  conversations  with 
them.  Especially  on  Saturday  evenings  he  was  frequently 
visited  by  Jews,  who  often  stayed  to  evening  service.  The 
establishment  of  the  mission,  albeit  for  so  short  a  time,  gave 
the  Jews  true  views  of  Christianity,  of  which  they  hitherto 
knew  but  little,  except  as  they  saw  it  in  the  Roman  and  Greek 
Churches.  Beside  the  services  on  Sunday,  with  prayers  in 
Hebrew  in  the  afternoon,  Winbolt  held  a  daily  Hebrew  service 
at  7  a.m.,  and  an  English  service  in  the  afternoon,  except  on 

*  FortUth  Report  (1848),  p.  41. 

256  ASIATIC    AND    AFRICAN    MISSIONS  [1841 

Saturday,  when  it  was  in  Hebrew.  The  Jews  expressed 
themselves  delighted  with  the  Hebrew  prayers,  with  the  one 
exception  of  their  being  offered  up  in  the  name  of  a 
crucified  Messiah.  Winbolt's  visits  to  the  Jewish  quarter  and 
the  synagogue  were  of  frequent  occurrence.  In  1847  the 
"  Blood  Accusation  "  was  raised  against  the  Jews  of  Beyrout. 
Nine  were  imprisoned,  but  set  at  liberty,  no  proof  of  the 
charge  being  forthcoming.  Winbolt  visited  Sidon  in 
1849.  The  many  interesting  published  reports  of  his 
work  during  these  few  short  years  made  it  a  matter  of 
deep  regret  that  ill-health  compelled  him  to  resigpi  a  work 
upon  which  rested  so  many  tokens  of  the  Divine  blessing.  He 
left  Beyrout  for  England,  in  September  1849,  and  was  taken 
to  his  rest  on  February  i6th  in  the  following  spring. 

The  importance  of  Aleppo  as  a  Jewish  centre  led  to 
its  selection  as  a  mission  station  in  1845.  A  mission  to  the 
Jews  being  quite  a  new  thing  there,  the  Christian  population 
were  much  surprised,  for  the  idea  of  trying  to  convert  the 
Jews  had  never  occurred  to  them.  The  Rev.  Dr.  Kerns 
arrived  there  in  June,  and  on  July  20th  held  Divine  service  for 
the  first  time.  No  regular  English  service  had  been  conducted 
in  Aleppo  since  the  time  of  Maundrell  in  1697.  Kerns 
was  making  his  way  in  conversations  with  the  Jews,  as  many 
as  thirty  and  forty  visiting  him  in  one  day,  when  a  cherem 
was  issued,  which  interrupted  nearly  all  intercourse,  although 
three  Jews  professed  to  be  convinced  that  Jesus  was  the  Mes- 
siah. Seven  others  were  secretly  reading  the  New  Testament. 
Kerns  had  stayed  at  Aleppo  for  twelve  months,  when  the 
illness  of  his  wife  compelled  him  to  leave.  He  held  a  final 
and  secret  meeting  with  the  enquirers,  nine  Jews  and  three 
Jewesses,  and  left  trusting  that  the  many  opportunities  which 
he  had  found  of  preaching  the  Gospel  with  the  distribution  of 
literature,  and  instruction  of  enquirers,  might  bear  fruit 

Aleppo  was  visited  from  Jerusalem  in  October  1849,  just 
after  a  Mohammedan  outbreak  against  Christians.  Four  heads 
of  Jewish  families  declared  their  full  conviction  of  the  truth  of 
Christianity,  and  their  wish  to  have  the  mission  re-established 

1849]  CHALDMA  257 

there.  Stern  passed  through  Aleppo  in  1850,  on  his  way  to 
Bagdad.  He  visited  the  large  and  famous  synagogue,  and 
called  upon  the  chief  rabbi,  who  said  to  him,  "  You  will  find 
it  difficult  to  convert  the  Jews." 

Dr.  Wolff  had  visited  Chaldaea  in  earlier  days,  but  it  was 
not  till  1844  that  what  was  hoped  would  be  a  permanent  work 
was  set  on  foot  in  that  country.  It  was  a  momentous  step, 
seeing  that  the  difficulties  in  the  way  were  enormous;  namely, 
the  great  distance  of  the  station  from  home,  the  con- 
sequent cost  of  the  undertaking,  the  inaccessibility  of  the 
region,  and  the  unhealthiness  of  the  climate.  Murray  Vicars, 
and  Henry  Aaron  Stern  were  directed  to  proceed  to  Jerusalem 
en  route^  in  order  to  be  ordained  there,  which  ceremony  was 
performed  by  Bishop  Alexander  on  July  14th.  Vicars,  refer- 
ring to  it,  said,  "  I  trust  we  were  both  endued  with  the  spirit 
of  zeal,  humility  and  love  for  the  cause  in  which  we  have 
embarked  ; "  an  aspiration  which,  we  know,  was  abundantly 
fulfilled,  both  in  the  case  of  the  short  missionary  career  of  the 
one,  and  the  long  and  abundant  labours  of  the  other.  Vicars 
and  his  wife,  who  was  a  Christian  Jewess,  left  Jerusalem 
on  September  2nd,  and  were  joined  at  Beyrout  by  Stem  and 
the  Rev.  P.  H.  Stemchuss.  Leaving  Damascus  on  September 
1 7th,  the  missionary  party  proceeded  to  cross  the  great  desert 
with  a  caravan  of  450  camels — a  formidable  task  in  those 
days — and  arrived  at  Bagdad  on  October  19th.  During  their 
journey  the  missionaries  discovered,  and  had  religious  inter- 
course with  a  community  of  Karaite  Jews  at  Heed,  or  Hit, 
the  ancient  Is,  on  the  banks  of  the  Euphrates. 

The  Jewish  population  of  Bagdad  then  consisted  of  about 
16,000  souls.  The  whole  trade  of  the  town  was  in  their  hands, 
and  they  were  supposed  to  be  the  most  wealthy  class  of  the 
community.  They  manifested  the  greatest  anxiety  to  obtain 
the  books  published  by  the  Society.  Day  after  day  the  house 
of  the  missionaries  was  filled  to  overflowing  with  Jews  of  all 
ages,  ranks,  and  stations.  And  more  than  that,  the  streets 
near  were  crowded  all  day  by  numbers  of  Jews.  Stem  was 
constantly  stopped,  as  he  walked  along  the  streets,  by  Jews 



enquiring  for  txx>ks.  The  bazaars,  khans,  and  the  Beth 
Hamidrash,  were  visited,  and  supplied  frequent  opportunities 
for  proclaiming  the  Gospel. 

The  eagerness  manifested  by  the  Jews  to  enter  into  discus- 
sions on  the  subject  of  Christianity,  and  more  especially  the 
application  of  two  enquirers  for  regular  instruction,  stirred  up 
active  opposition  on  the  part  of  the  rabbis,  and  an  excommu- 
nication was  issued  against  all  who  should  have  intercourse 
with  the  missionaries.  This  had  the  intended  effect.  For  six 
or  seven  months  no  Jew  was  seen  in  the  mission  house.  Then 
gradually  some  ventured  to  come  by  stealth ;  and,  latterly,  from 
twelve  to  twenty  again  visited  the  missionaries  on  Saturdays, 
several  of  whom  were  of  the  most  respectable  Jewish  families 
in  Bagdad.  The  Jewish  authorities,  however,  did  not  relax 
their  vigilance,  but  threatened  to  repeat  the  anathema. 

In  the  winter  of  1844  Sternchuss  and  Stem  made  a  journey 
to  certain  places  on  the  banks  of  the  Euphrates,  going  to  Hil- 
lah,  where  they  visited  the  synagogue  and  Jewish  schools ; 
the  Tomb  of  Ezekiel,  greatly  venerated  by  the  Jews ;  Meshed- 
Ali,  a  Moslem  town  with  a  few  Jews;  Cufa;  the  tower  of  Belus 
(Babel)  or  Birs  Nimroud  ;  and  the  ruins  of  Babylon.  The 
same  two  missionaries  subsequently,  in  1845,  occupied  the 
time  during  which  missionary  operations  in  Bagdad  were  sus- 
pended, in  consequence  of  the  cherem  mentioned  above,  in 
making  a  missionary  journey  into  the  interior  of  Persia.  Their 
journals  contain  many  interesting  particulars  of  their  inter- 
course with  the  Jews  of  Kermanshah  and  Hamadan. 

On  November  21st  the  missionaries  embarked  on  the 
Tigris  for  the  purpose  of  undertaking  a  second  journey  in 
Persia,  They  visited  Bussorah,  Bushire,  Shiraz,  and  several 
other  places  where  Jews  resided.  Both  in  synagogues, 
and  schools,  and  also  at  their  lodgings,  they  proclaimed 
the  unsearchable  riches  of  Christ  to  considerable  numbers  of 
their  Jewish  brethren.  In  1846  Vicars  and  Sternchuss  again 
visited  Hillah  and  Ezekiel's  Tomb. 

The  deadly  scourge  of  cholera  prevailed  in  Bagdad  to  an 
alarming  extent  in  1846,  and  in  a  very  few  weeks  several 
thousands  were  suddenly  taken  off  by  it.     Vicars  suffered 

i849]  PERSIA    OCCUPIED    FOR    A     TIME  259 

very  seriously  from  fever  at  the  time,  and  was  compelled  to 
remove  into  the  country,  but  Sternchuss  and  Stern  were  able 
to  remain  at  their  posts,  although,  for  a  season,  their  mission- 
ary work  was  suspended  in  consequence  of  the  prevalence  of 
the  scourge.  The  Jews  thought  the  visitation  was  owing  to 
the  fact  that  many  of  their  brethren  had  imbibed  the  doctrines 
of  Christianity.     The  missionaries  remarked  : 

Things  have  changed  very  materially  :  formerly,  in  the  reign  of  Charles  IV., 
when  the  plague  was  raging  in  Europe  with  unexampled  violence  (A.D.  1347,  and 
the  following  year).  Christians  thought  that  the  Jews  had  caused  that  calamity,  in 
consequence  of  which  they  became  subject  to  a  horrible  pei-secution  ;  but  now,  the 
Jews  here  believe,  that  the  Christian  missionaries,  or  rather  the  doctrines  they 
teach,  have  caused  their  present  chastisement.  In  more  remote  times,  such  a 
charge  would  have  been  attended  with  danger,  but  at  present  it  brings  only  ridicule 
and  scorn  upon  its  authors.* 

The  opposition  manifested  by  the  Jews  was  very  violent 
They  pronounced  in  the  synagogue  a  curse  against  the  Society's 
missionaries,  and  those  Jews  who  should  go  among  them. 
Notwithstanding,  the  missionaries  met  with  many  to 
whom  they  were  enabled  to  declare  the  love  of  the  Redeemer, 
and  several  received  regular  instruction. 

After  a  temporary  retreat  to  Persia  in  1847,  which  was 
thought  advisable  in  consequence  of  the  hindrances  already 
mentioned,  the  missionaries  returned  again  to  Bagdad.  They 
had  been  the  means  of  preaching  the  Gospel  to  many  hundreds 
of  Jews,  both  in  Chaldaea  and  Persia,  and  of  extensively 
circulating  the  Scriptures  in  the  Hebrew,  Syriac,  Arabic, 
Persian,  Turkish,  and  Armenian  languages.  This  was  a  great 
achievement  in  a  region  hitherto  noted  for  intolerance,  bigotry, 
poverty,  fanaticism,  and  superstition.  On  the  arrival  from  home 
of  fresh  supplies  of  books,  the  lodgings  of  the  missionaries  were 
crowded  for  days  together,  from  morning  till  evening,  with 
eager  applicants  for  the  sacred  treasure.  The  missionaries 
were  now  well  known  to  many  of  the  Jews  in  the  surrounding 
countries,  from  the  journeys  which  they  undertook  from  time 
to  time.  They  sent  the  Scriptures  to  the  wilds  of  Kurdistan, 
and  to  the  deserts  of  Khorasan  and  Turkistan.     They  were 

*  /ewish  InUlligencey  1847,  p.  228. 
S  2 


260  ASIATIC    AND    AFRICAN    MISSIONS  [1841 

permitted  to  admit  two  Israelites,  one  from  Bagdad,  and  the 
other  from  Bushire,  into  the  Church  of  Christ  by  baptism. 
Others  received  instruction  for  a  longer  or  shorter  period. 

Among  the  extensive  journeys  undertaken  was  one  by 
Stern  to  Mosul,  and  Kurdistan,  where  he  was  enabled  to 
preach  the  Gospel  to  attentive  hearers  in  many  places  never 
before  visited  by  a  missionary.  At  some  of  the  most  remote 
places,  he  was  agreeably  surprised  to  find  his  unbelieving 
brethren  already  in  possession  of  the  New  Testament  and  the 
Old  Paths ^  and  learned,  on  enquiry,  that  they  had  been  scat- 
tered by  the  Jews  themselves,  far  beyond  the  sphere  of  the 
labours  of  the  missionaries. 

Thus  the  work  was  carried  on  to  the  end  of  this  Period,  and 
the  services  at  Bagdad  kept  up,  as  well  as  the  instruction  of 
enquirers.  A  room  belonging  to  the  mission  was  fitted  up 
for  Divine  worship,  and  usually  from  twelve  to  fifteen  Jews 
attended  the  daily  morning  service,  at  dawn  of  day ;  the 
instruction  of  enquirers  taking  place  immediately  afterward. 
An  English  service  was  held  on  Sunday  morning,  and  a 
Hebrew  service  in  the  afternoon  during  winter.  Here  we 
must  leave  this  interesting  and  encouraging  work  for  the 

We  must  now  say  a  few  words  about  Persia,  where 
Joseph  Wolff  had  visited  various  Jewish  communities  in 
1825  ;  and  we  have  alluded  to  the  journeys  of  Stern  and  his 
fellow- workers  in  1845  and  1846.  When  they  had  to  leave 
Bagdad  for  a  time  they  retired  into  Persia,  taking  up 
their  residence  at  Isfahan  in  1847.  They  also  visited  Bushire, 
Borasjun,  Shiraz,  Persepolis,  Tehran  and  Kashan.  Stem's 
narrative  of  their  missionary  labours  is  most  interesting 
reading.  The  willingness  of  the  Jews  at  Isfahan  to  listen  to 
their  words  induced  them  to  recommend  it  to  the  Committee 
as  a  permanent  station.  This  advice  was  adopted,  and  a 
few  months  again  saw  the  missionaries  at  Isfahan.  They 
endeavoured  for  nearly  a  year  to  maintain  their  position 
there,  but  circumstances  were  against  them  and  they  were 
compelled  to  leave. 

1849]  RAVAGES    OF    CHOLERA  261 

We  have  already  recorded  WolfTs  visits  to  the  Jews  of 
Egypt  in  the  third  decade  of  the  century :  and  it  was 
subsequently  visited  by  missionaries  from  Jerusalem,  one  of 
whom  at  least,  Mr.  S.  Farman,  in  1831  concluded  that  it 
would  form  a  promising  mission  field,  but  it  was  not  till  1847 
that  Cairo,  with  its  5,000  Jews,  received  Messrs.  C.  L.  Lauria 
and  J.  B.  Goldberg  as  the  Society's  workers.  The  Jews  were 
divided  into  two  bodies,  natives  and  Europeans,  the  former 
greatly  preponderating,  and  very  ignorant.  The  mission 
soon  made  itself  felt.  There  was  a  great  demand  for  Bibles 
and  Old  Paths.  A  cherem  was  proclaimed  in  all  the 
synagogues,  prohibiting  the  Jews  from  reading  that  publica- 
tion ;  but  it  availed  nothing,  except  to  make  the  work  still 
better  known.  The  author  became  so  celebrated,  that  the 
Jews  compared  their  great  rabbis  to  him,  and  used  to  say 
that  this  or  that  rabbi  was,  or  was  not,  more  learned  than 
•Dr.  McCaul.  When  the  missionaries  visited  them  in  their 
houses  they  were  kindly  received.  Many  flocked  around  them 
to  hear  the  Gospel,  and  several  made  applications  for  baptism. 
Unfortunately  Goldberg  had  to  leave  Cairo  as  the  heat 
injured  his  eyesight,  and  he  was  stationed  at  Salonica. 

This  promising  work  was  also  greatly  interfered  with  by  a 
terrible  outbreak  of  cholera  in  the  summer  and  autumn  of 
1848,  which  carried  off  9,000  persons  in  Cairo  alone,  and 
200,000  in  Egypt  generally.*  Amongst  the  victims  was  Mrs. 
Lauria.  Her  death  was  a  great  loss  to  the  mission,  for,  since 
her  baptism  in  1846,  three  years  after  that  of  her  husband, 
she  had  been  a  true  helpmeet  to  him,  and  of  great  assistance 
in  his  missionary  labours.  The  kindness  and  respect  shewn 
to  him  by  Jews  in  his  bereavement  were  very  striking. 
Many  came  to  comfort  him,  and  to  offer  their  assistance. 
Seven  of  them,  dressed  in  black,  attended  the  funeral.  They 
allowed  no  Arab  to  touch  the  coffin,  but  carried  it  themselves, 
with  the  greatest  respect  and  solemnity,  out  of  the  narrow 

*  In  Modern  Egyptians  (i.  26),  Lane  speaks  of  a  still  more  disastrous 
visitation  of  the  plague  in  1835,  which  carried  off  one- third  of  its  240,000 


Street  where  Lauria  lived,  to  the  main  thoroughfare  where 
the  carriage  stood.  They  then  went  on  to  the  cemetery, 
which  IS  near  Old  Cairo. 

The  work  thus  sadly  interrupted  was  soon  prosecuted 
again  with  renewed  energy  and  vigour.  Lauria  was  able 
to  preach  to  great  numbers  of  Jews,  both  at  his  and  their 
houses.  On  their  Sabbath  he  was  almost  always  fully 
occupied,  from  morning  until  sometimes  late  in  the  evening. 
Several  Jews  expressed  a  desire  to  become  Christians,  but 
foreseeing  the  overwhelming  struggles  they  would  meet  with, 
and  the  abject  and  utter  destitution  to  which  they  must  be 
reduced,  they  shrank  back  and  suppressed  their  convictions. 
The  chief  rabbi,  alarmed  at  the  progress  of  Christianity, 
procured  controversial  books  from  Jerusalem  to  counteract 
the  new  doctrines.  Lauria  made  a  missionary  journey  to 
Alexandria,  Rosetta,  Damietta,  and  other  places  in  the  Delta, 
where  Jews  resided.  At  Alexandria  he  found  the  Jews 
most  accessible,  not  residing  in  any  particular  quarter  of 
the  city,  but  mixing  with  Christians.  They  did  not  bear 
such  hatred  against  Christianity  as  did  their  Hebrew  brethren 
at  Cairo.  He  had  conversations  with  them  and  their  rabbis, 
distributing  literature  amongst  them. 

In  October  1849  Bishop  Gobat  visited  Cairo,  and,  with 
his  ardent  missionary  spirit  evinced  a  very  lively  interest  in 
and  satisfaction  with  the  Society's  work  there.  Lauria 
took  him  to  the  houses  of  Jews.  In  accordance  with  the 
Bishop's  recommendation,  Lauria  was  shortly  afterward 
ordained  at  Jerusalem,  visiting  the  Jews  of  Alexandria  and 
Damietta  on  his  way,  and  Mr.  J.  Skolkowski  was  appointed 
to  assist  him  in  his  work ;  but  the  latter  did  not  remain  long, 
being  transferred  to  Lublin. 

Turning  to  the  Barbary  States,  we  find  but  little  work 
accomplished  within  the  Period  of  which  we  are  treating. 

Morocco  was  occupied  in  1844,  when  Mr.  A.  Levi,  after- 
ward known  as  the  Rev.  A.  Levie,  was  stationed  at  Mogador, 
in  June  of  that  year.  He  had  previously,  in  1843,  visited 
Tangier,  and  then  made  Cadiz  his  centre.     At  Mogador  he 

1849]        LEVI    AT   MOGADOR,    TANGIER,    AND    OR  AN  263 

found  the  Jews  willing  to  converse  with  him,  and  to  receive 
and  read  the  New  Testament.  They  were  also  pleased  with 
the  Hebrew  translation  of  our  Liturgy.  Levi  met  with  great 
encouragement  at  the  outset  of  his  labours.  A  spirit  of  enquiry 
was  rapidly  spreading,  when  an  unexpected  and  serious 
check  was  given  by  the  outbreak  of  war  between  France  and 
Morocco.  In  the  bombardment  of  Mogador  by  the  French, 
on  August  isth  and  i6th,  1844,  the  greater  part  of  the  town 
was  wrecked,  and  the  Jews  were  great  sufferers.  Some  were 
plundered  and  massacred,  and  4,000  were  scattered  through- 
out the  country  without  home  or  any  belongings.  The 
Gospel  had  been  preached  to  them  in  the  last  hour,  as  it 
were ;  let  us  hope  not  in  vain.  Levi  had  to  retire  to 

Intent  upon  the  occupation  of  the  country,  the  Committee 
sent  Levi  to  Tangier  in  November  of  the  same  year.  His 
reception  by  Jews  recalled  and  equalled  his  experience  in 
Mogador.     He  said  : 

The  Jews  receive  me  most  kindly  in  their  houses,  and  wherever  I  meet  them. 
They  listen,  apparently,  with  great  interest  to  the  glad  tidings  of  the  Gospel  They 
do  not  show  themselves  averse  to  the  reading  of  the  Hebrew  New  Testament  I 
have  given  away  two  out  of  three,  which  I  found  among  the  books,  I  had  been 
able  to  preserve,  when  I  removed  from  Mogador  ;  they  were  received  most  gladly. 
The  Jews  here  do  not  live  in  a  separate  quarter  like  those  at  Mogador,  and  indeed 
all  other  places  in  the  empire,  but  are  intermixed  with  the  other  inhabitants.  I 
therefore  have  not  here  such  crowds  of  Jews  at  one  time  listening  to  "  the  truth 
as  it  is  in  Jesus,"  as  I  used  to  have  at  Mogador  ;  but  then  it  must  also  be  borne  in 
mind,  that  the  number  of  Jews  here  is  not  above  half  that  of  the  Jews  at  Mogador. 
The  Gospel  is  now,  however,  preached  to  them  ;  and  may  the  Lord  grant  that  it 
may  be  unto  them  the  savour  of  life  unto  life.* 

Levi  visited  Larache,  Tetuan,  and  other  places.  Crowds  of 
Jews  listened  to  his  message  with  eagerness. 

Speaking  of  his  work  at  Larache,  Levi  thus  wrote  : 

All  was  quite  new  to  them,  and  they  were  amazed  at  what  they  heard.  I  took 
a  New  Testament  out  of  my  pocket,  and  said,  **  This  is  the  book  that  speaks  of 
Jesus  of  Nazareth,  who  came  at  the  time  foretold  by  the  prophets,  and  fulfilled  all 
they  said  respecting  the  Messiah,  in  whom,  if  you  believe,  you  will  all  be  justified 
by  His  righteousness." 

*  Jewish  Intelligence^  1848,  p.  58. 




All  their  eyes  were  turned  towards  the  book,  and  one  of  them  came  forward  and 
requested  me  to  allow  him  to  read  a  little  in  it  I  said  to  him,  '*  Take  it,  it  is 
yours  ;  read  it,  and  may  God  bless  it  to  your  soul ! "  He  stretched  out  both  hands, 
and  seizing  the  book  together  with  my  hand,  he  kissed  them  both.  Several  Jews 
immediately  surrounded  him,  in  order  to  get  a  glimpse  of  the  New  Testament. 
I  then  took  the  others  out  of  my  pocket,  on  which  several  immediately  made  a 
rush  for  them  ;  and  they  each  kissed  my  hand  and  the  book  before  they  opened  it 
The  three  following  days  my  room  was  literally  crowded  with  Jews  from  morning 
till  evening ;  and  several  said  to  me,  "  What  shall  we  do  ?  tell  us  how  we  are  to 
act  in  order  to  receive  instruction  from  you,  and  be  safe  from  the  violence  of  the 
Jews  and  Moors."  I  cannot  describe  to  you  the  regret  they  manifested  at  my 
inability  to  help  them,  or  to  stay  any  longer  with  them. 

Levi  removed  to  Oran,  in  Algiers,  in  1845.  He  reported 
that  great  numbers  of  Jews  were  willing  to  enter  into 
religious  discussions  in  the  most  friendly  manner,  and 
diligently  read  the  books  which  he  gave  them.  The  chief 
rabbi  put  an  end  to  this  state  of  things  by  ordering  the  Jews 
to  bring  him  all  the  missionary  publications,  and  burning 
those  which  he  received.  The  work  at  Oran  was  discontinued 
till  1850. 


Siytb    pettob, 


ISL  Jubilee  siftall  tbat  fiftirtf^  pear  be   unto   pott. 

Lev.  XXV.  it. 

SIXTH   PERIOD,    1850.1859. 


THE  society's   HOME  AFFAIRS. 

An  important  Period— Many  new  fltation»— Income  increasinflr— Da  Costa's  Isrtul 
and  the  Gentiles  and  Stem's  Wanderings  in  the  ^at/— Patronage— Trustees— Com- 
mittee—Secretariat— Annual  Sermons  and  Meetings- The  President— Three  notable 
speeches,  by  Henry  Venn,  Stem,  and  Dr.  Pry  of  Hobart  Town— Revival  off  the 
Annual  Breakffast— Death  off  Qrlmshawe— New  Honorary  Liffe  Qovernors- Death  off 
E.  Blckersteth— 5tory  about  him  and  Simeon— Miss  Jane  Cook  a«l  her  beneffac- 
tions— Death  off  Lord  Bexley,  J.  S.  C.  P.  Prey,  W.  Pym,  Haldane  Stewart, 
5ir  Robert  Infflis,  5ir  George  Rose,  W.  Qrane,  Thomas  Fancourt,  Miss  Sarah 
Hooper,  Miss  C.  Cooper,  Dr.  Neander  and  others— Society's  present  House, 
1 6,  Lincoln's  Inn  Plelds— Missionaries  sent  out  during  the  Period. 

THE  Period  culminating  in  the  Jubilee  was  one  of 
much  importance,  and  the  changes  in  the  personnel 
of  the  Society  were  numerous. 
Five  new  stations  were  occupied — at  Manchester,  Oran, 
Jassy,  Adrianople  and  in  Hungary,  and  twelve  fresh  mission- 
aries were  engaged  in  the  very  first  year  of  the  decade.  This 
was  no  doubt  due  to  the  fact  that  at  no  period  in  the 
history  of  the  Society  had  the  funds  been  in  so  prosperous  a 
condition,  the  receipts  for  the  year  ending  March  31st,  1850, 
having  been  upward  of  ;£'3,ooo  more  than  the  largest  income 
in  any  previous  year,  owing  in  great  measure  to  large  gifts 
from  Miss  Jane  Cook. 

Seven  other  stations — at  Tangier,  Fraustadt,  Tunis,  Paris, 
Colmar,    Constantinople    and    Nuremberg — were    occupied 

268  THE    SOCIETY'S    HOME    AFFAIRS  [1850 

during  these  ten  years.  Their  number  might  have  been 
larger,  had  it  not  been  that  in  the  middle  of  the  Period  the 
Crimean  War  (1854-6),  and  later  the  Indian  Mutiny,  caused 
intense  anxiety  at  home,  and  actual  interruption  and  suspen- 
sion of  work  in  Russia.  The  unsettled  condition  of  Europe 
made  it  imperative  to  observe  caution  in  enlarging  the  sphere 
of  the  Society's  operations.  On  the  other  hand  great  hopes 
of  usefulness  and  openings  were  based  upon  the  declaration 
of  peace  and  upon  the  Firman  of  the  Sultan  of  Turkey.  It  is 
pleasing  to  read  that  the  pressure  of  the  times  at  home  did 
not  appreciably  diminish  the  support  given  to  the  Society, 
and  indeed  the  previous  high- water  mark  of  1 850-1  was 
actually  slightly  exceeded  in  1856-7,  whilst  the  income  for 
the  last  year  of  the  decade,  1859-60,  exclusive  of  the  Jubilee 
Funds,  amounted  to  ;£'3245 1,  the  highest  hitherto  received. 
This  increase,  notwithstanding  the  demands  of  the  Jubilee, 
was  most  gratifying,  but  it  was  not  sufficient  for  the  needs  of 
the  case,  for  the  Society's  work  had  been  more  than  propor- 
tionately extended,  as  r^ards  the  number  of  its  stations  and 
missionaries,  and  the  ever-increasing  cost  of  living  in  Europe 
and  the  East,  which  necessitated  a  general  advance  in 

The  publication,  in  1850,  of  Dr.  Isaac  Da  Costa's  Israel  and 
the  Gentiles!^  marked  the  commencement  of  this  epoch.  The 
fact  that  he  was  a  Christian  Israelite  doubtless  helped  to 
increase  interest  in  the  work,  and  Stern's  Wanderings  in  the 
Easty  published  in  1855,  tended  in  the  same  direction. 

The  following  Bishops  were  elected  Vice-Patrons  during  this 
Period :  Graham  of  Chester,  Stanley  of  Norwich,  Ollivant 
of  Llandaff  and  Dealtry  of  Madras,  in  1850;  Mcllvaine 
of  Ohio,  in  1853 ;  Walter  Kerr  Hamilton  of  Salisbury, 
Singer  of  Meath,  Tomlinson  of  Gibraltar,  Barker  of  Sydney, 
Perry  of  Melbourne,  and  Ryan  of  Mauritius,  in  1855 ; 
Villiers  of  Carlisle,  in  1856;  Tait  of  London,  Baring  of 
Gloucester  and  Bristol,  Robert  Bickersteth  of  Ripon,  Cotterill 
of  Grahamstown,    afterward    of    Edinburgh,   G.    Smith    of 

•  Sec  page  85. 


Victoria,  Anderson  of  Rupert's  Land,  in  1857  ;  Pelham  of 
Norwich,  Harding  of  Bombay,  and  Vidal  of  Sierra  Leone, 
in  1858. 

Dr.  Macbride,  Principal  of  Magdalen  Hall,  Oxford,  Mr. 
James  M.  Strachan,  and  Dr.  McCaul,  were  elected  Vice- 
Presidents.  The  Bishop  of  Carlisle  (Montagu  Villiers)  and 
J.  M.  Strachan  were  added  to  the  Trustees. 

During  this  Period  the  following  new  prominent  names 
appear  on  the  list  of  Committee :  G.  Arbuthnot,  Major- 
General  Augustus  Clarke  (Chairman  from  1867  to  1877)  W. 
Harwood-Harwood,  W.  Long,  M.  Mott,  J.  G.  Sheppard,  H. 
Smith,  W.  Vizard,  Dr.  Holt,  Yates,  and  Hon.  Sidney  Curzon, 
and  the  Revs.  E.  Auriol,  C.  Bowen,  W.  Cadman,  S.  Garratt, 
C.  Hume,  T.  Nolan,  Dr.  Sirr,  J.  Haldane  Stewart,  and  A.  S. 

With  regard  to  the  Secretariat,  the  Rev.  W.  Ayerst  being 
appointed  to  the  vicarage  of  Egerton,  the  Rev.  Buchan  W. 
Wright  succeeded  him  in  1853.  He  held  the  office  for  only 
a  few  months,  and  on  his  appointment  to  the  living  of  Norton 
Cuckney  in  the  same  year,  the  Rev.  Charles  J.  Goodhart, 
incumbent  of  Park  Chapel,  Chelsea,  was  appointed  Secretary. 
He  was  certainly  one  of  the  most  capable  of  the  men  who 
have  held  this  office.  Formerly  a  scholar  of  Trinity  College, 
Cambridge,  and  22nd  Wrangler,  he  was  now  a  well-known 
Evangelical  clergyman.  He  had  just  preached  the  Anniversary 
Sermon,  but  his  labours  had  long  been  devoted  to  the  Society., 
and  his  appointment  was  most  acceptable  to  the  friends  of 
Israel  and  of  the  Society  throughout  the  country.  In  1853 
an  assistant  clerical  secretary  was  appointed  in  the  person  of 
the  Rev.  Albert  A.  Isaacs,  who  also  fulfilled  the  duties  of 
association  secretary  for  London. 

The  Revs.  W.  Seaton,  A.  Ramsay,  W.  Clementson, 
Dr.  Thomas  Kerns,  J.  Scott,  H.  J.  Marshall,  T.  L.  Howlett, 
E.  Thompson,  F.  Young,  J.  K.  Tucker,  F.  T.  Bassett,  R.  W. 
Wolseley,  W.  H.  Graham,  R.  Allen,  and  T.  D.  Halsted  were 
added  to  the  association  staff  during  the  decade,  and  the 
Rev.  A.  M.  Myers  acted  as  Visitor  of  Associations  for  a  short 

270  THE    SOCIETY'S    HOME    AFFAIRS  [1850 

The  preachers  during  the  Period  were  : — Archdeacon  Wig- 
ram,  W.  R.  Fremantle,  T.  R.  Birks,  C  J.  Goodhart,  J.  C 
Miller,  \V.  Cadman,  Robert  Bickersteth  (afterward  Bishop  of 
Ripon),  A.  M.  Myers,  G.  Fisk,  H.  A.  Stem,  J.  C.  Ryle,  J. 
Cohen  and  \V.  W.  Champneys  (both  of  whom  were  rectors  of 
Whitechapel),  and  Dr.  Ewald.  The  sermons  were  preached 
in  Christ  Church,  Newgate  Street,  in  1850  and  1851  ;  in  the 
Episcopal  Jews'  Chapel  in  1852  and  1853  ;  in  Holy  Trinity, 
Marylebone,  in  1854;  and  in  Holy  Trinity,  Holbom — in 
which  parish  the  Society's  House  is  situated — in  1855.  In 
each  of  the  next  four  years  (1856—9),  there  were  two  annual 
sermons,  one  regularly  in  the  Episcopal  Chapel,  and  the 
others  in  St.  Dunstan's,  Fleet  Street  (1856),  All  Souls', 
Langham  Place  (1857),  and  the  Parish  Church  of  Mar\'lebone 
(1858  and  1859). 

There  was  a  very  interesting  selection  of  speakers  at  the 
Annual  Meetings  during  the  Period,  the  most  prominent  of 
whom  were :  Bishop  Tait  of  London,  Bishop  Montagu 
Villiers  of  Carlisle  (three  times).  Bishop  Perry  of  Melbourne, 
Bishop  Singer  of  Meath,  Bishop  Daly  of  Cashel  (t>^nce). 
Bishop  Vidal  of  Sierra  Leone,  and  Bishop  Mcllvaine  of 
Ohio.  Amongst  the  laymen,  the  Marquis  of  Blandford, 
the  Earl  of  Mayo,  Lord  Claud  Hamilton,  M.P^  Sir 
Robert  Inglis  (three  times),  J.  P.  Plumptre,  M.P.,  Admiral 
Harcourt,  James  Strachan,  Joseph  Payne,  Robert  Trotter, 
the  last  four  of  whom  were  members  of  the  Committee. 
Amongst  the  beneficed  clerg>'  the  chief  speakers  were: 
E.  H.  Bickersteth  (afterward  Bishop  of  Exeter),  \V.  Cadman 
(t%\*ice),  James  Cohen  (twice),  George  Fisk,  \V.  R.  Fremantle 
(five  times),  Edward  Garbett,  Edward  Hoare,  Drs.  McCaul 
and  Marsh  (three  times) — Dr.  Marsh  s  last  appearance  on  the 
Societ>'"s  platform  was  in  1858,  when  he  was  eight>-three 
\-ears  of  age — ^J.  C.  Miller  (t%\*ice),  Daniel  Moore,  A.  M. 
Myers,  Hugh  McXeile  y^ three  times),  Thomas  Xolan,  \V.  W. 
P>*m,  J.  W.  Reeve,  J.  C.  Ryle,  Haldane  Ste>\'art,  Hugh  Stowell 
(five  times),  E.  Tottenham,  Henr>-  Venn,  and  Daniel  Wilson. 
Three  distinguished  foreigners  appear  in  the  list,  the  Revsw 
Dr.  C.  G.  Barth,  of  Stuttgart,  Dr.  T\Tig,  of  Xew  York,  and 

i859]  THREE    NOTABLE    SPEECHES  271 

Dr.  Fry,  of  Hobart  Town  ;  and  the  following  missionaries 
of  the  Society :  W.  Ayerst,  F.  W.  Becker,  Dr.  Ewald  (four 
times),  J.  C.  Reichardt,  and  H.  A.  Stern. 

The  President  took  the  chair  each  year,  in  1850  as  Lord 
Ashley,  and  subsequently  as  seventh  Earl  of  Shaftesbury. 
At  most  of  the  meetings  within  the  Period  the  collection 
amounted  to  over  ;^ioo.  Three  speeches  deserve  special 
mention,  Henry  Venn's  in  1854,  Stern's  in  1857,  and  Dr. 
Fry's  in  1859. 

The  presence  and  advocacy  of  Henry  Venn,  the  Honorary 
Secretary  of  the  Church  Missionary  Society,  was  significant  of 
the  close  accord  which  existed  between  that  Society  and  our 
own  in  upholding  Bishop  Gobat  under  the  charge  of  prosely- 
tism  amongst  Oriental  Churches  in  Jerusalem,  although,  of 
course,  the  charge  directly  concerned  the  C.M.S.  only  and 
not  our  own  Society.  The  Rev.  George  Fisk,  whose  personal 
acquaintance  with  the  Bishop  and  his  work  entitled  him  to 
speak  with  authority,  moved  a  resolution  offering  congratu- 
lations to  the  surviving  founders  and  promoters  of  the  Jerusalem 
Bishopric  on  the  blessing  vouchsafed  to  that  foundation  ; 
and  to  the  devoted  Bishop,  the  expression  of  sincere  sym- 
pathy in  reference  to  the  important  work  in  progress  among 
the  Oriental  Churches  in  the  Holy  Land.  Henry  Venn  had 
been  specially  requested  by  Lord  Shaftesbury  to  support  the 
resolution,  which  he  gladly  did,  rejoicing  with  the  meeting  at 
the  rebuke  which  had  been  nobly  given  to  the  Bishop's 
traducers,  not  only  by  the  united  voices  of  the  Archbishops 
of  Canterbury,  York,  Armagh  and  Dublin*,  but  also  by  the 
proceedings  at  the  C.M.S.  and  our  own  meetings.  Venn  spoke 
with  gratitude  of  the  "  holy  and  cordial  fraternity  "  between 
the  two  Societies,  in  a  matter  really  peculiar  to  the  C.M.S., 
for,  of  course,  our  Society  was  not  involved  in  the  matter, 
and  he  graciously  "  yielded  precedence "  to  us  in  the  work 
of  propaganda  of  the  Gospel  in  Jerusalem. 

*  The  Declaration  of  the  Archbishops  in  Defence  of  Gobat  is  given  in  the 
Mtmoirs  of  Bishop  Gobat ^  chap,  iii.,  and  quoted  in  Sioc\Cs  History  of  the  C.A/.S., 
ii.  146,  where  the  Bishop's  position  is  treated  at  some  length  with  the  well-known 
acumen  of  the  author. 

272  THE    SOCIETY'S    HOME    AFFAIRS  [1850 

Stern,  who  had  for  fourteen  years  been  labouring  in  what 
he  called  the  "  untried  and  unprepared  "  field  of  Persia  and 
Arabia,  spoke  in  his  enthusiastic  address  of  the  work  accom- 
plished in  the  latter  country,  from  which  he  had  just  returned. 
The  experiences  which  he  narrated  will  be  found  in  Chapter 
XXXI.  Suffice  it  here  to  say,  that  he  carried  the  meeting  with 
him  by  his  eloquence  and  earnestness.  He  spoke  also  of  his 
visit  to  the  Crimea  in  the  company  of  the  Rev.  Dr.  and  Lady 
Alicia  Blackwood,  the  latter  of  whom  still  survives  in  a  ripe 
old  age. 

Dr.  Fry's  speech,  in  1859,  is  interesting  as  shewing  what 
friends  in  Australia  were  doing  for  the  Society  and  the  cause 
nearly  fifty  years  ago.  They,  even  then,  in  those  days  of  sparse 
population,  sent  in  the  previous  year  nearly  £100,  besides 
providing  for  the  support  of  a  missionary  in  the  colony. 

A  very  interesting  feature  of  the  Anniversary  of  1850  was 
the  revival  of  the  Breakfast,  preceding  the  Annual  Meeting. 
It  was  held  on  May  3rd  of  that  year  in  Exeter  Hall,  at  half- 
past  eight,  J.  Haldane  Stewart  presiding  over  a  large  number 
of  clergy,  and  an  address  was  given  by  Dr.  Marsh  on  the  aged 
Simeon's  words  in  St  Luke  ii.  28, 29,  with  a  special  reference  to 
"  beloved  Bickersteth  and  beloved  Grimshawe,"  whose  work 
for  the  Society  was  further  alluded  to  at  the  meeting.  This 
gathering  was  so  successful  that  the  Committee  decided  to 
make  it  an  annual  institution. 

Many  old  and  true  friends  of  the  Society  were  called 
home  during  this  period.  The  Rev.  T.  S.  Grimshawe 
vicar  of  Biddenham,  passed  away  on  February  17th,  185a 
He  had  taken  an  active  share  in  the  proceedings  of  the 
Society  from  its  earliest  days,  and  was  the  companion  in 
labour  of  Lewis  Way,  Legh  Richmond,  and  Simeon.  He 
was  indefatigable  in  his  exertions,  and  used  every  opportunity 
to  forward  the  cause.  Although  he  never  preached  the 
Sermon,  he  spoke  at  eleven  Annual  Meetings.  By  his 
death  the  number  of  Honorary  Life  Governors  of  the 
Society  was  reduced  to  two,  who,  in  1850,  were  reinforced 
by  Canon  Montagu  Villiers,  Dr.  McNeile,  Hugh  Stowell,  J. 
Haldane  Stewart,  W.  R.  Fremantle,  W.  W.  Pym,  A.  R.  C. 

i859]  DEATH    OF    EDWARD   BICKERSTETH  273 

Dallas,  and   J.   Hill,    Fellow  of  St.  Edmund   Hall,  Oxford. 
No  further  names  were  added  during  this  decade. 

On  the  28th  of  the  same  month  the  Rev.  Edward 
Bickersteth,  rector  of  Watton,  died  at  the  comparatively 
early  age  of  sixty-three.  Formerly  Secretary  of  the  Church 
Missionary  Society,  his  attention  was  naturally  chiefly 
directed  to  the  needs  of  the  heathen  world,  but,  during  the 
later  years  of  his  life  especially,  he  took  a  very  great  interest 
in  the  Jewish  cause.  A  story  is  told  of  him  and  Charles  Simeon 
to  this  effect :  They  were  once  present  at  a  meeting  held  in 
support  of  the  Society.  Simeon  was  the  speaker,  and,  in 
closing  his  speech,  he  said  that  they  had  met  together  that  day 
for  the  furtherance  of  the  most  important  object  in  the  world,  viz., 
the  conversioji  of  the  Jews,  When  Simeon  sat  down,  Bickersteth 
wrote  on  a  slip  of  paper — eight  miilion  Jexvs,  eight  hundred 
million  heathens,  which  of  these  is  the  most  important  ?  This 
paper  he  handed  to  Simeon,  who  at  once  turned  it  over  and 
wrote  on  the  other  side :  Yes,  but  if  the  eight  million  Jews 
are  to  be  as  *  life  from  the  dead*  to  tlie  eight  hundred  million 
heathens,  what  then  ?  This  done,  he  returned  the  slip  of  paper 
to  Bickersteth.  The  latter  spoke  for  the  Society  at  eighteen 
Anniversary  Meetings,  and  preached  the  Annual  Sermon  in 
1834.  His  son-in-law.  Professor  T.  R.  Birks,  said  of  him  at 
the  Jubilee  Meeting  in  1859  : 

As  his  spiritual  knowledge  expanded,  and  his  experience  deepened,  he  began 
to  attach  himself  to  this  Society  with  equal  interest,  nay,  I  might  almost  say,  if 
there  were  any  difference,  with  even  deeper  interest  than  to  that  Society  which 
had  still  the  wannest  affections  of  his  heart,  and  to  which  his  first  labours  had 
been  given. 

His  ardent  piety  and  fervent  love  for  souls  emphasized  all 
Bickersteth  said  and  did  in  the  cause  of  Missions  generally. 

**  There  you  saw  a  man,"  said  Daniel  Wilson,  at  the 
Society's  Annual  Meeting  of  1850,  "who  never  lost  a 
moment,  diligent  and  active,  laborious,  prepared  for  any  work 
in  the  service  of  his  Lord  and  Master,  a  man  who  enjoyed  un- 
bounded popularity  ;  and  yet  simple  as  a  child,  prayerful, 
humble,  and  in  all  things  dependent  on  his  Divine  Master." 

The  following  year,  185 1,  saw  the  death  on  February  nth 

274  THE    SOCIETY'S    HOME    AFFAIRS  [1850 

of  Miss  Jane  Cook  of  Cheltenham,  who  is  distinguished, 
above  all  others  in  the  history  of  the  Society,  by  her  good 
deeds  to  the  house  of  Israel  and  munificence  to  the  Society, 
which  was  indebted  to  her  for  grants  to  the  following  objects 
in  Palestine : 

Stipend   of  minister  of  Christ  Church,  per  ann. 

Jerusalem    ;^8, 500  now  producing  about   C^^S 

Repairs  of  the  fabric i,ocx} 

Circulation  of  Hebrew  Scriptures 2,000 

House  of  Industry,  Jerusalem io,coo 

Establishment  in  business  of  inmates  of  do.        200 

Salary  of  apothecary  to  Hospital 2,000 

Enquiring   Jews,    and    infirm    or    aged 

converts  4,000 






-^27,700  £fii\ 

In  addition  to  ihe  aljove.  Miss  Cook  at  different  times  gave  the  Society 
;^7,I77  I2S.  3d.,  some  of  which  donations  have  already  been  mentioned,  and 
she  bequeathed  to  the  Society  all  her  funded  property,  about  ;f  25,000,  on  the 
understanding  that  it  should  be  applied  solely  for  the  purposes  of  a  Reserve  Fund, 
the  interest  alone  being  applicable  to  the  general  objects  of  the  Society.  This 
at  present  amounts  to  about  ii^OQ  per  annum. 

Altogether  the  Society  received  from  this  munificent  patroness  about  ;f  60,000. 

Wherever  the  story  of  the  Society  is  told,  this  will  surely 
be  spoken  of  "  for  a  memorial  of  her." 

Lord  Bexley,  a  Vice-Patron,  died  on  February  8th, 
185 1.  He  took  great  interest  in  the  affairs  of  the  Society, 
and  spoke  at  five  of  its  Annual  Meetings.  As  the  Hon. 
Nicholas  Vansittart,  Chancellor  of  the  Exchequer,  he  was  the 
first  Cabinet  Minister  to  enrol  his  name  on  the  patronage  list 
He  had  been  President  of  the  Bible  Society  for  sixteen  years 
at  the  time  of  his  death. 

The  death  in  the  same  year  of  the  Rev.  J.  S.  C.  F.  Frey 
recalled  the  name  of  one  who,  whatever  his  faults,  had  actively 
laboured  for  his  brethren,  and  been  the  actual  founder  of 
the  undenominational  Society  in  1809.  He  spent  the  last 
thirty  years  of  his  life  in  America  as  a  preacher  and  teacher  of 
Hebrew.  More  than  once  he  said  before  his  death,  **  My 
Jewish  brethren  have  often  said  that  I  was  a  hypocrite,  and 

i8S9]  SIA'  GEORGE  ROSE  275 

that  I  should  never  die  a  Christian  ;  I  wish  them  to  know  that 
they  were  mistaken." 

In  1852  the  Society  lost  the  hearty  services  of  the  Rev. 
W.  W.  Pym,  rector  of  Willian,  Herts.  He  preached  the 
Sermon  in  1838,  and  spoke  at  six  Annual  Meetings.  Of  him 
it  was  said  : 

The  Jews'  Society  was  his  fevourite  Society  ;  he  was  never  weary  of  working  for 
the  Jew — it  was  ever  his  delight— and  deep  his  love  for  the  children  of  Israel,  as 
many  could  testify,  lie  was  called,  "The  Jews*  Man,'*  **  I  would  I  could 
work  more  for  them  "  was  ever  on  his  lips. 

Of  the  Rev.  James  Haldane  Stewart  of  Limpsfield,  who 
died  in  1854,  it  may  be  said,  that  having  loved  the  cause  of 
Israel,  he  loved  it  unto  the  end.  He  preached  the  Annual 
Sermon  in  1831,  and  spoke  eleven  times  at  its  Annual  Meet- 
ings. He  was  an  indefatigable  worker  for  the  Society,  and 
one  of  its  few  Honorary  Life  Governors. 

In  185s  the  Society  lost  two  of  its  oldest  and  staunchest 
friends.  Sir  Robert  Inglis  died  on  May  5th,  after  an  un- 
interrupted connexion  with  it  of  forty  years.  His  name 
appears  in  the  records  as  a  member  of  the  Committee  as  far 
back  as  1815-16  ;  and  in  1819  as  Treasurer,  an  office  which 
he  retained  until  the  year  1831,  when  he  was  elected  a  Vice- 
President.  He  spoke  at  five  Annual  Meetings,  and  to  the 
close  of  his  life  continued  to  take  a  lively  interest  in  the 
Society  and  its  objects. 

The  name  of  the  Right  Hon.  Sir  George  Rose  first  appears 
in  the  records  of  the  Society  in  the  year  181 8  as  a  Vice- 
President,  while  British  Minister  at  Berlin.  Having  been 
interested  in  the  Society's  work  by  Lewis  Way,  during  the 
visit  of  the  latter,  he  made  his  house  at  Berlin  a  depository 
for  its  various  publications,  and  forwarded  them  to  different 
parts  of  the  Continent.  He  corresponded  with  the  agents 
and  friends  of  the  Jewish  cause,  received  visits  from  Jews, 
and  conversed  with  them  earnestly  and  ably  on  the  great 
fundamental  truths  of  Christianity.  He  also  rendered  most 
essential  service  by  the  selection  of  missionary  candidates, 
of  whom  at  that  time  comparatively  few  were  found  in 
England.    A  missionary  seminary  existed  at  Berlin,  under  the 

T  2 

276  THE    SOCIETY'S    HOME    AFFAIRS  [1850 

careof  the  venerable  Jaenick^.*  From  that  institution,  after 
personal  examination  carefully  made  by  himself,  Sir  George 
chose  those  who  were  to  proceed  to  London.  The  Society 
was  thus  enabled  to  secure  the  ser\'ices  of  Becker,  West, 
Hoff,  Wermelskirch,  Reichardt,  Nicolayson  and  Bei^feldt 

Sir  George  Rose  also  employed  the  influence  of  his  high 
station  to  interest  the  King  of  Prussia,  and  various  members  of 
the  royal  family  and  court,  on  behalf  of  God's  ancient  people. 
The  result  was  the  formation  of  the  Berlin  Society  for  the 
promotion  of  Christianity  amongst  the  Jews,  under  the  imme- 
diate patronage  of  the  King,  with  General  von  Witzleben.  the 
King's  chief  Aide-de-camp,  as  its  President.  The  first  address 
which  that  Society  issued  was  drawn  up  by  Sir  George  Rose. 
Sir  George  began  to  attend  the  meetings  of  the  Committee 
in  London  on  April  23rd,  1823,  and  from  that  date,  to 
within  a  few  years  of  his  death,  on  June  17th,  1855,  he 
continued  to  take  an  active  part  in  the  management  of  the 
Society,  and,  by  every  means  in  his  power,  to  promote  its 
interests  and  efficiency.  To  the  end  he  shewed  himself  a  true 
and  untiring  friend  to  Israel.  At  his  death  he  bequeathed  the 
sum  of  £\fyoo  to  the  General  Fund  of  the  Society,  and 
£lQO  to  the  Operative  Jewish  Converts*  Institution.  During 
his  life  he  contributed  largely  to  most  of  the  varied  objects  of 
the  Society,  both  of  a  temporal  and  spiritual  nature. 

In  1857  died  Mr.  W.  Grane,  who  for  nearly  thirty  years 
had  been  a  member  of  the  Committee,  and  the  Rev.  Thomas 
Fancourt,  who  had  been  an  assistant  minister  to  the  Episcopal 
Jews'  Chapel,  Palestine  Place,  from  1822  to  1830.  After  a 
brief  separation,  at  the  earnest  desire  of  the  Chaplain  and  the 
congregation  he  resumed  his  duties,  for  which  he  was  content 
to  receive  the  remuneration  of  a  half  yearly  collection.  He 
desisted,  owing  to  infirmity,  only  five  years  before  his 
death  at  the  advanced  age  of  eighty- six.  He  was  thus 
connected  with  the  Society  for  nearly  thirty-five  years, 
ministering  to  the  congregation,  instructing  the  schools, 
visiting  the  sick  and  poor,  and  winning  the  esteem  of  all. 

*  See  page  76. 

1859]  SOCIETY'S    PRESENT    HOUSE  211 

In  the  following  year  died  Miss  Sarah  Hooper,  whose  work 
amongst  Jewesses  in  London  will  be  noticed  in  the  next 
chapter  ;  and,  in  the  beginning  of  1859,  Mr.  Richard  Sandford, 
house-surgeon  at  the  Jerusalem  hospital,  and  Miss  C.  Cooper, 
whose  Institution  in  Jerusalem  is  mentioned  overleaf. 

Several  missionaries  and  former  missionaries  died  during 
this  Period — in  1852  the  Rev.  R.  Smith,  formerly  missionary 
at  Warsaw;  in  1854  the  Rev.  L.  J.  C.  Hoff,  missionary  at 
Cracow;  in  1855  Mrs.  Hiscock,  of  London;  and  in  1856 
the  Rev.  John  Nicolayson,  of  Jerusalem. 

We  must  include  in  the  obituary  of  this  Period  the  name 
of  a  very  eminent  Hebrew  Christian  historian  and  theologian, 
who  passed  away  in  185 1,  namely.  Dr.  Neander,  Professor 
of  Theology  at  Berlin  University.  He  had  had  a  very 
distinguished  career  of  thirty-eight  years,  during  which  he 
exerted  a  wide-spread  influence  throughout  Germany.* 

The  headquarters  of  the  Society  were  transferred  in  1852 
to  their  present  pleasant  situation  at  No.  16,  Lincoln's  Inn 
Fields.  This,  it  may  be  remarked,  is  about  the  largest 
square  in  London,  being  of  the  same  area  as  the  base  of 
the  Great  Pyramid.  Before  this  date  the  Society's  offices 
were  situated  in  the  Jews'  Chapel,  Spitalfields,  from  1809  to 
181 8  ;  at  10,  Wardrobe  Place,  Doctors'  Commons,  from  18 18 
to  1832  ;  in  16,  Exeter  Hall,  Strand,  from  1832  to  1843  ; 
and  at  3,  Chatham  Place,  Blackfriars,  from  1843  to  1852. 

The  present  house  is  a  commodious  building,  well  adapted 
for  the  headquarters  of  the  Society.  It  was  built  by  Lord 
Eardley,  who  was  of  Jewish  descent.  The  last  occupant 
before  the  Society  was  the  eminent  surgeon,  J.  P.  Vincent. 
When  the  house  was  to  be  sold,  Mrs.  Vincent  went  into  every 
room  and  prayed  that  it  might  pass  into  the  hands  of  godly 
people.  The  prayer  was  answered  by  its  being  purchased  by 
the  Society,  from  Miss  Jane  Cook's  Fund.  A  meeting  was 
held  on  June  23rd  for  the  dedication  of  the  new  premises. 
Montagu  Villiers  presided,  and    Dr.  Marsh,  Bishop   Gobat, 

*  The  reader  is  referred  to  the  author's  Biographies  of'Emitunt  ffehrcw 
Christians y  No.  I.,  for  particulars  of  this  illustrious  son  of  Abraham. 

278  THE    SOCIETrS    HOME    AFFAIRS  liSso^ 

Haldane  Stewart  and  others  took  part  in  the  proceedings. 
How  much  earnest  pra>'er  has  since  ascended  from  within 
its  walls !  Here  the  various  Committee  and  other  meetings 
take  place,  and  here  are  the  secretarial,  statistical,  and 
financial  offices,  and  also  the  Society  s  Library  and  Museum. 
At  the  rear  is  a  special  department  for  the  issue  of  reports, 
magazines,  books  and  missionary-  publications,  and  for  the 
sale  of  olive  wood  articles  made  in  the  House  of  Industr>% 
Jerusalem,  and  eastern  curiosities  in  general. 

In  1850  some  very  valuable  instructions  to  missionaries 
were  prepared  and  adopted  b>'  the  Committee. 

Numerous  missionaries  were  sent  to  foreign  stations  during 
this  Period,  in  the  following  order :  the  Rev.  A.  I.  Behrens  to 
Jassy,  R.  Langenfeldt  (on  a  mission  of  enquir>')  to  Hun- 
gar}-,  J.  H.  Briihl  to  Bagdad,  S.  Mayers  to  Adrianople,  P. 
Davis  to  Bucharest,  V.  Stockstiel  to  Cracow,  the  Revs.  J.  C. 
Reichardt  Henr>'  Crawford  and  E.  R.  Hodges  to  Jerusalem, 
the  Rev.  P.  H.  Stemchuss  to  Smyrna,  H.  A.  Markheim 
to  Paris,  F.  G.  Kleinhenn  and  A.  Iliewitz  to  Bucharest. 
J.  M.  Eppstein  to  Bagdad,  \V.  Fenner  to  Posen,  C.  S. 
Newman  to  Constantinople,  G.  N.  Niirnberg  to  Bucharest, 
the  Rev.  James  Gosset  Tanner  to  Cairo,  the  Rev.  Joseph 
Barclay  (afterward  Bishop)  to  Jerusalem ;  the  Misses  F. 
James,  E.  Heasell,  and  A.  Buckmaster,  as  helpers  in  Miss 
Cooper's  Institution;  S.  H.  Bronkhorst  to  Constantinople, 
and  Dr.  Hermann  Adelberg  to  Nuremberg.  Special  meetings 
were  frequently  held  for  the  dismissal  of  missionaries,  on 
which  occasions  the  Revs.  W.  Cadman,  J.  Cohen,  W.  R. 
Fremantle,  C.  J.  Goodhart,  E.  Auriol,  and  others  lovingly 
addressed  those  going  out  to  foreign  stations. 



London  —  Dr.  Ewald's  appointment  —  **  Wanderers*  Home  "  —  Converts  — 
Cartwrl^ht  and  missionaries— M!s5  Sarah  Hooper— Parochial  Missions— HIrsch 
at  Liverpool  —  Lazarus,  Herstaon  and  Numberg  at  Manchester  —  5temchnsj, 
Hodyes  and  Klelnhenn  at  Bristol  and  In  the  West  of  England— Amsterdam- 
Many  Hebrew  Christians— Sir  Moses  5alvador— Russian  Poland  Mission— Crimean 
War  and  suspension  of  the  work— Ineffectual  efforts  to  re-open— OtremlM  at 
Cracow— Death  of  B.  Blum— Oraf  at  Posen. 

FOR  the  sake  of  brevity,  the  History  of  the  Society's 
missions  during  this  decade  will  be  compressed  into 
four  chapters,  two  entitled  "  The  Western  Mission 
Field,"  dealing  with  England  and  the  Continent,  the  third, 
"The  Eastern  Mission  Field,"  dealing  with  the  Asiatic 
stations,  and  the  fourth,  "The  Southern  Shores  of  the 
Mediterranean,"  describing  African  stations.  This  division 
is  not  altogether  accurate.  For  example,  Constantinople, 
which  is  decidedly  an  Oriental  station,  is  included  in  the  first 
division,  and  Egypt,  which  is  also  in  the  East,  is  included  in 
the  Mediterranean  group.  However,  the  arrangement  is 
near  enough  for  all  practical  purposes. 

In  this  chapter  we  deal  first  with  the  Home  Missions, 
commencing  with  London,  where  there  are  very  few  new 
incidents  of  importance  to  record,  the  work  being  conducted 
on  the  same  lines  as  in  the  preceding  Period. 

Palestine  Place  continued  to  be  the  centre  of  operations,  with 
outlying  posts,  such  as  a  hall  in  New  Street,  or  in  Leadenhall 
Street,  or  elsewhere.  The  name  of  Dr.  Ewald  is  intimately 
associated  with  this  Period.  When  he  was  compelled,  in  1851, 
to  leave  the  East,  owing  to  ill-health,  he  was  transferred 
to  London  as  head  of  the  mission.  His  reports  of  this 
time  are  intensely  interesting  ;  he  was  in  labours  most 
abundant,  both  for  the  Society  and  the  **  Wanderers'  Home  " 

280  WESTERN   MISSION   FIELD  [1850 

which  he  founded  in  1853.  This  institution  met  a  much 
felt  temporal  want,  the  Society  being  exclusively  engaged 
in  spiritual  work.  As  the  number  of  enquirers  increased, 
and  a  good  many  openly  confessed  the  Lord  Jesus  in 
baptism,  they  lost  their  position  among  their  own  people, 
and  consequently  their  employment  and  means  of  livelihood, 
and  something  had  to  be  done  to  aid  them.  The  '*  Abraham  ic 
Society  "  helped  some,  especially  the  infirm,  but  what  was  to 
be  done  for  young  enquirers  ?  The  "  Operative  Jewish 
Converts*  Institution"  was  true  to  its  excellent  name,  but 
enquirers  had  to  be  instructed  and  tested  before  they 
could  be  received  there.  So,  in  order  to  offer  them  at 
once  a  helping  hand,  by  giving  them  the  necessary  religious 
instruction,  and  to  test  their  sincerity  and  character,  the 
"  Wanderers'  Home "  was  opened.*  Within  five  years 
303  Jews  and  Jewesses  had  received  its  benefits,  and  150 
of  them  were  baptized ;  76  entered  the  "  Operative  Jewish 
Converts*  Institution,"  and  six  went  to  the  Society's  College. 
The  Home  was  closed  in  1858,  owing  to  lack  of  financial 
support,  but  was  re-opened  in  i860. 

This  was  a  very  fruitful  Period,  and  in  1858  Dr.  Ewald  thus 
wrote  of  the  changes  that  had  taken  place  amongst  the  Jews 
to  whom  the  missionary  had  access : 

If  you  go  into  their  houses,  you  find  on  their  table  the  Bible,  the  Old  and 
New  Testament,  just  as  you  see  it  on  the  table  of  Christians,  and  I  have  seen 
the  authorized  version  of  the  Bible  not  only  in  private  houses,  but  in  the  sjTiagogue. 
When  you  converse  with  intelligent  Jews,  you  soon  obsen-e  that  they  have  read 
the  New  Testament  and  other  Christian  books,  and  that  they  know  what  the 
fundamental  doctrines  of  Christianity  are.  Then,  much  of  the  animosity 
toward  converts  has  been  gradually  removed,  by  the  number  of  Jews  who  have 
embraced  Christianity.  You  cannot  meet  with  many  Jewish  families  who  do 
not  count  among  their  relatives  some  converts.  I  have  myself  heard  Jews 
defending  their  friends,  not  for  having  embraced  Christianity,  but  from  the 
allegeil  imputation  of  having  embraced  it  through  impure  motives.  The  more 
Christianity  gains  ground  in  the  Jewish  community,  the  more  will  friendly  feelings 
arise  toward  those  of  their  numl>er  who  conscientiously  look  upon  the  Lord 
Jesus  as  the  Christ.  Amongst  fifty  thousand  Jews  in  England  we  reckon  three 
thousand  converts.     In   London  alone  there  are  eleven  ministers  of  the  Lord 

*  The  /nt'ish  Intelligence^  1S59,  p.  265,  contains  Ewald*s  own  account  of  the 
design  of  the  institution. 


Jesus  Christ  who  are  converted  Jews,  preaching  the  Word  of  Life  to  perishing 
sinners,  whose  ministry  the  Lord  owns  by  granting  them  many  souls  for  their 
hire.  These  thousands  of  converts  are  as  salt  in  the  earth,  and  through  their 
instrumentality  a  work  is  carried  on  silently  and  quietly  in  this  country.  They 
have  all  acquaintances  and  friends  to  whom  they  speak  occasionally  of  the  Lord 
Jesus  ;  and  thus  true  religion  is  spread  among  the  Jews. 

The  Rev.  J.  B.  Cartwright  was  happily  still  in  the  chaplaincy 
in  Palestine  Place.  **  The  increasing  number,"  he  said,  "  of 
Israelites  baptized  in  the  Christian  faith,  in  various  parts  of 
the  world,  is  one  of  the  most  encouraging  features  of  our 
time."  During  this  decade  (1850 — 9)  there  were  299  Jewish 
baptisms  in  the  Society's  church. 

The  Rev  J.  C.  Reichardt,  Messrs.  E.  MargoHouth,  W. 
Whitehead,  W.  Caiman,  W.  Mason,  and  N.  Niirnberg 
were  working  in  the  London  mission  during  this  Period. 
Cartwright  was  the  Principal  of  the  Missionary  College  till 
1856.  He  was  succeeded,  in  1857,  by  the  Rev.  T.  D.  Halsted, 
who  held  the  post  till  1859,  when  the  College  was  suspended. 

Amongst  voluntary  and  faithful  workers  in  the  cause,  the 
name  of  Miss  Sarah  Hooper  will  ever  be  remembered. 
Though  not  connected  with  the  Society,  she  for  many  years 
did  a  good  work  amongst  the  Jewesses  of  London  until  her 
death  in  January  1858.  A  member  of  Dr.  Marsh's  con- 
gregation at  Reading,  as  a  girl,  she  took  much  interest  in 
the  Jews.  When  she  removed  to  London,  and  became  a 
parishioner  of  Dr.  McCaul,  she  devoted  her  time  and 
money  to  their  service.  Jewesses  assembled  at  her  house  in 
large  numbers  (the  average  weekly  attendance  reaching  168), 
whom  she  helped  both  in  body  and  soul,  supplying  tickets  for 
bread  and  coals  to  them  at  half-price.  In  one  year  Jewesses 
paid  £1^1  1 8s.  as  their  share. 

A  new  departure  was  made  in  the  London  work  during 
1851,  a  Hebrew  Christian  missionary,  S.  P.  Rosenfeldt,  being 
told  off  to  work  on  parochial  lines  in  Whitechapel,  under  the 
rector,  the  Rev.  W.  W.  Champneys,  afterward  vicar  of  St. 
Pancras  and  Dean  of  Lichfield.  He  continued  in  the 
post  throughout  this  Period.  This  was  the  germ  of  the 
Society's  parochial  missions,  by  which  either  an  annual 
grant  of  money,  or  the  services  of  a  missionary,  are  given   to 


incumbents  of  parishes  in  London  and  elsewhere.  Since 
that  time  this  plan  has  been  greatly  developed,  and  has  very 
much  to  recommend  it  in  London,  and  other  English  towns 
with  large  Je^^-ish  populations.  The  missionar>-  curate  obtains 
access  to  the  Jews,  inasmuch  as  he  approaches  them  as 
a  clerg>'man  of  the  Established  Church,  and  not  as  the  agent 
of  a  so-called  "  Conversionist  Societ>\"  who  is  commonly 
looked  upon  with  some  suspicion.  The  same  may  be  said  of 
la\'-workers,  male  or  female.  Parochial  work  is  likely  to  be 
more  solid  and  satisfactory.  It  is  done  in  a  clearly  defined 
area,  and  can  be  followed  up  at  will  ;  it  is  under  the  immediate 
super\'ision  of  the  incumbent  of  the  parish,  and  it  can  call  to 
its  aid  existing  and  often  manifold  useful  organisations. 
The  mission  hall,  the  class,  the  school,  the  mothers'  meeting, 
the  guild  can  all  be  utilized. 

In  1857  a  sum  of  money,  producing  £$  a  year,  was  placed 
in  the  hands  of  the  Bishop  of  London  as  an  endowment  for  a 
sermon  to  be  preached  yearly  in  one  of  the  London  churches 
on  the  subject  of  the  Jews.  This  sermon  is  still  preached 

Turning  to  the  Provinces,  we  have  to  record  that 
Mr.  J.  G.  Lazarus  was  transferred  from  Liverpool  to 
Manchester  in  1850,  having  witnessed  fifty-six  Je\\'ish 
baptisms  within  nine  years.  In  the  same  year  the  Rev. 
J.  Baylee,  D.D.  took  temporary  charge  of  the  mission. 
From  1852  the  Rev.  David  Jacob  Hirsch,  a  Jewish  convert 
and  minister  of  the  German  Church,  who  had  been  ordained 
b}-  the  Bishop  of  Chester,  received  from  the  Society  an  annual 
grant  for  his  assistance  in  its  Jewish  mission  at  Liverpool.  He 
did  a  good  work,  and  was  instrumental  in  leading  many  Jews 
to  a  knowledge  of  our  Lord  Jesus  Christ.  He  held  ser\'ices 
for  them  in  German  and  in  Hebrew,  and  instructed  a  large 
number  of  enquirers  during  this  and  the  following  decade. 

The  occupation  of  Manchester  as  a  centre  dates  from  the 
\'ear  1850,  although  it  had  before  that  been  repeatedly 
visited  by  the  Society's  missionaries.  Lazarus  was  the 
first    resident    missionar}-.      Notwithstanding    weak   health. 

I859J  AMSTERDAM  283 

he  seems  to  have  made  good  use  of  his  opportunities.  He 
was  succeeded  in  1854  by  Mr.  P.  I.  Hcrshon,  who  had 
received  his  education  in  the  Jerusalem  College,  and  had  been 
superintendent  of  the  Jerusalem  House  of  Industry  for  some 
time.  He  held  the  post  for  two  years,  resigning  it  to  take 
charge  of  the  Palestine  Model  Farm  for  Jewish  converts.  In 
1857-8,  and  again  from  i860  to  1862,  the  Rev.  N.  Niirnberg 
had  charge  of  the  work. 

We  must  just  mention  one  other  station  in  England^  namely 
Bristol,  where  Mr.  P.  Sternchuss  took  up  the  work  in  1850 
for  a  short  time,  being  succeeded  in  1854  by  Mr.  F.  G. 
Kleinhenn,  who  was  followed  in  1856  by  Mr.  E.  R. 
Hodges.  Many  towns  in  the  South  were  \  ibited  from  Bristol 
during  this  Period. 

An  interesting  circumstance  was  the  visit  to  Plymouth  in 
1 854  of  Mr.  H.  C.  Reichardt,  who  for  five  weeks  gave  spiritual 
instruction  to  the  Russian-Jewish  prisoners  of  war  in  the  Mill 
Bay  Prison.  The  next  year  Kleinhenn  visited  them  more 
than  once,  and  found  them  very  desirous  to  have  Old  and 
New  Testaments,  and  to  converse  with  him. 

Crossing  over  to  Holland,  where,  in  Chapter  XXIV.  we  left 
Mr.  Pauli  at  work  in  Amsterdam,  we  find  him  with  more 
enquirers  under  instruction  in  1850  than  in  any  previous  year. 
The  baptism  of  a  young  catechumen  was  forcibly  prevented 
by  his  abduction  by  the  Jews  on  the  way  to  church. 

The  death  in  February  185 1  of  one  of  the  oldest  Gentile 
members  of  the  congregation  shewed  the  kindly  feeling 
which  existed  among  its  members.  All  the  converts 
determined  to  follow  the  corpse  to  the  Protestant  burying- 
ground,  which  was  situated  in  the  Jewish  quarter,  and  thus 
to  profess  by  their  presence  the  blessed  name  of  Him  who 
had  delivered  them  from  the  power  of  death  and  the  grave. 
This  occasioned  intense  excitement  among  the  Jews,  who 
assembled  in  enraged  crowds  around  the  small  band  of 
Hebrew  believers,  whom  the  utmost  exertions  of  the  police 
could  scarce  rescue  from  their  furious  attack.  Through 
God's   goodness   none   received   injury' ;   and    Pauli,  against 

284  WESTERN    MISSION    FIELD  [1850 

whom  the  anger  of  the  Jewish  multitude  was  chiefly  directed, 
was  also  mercifully  delivered  from  this  extremely  critical 
situation.  The  presence,  on  such  a  solemn  occasion,  of  a 
body  of  Hebrew  Christians  in  the  midst  of  the  Jewish 
quarter,  was,  no  doubt  a  manifestation  of  faith  in  Christ,  such 
as  never  before  had  been  made  in  that  locality. 

A  very  great  stir  was  also  created  in  1852,  by  the  profession 
of  Christianity  by  a  wealthy  and  influential  Jew,  Sir  Moses 
Salvador,  who  was  of  an  ancient  and  powerful  Portuguese 
Jewish  family.  One  of  his  ancestors  built  Salvador  House, 
near  the  Royal  Exchange,  London.  The  senior  branch  of 
the  family  settled  in  Amsterdam,  when  the  Jews  were  expelled 
from  Spain,  and  brought  with  it  immense  wealth.  Sir  Moses 
Salvador  was  led,  by  the  providence  of  God,  through  most 
extraordinary  ways  to  Christ  These  terminated  in  the 
conviction  and  public  profession  that  Jesus  is  the  Son  of 
God,  the  true  Messiah.  Two  years  before  his  baptism  he 
said  to  Pauli,  "  The  time  will  come,  when  you  will  hear  that 
I  am  working  with  you  for  the  spiritual  deliverance  of  our 
brethren."  That  time  had  arrived,  and  he  began  to  deliver 
in  Amsterdam  every  Thursday  evening,  in  public,  a  most 
interesting  course  of  lectures  on  Christianity,  which  were 
attended  by  some  of  the  most  influential  and  respectable 
Jews.  This  event  caused  no  common  agitation,  and  at  the 
same  time  no  small  perplexity  to  the  rabbis,  especially  of 
the  Portuguese  synagogue. 

Pauli  continued  his  untiring  labours  both  at  Amsterdam 
and  in  the  provinces,  there  being  few  towns  not  visited  by 
him  or  his  assistant  almost  every  year.  The  translation  of 
Dr.  McCauFs  Old  Paths  into  Dutch  was  of  immense  ser\'ice 
to  the  mission,  by  the  blows  which  it  dealt  to  Talmudism. 
The  Old  Testament  in  Dutch,  placed  in  parallel  columns 
with  the  Hebrew  text  by  the  Rev.  J.  C.  Reichardt,  was 
likewise  a  great  help. 

The  work  in  Russian  Poland  was  brought  to  a  premature 
termination  by  the  Crimean  war.  It  was  hardly  to  be 
expected  that  the  presence  of  an  English  mission  would  be 

i859J  CRIMEAN    WAR  285 

tolerated  in  Russia  at  that  crisis.  In  May  1854  the 
missionaries  were  placed  under  various  restrictions,  and,  on 
December  28th  of  the  same  year  they  received  notice  to  leave 
the  country  within  three  weeks.  It  was  a  sudden  uprooting 
of  the  work  of  thirty-three  years,  during  which  as  many  as 
361  Jews  had  been  baptized,  and  the  Gospel  brought  before 
the  notice  of  thousands.     In  the  report  for  1853,  we  read  : 

Since  the  circulation  of  the  first  200  copies  of  the  New  Testament,  and  2,000 
tracts,  by  Dr.  McCaul,  during  the  fair  held  in  Warsaw  in  the  summer  of  182 1, 
which,  by  the  Jews  themselves,  were  carried  all  over  the  country,  some  thousands 
of  copies  of  New  Testaments,  and  perhaps  ico,ocx)  tracts  have  been  also 
circulated,  especially  on  the  numerous  journeys  made  since  that  time.  Besides 
the  Hebrew  Scriptures,  more  than  10,000  Bibles  in  diiTerent  languages,  and 
upwards  of  15,000  New  Testaments  have  been  circulated,  of  which  many  have 
come  into  the  hands  of  Jews.  The  aggregate  influence  of  all  these  circumstances 
may  have  been  productive  of  far  greater  blessings  than  are  apparent.  * 

One  of  the  most  telling  testimonies  ever  borne  to  mission 
work  was  the  touching  exhibition  of  feeling  witnessed  on  the 
departure  of  the  missionaries  for  Hamburg.  When  Becker 
and  West  with  their  families  arrived  at  the  Warsaw  railway 
station,  crowds  of  people  of  all  classes,  Jews  and  converts, 
Protestants  and  Roman  Catholics,  and  members  of  the  Greek 
Church,  together  with  their  own  more  intimate  friends, 
had  assembled  to  take  a  last  farewell  of  them  ;  indeed 
it  may  well  be  doubted  whether  the  railway  station 
ever  before  exhibited  such  a  spectacle,  and  whether  exiles 
ever  left  the  Russian  dominions  so  universally  regretted  and 
respected,  and  with  such  heartfelt  blessings  following  them, 
as  was  the  case  when  these  devoted  and  long-tried  mis- 
sionaries to  the  Jews  in  Poland  were  compelled  to  abandon 
the  sphere  of  their  labours.  It  is  also  an  important  fact,  that, 
whilst  preparing  to  leave,  they  never  heard  the  slightest 
exultation  on  the  part  of  the  Jews  on  account  of  their 
expulsion  ;  on  the  contrary,  they  experienced  uniform  kindness 
and  sympathy  ;  many  expressed  their  regret,  and  listened 
attentively  to  the  Gospel  message. 

Thus  closed  the  Poland  Mission,  just  three  weeks  before  the 
death  of  the  Emperor  Nicholas  I.      It  was  a  great  blow  to 

•  Forty- fifth  Report  (1853),  p.  58. 

286  WESTERN   MISSION   FIELD  [1850-9 

the  Society,  and  the  destruction  of  a  highly  successful  work. 
At  the  conclusion  of  the  war  strenuous  efforts  were  made  to 
have  the  prohibition  removed,  and  in  1857  a  deputation  con- 
sisting of  the  Earl  of  Shaftesbury,  Dr.  McCaul,  the  Revs.  J. 
C.  Rcichardt,  and  C.  J.  Goodhart  waited  upon  the  Russian 
Ambassador  in  London,  who  referred  the  matter  to  H.  I.  M. 
the  Emperor.  After  a  delay  of  half  a  year  an  unfavourable 
reply  was  received,  and  Russian  Poland  remained  closed  to 
the  Society  for  20  years. 

Turning  to  Austrian  Poland  we  find  that  the  Cracow  Mission 
was  reinforced  in  1850  by  Victor  Stockstiel,  a  native  of 
Cracow,  and  a  student  in  the  Hebrew  College.  In  the  same 
year  the  Rev.  L.  Hoff  paid  his  first  visit  to  England  for  just 
upon  twenty  years,  having  left  it  for  Warsaw  in  1827.  From 
that  year  to  185 1  fifty-five  Jews  had  been  baptized  at  Cracow, 
in  the  Protestant  Church,  whilst  a  larger  number  had  joined 
the  Roman  Catholic  communion. 

For  some  years  after  this,  work  was  carried  on  by  a  resident 
agent  in  Cracow,  the  Rev.  A.  Otremba.  In  1858  he  reported 
eight  baptisms,  and  one  hundred  converts  in  his  congregation. 
In  1859  he  recorded  two  baptisms. 

Glancing  at  Prussian  Poland  we  find  that  Fraustadt  was  re- 
occupied  from  1855  to  i860,  by  Messrs.  Blum  and  Waschit- 
scheck.  The  former  died  in  London  on  September  28th  of 
that  year.  His  history  was  very  interesting.  Converted  to 
Christ  when  a  rabbi,  he  left  his  wife  and  family  for  a  time,  whilst 
he  was  being  educated  in  the  Society's  College.  When  he 
rejoined  them,  his  wife  and  four  children  were  baptized  ;  he  was 
then  stationed  at  Frankfort,  subsequently  at  Lissa,  and  finally  at 
Fraustadt.  Graf  was  still  in  charge  of  Posen,  to  the  missionary 
staff  at  which  Mr.  W.  Fenner  was  added  in  1856,  and  Mr.  J. 
G.  Zuckertort  in  the  following  year.  For  many  years  the 
staff  was  a  very  large  one,  consisting  of  three  missionaries 
and  from  twelve  to  fifteen  schoolmasters,  and  the  work  pro- 
portionately important,  on  account  of  the  schools,  of  which 
we  have  spoken  in  Chapter  XXIV. 


THE  WESTERN   MISSION   FIELD — {continued). 

BelUon  and  Blesenthal  at  Berlin— Hartmann  occupies  Breslau— Lange,  Zuckertort 
and  A.  I.  Behrens— Poper*4  work  at  Frankfort-on-the-Maln— Lar^e  number  of 
converts  — Rhine  Provinces  —  Hausmelster  at  Strasburit  —  Hechler  and  Schlo- 
chow  at  Colmar  and  Miilhausen— Work  In  Southern  States  of  Oemumy— Markhelm 
at  Paris— P.  W.  Becker  and  West  at  Hamburg,  Konlffsbers,  Danzlff  and  Stettin 
— Moritz  at  Oothenburgr— *'Kaoietz-Cross**  aylUtlon— Adriatic  Missions- Wright 
at  Trieste— Klelnhenn  goes  to  Bucharest— Salonica  and  Constantinople— Lord, 
Ooldberg,  Stem,  and  Newman. 

THE  German  stations  must  now  come  under  review. 
At  Berlin,  Messrs.  Bellson  and  Bicsenthal  continued 
their  labours,  and  the  staff  in  1852  had  risen  to 
five  agents,  and  in  1857  to  seven,  the  Rev.  Dr.  Klee  being 
included  in  the  number.  The  work  naturally  increased 
in  proportion  ;  as  many  as  344  towns  and  villages  being 
visited  during  the  year  in  the  district,  including  the  pro- 
vinces of  Brandenburg,  Pomerania,  Saxony,  and  Brunswick, 
whilst  the  circulation  of  Old  and  New  Testaments  rose  to  an 
unprecedented  figure.  The  use  of  another  church  was 
obtained  for  Sunday  and  week-day  services.  A  mission 
school  had  about  forty  children,  and  the  reports  for  this 
Period  shew  abounding  activity  on  the  part  of  the  missionaries. 

The  permanent  occupation  of  Breslau  may  be  dated  from 
the  arrival  in  1850  of  the  Rev.  J.  C.  Hartmann,  who  had 
for  some  years  the  assistance  of  Dr.  Neumann,  and  two  other 
Jewish  fellow-helpers,  Messrs.  Kriiger  and  Romann,  and 
others  to  be  mentioned  further  on. 

Writing  in  1853  Hartmann  said  : 

The  results  of  our  labours,  although  not  seen  in  a  large  number  of  baptisms, 
are  as  follows — hundreds  and  thousands  of  Jews  have  had  the  (lospel  preached  to 
them,  both  in  my  church,  in  which  there  have  always  l)een  some,  in  the  siieets, 
and  in  other  places. 

288  WESTERN    MISSION    FIELD  [1850 

This  might  have  been  said  at  any  period  of  this  mission. 
In  1855  when  the  Warsaw  mission  was  broken  up,  Messrs. 
J.  G.  Lange  and  J.  G.  Zuckertort  were  added  to  the  staff, 
and  also  the  Rev.  A.  I.  Behrens,  from  Jassy,  thus  making 
seven  missionaries  in  all,  who  apparently  found  full  scope  for 
their  united  labours,  visiting  a  large  number  of  towns  and 
villages  in  Silesia,  Hungary,  Poland,  and  Austrian  Silesia,  and 
finding  encouragement  in  their  work,  both  in  the  capital  and 
in  the  provinces.  Jews  took  much  interest  in  the  Holy 
Scriptures,  of  which  the  mission  circulated  not  a  few  copies, 
although  this  work  was  naturally  done  to  a  much  larger 
extent  by  the  British  and  Foreign  Bible  Society. 

Dr.  Henry  Poper  was  in  charge  of  the  Frankfort-on-the- 
Main  mission  in  1850.  He  was  in  labours  most  abundant,  both 
in  town  and  district,  and  had  many  seals  to  his  ministry. 

The  circulation  of  Scriptures  was  a  decided  feature  during 
this  Period,  and  aroused  the  Jews  to  such  activity  that  they 
actually  established  a  Bible  Society  of  their  own.  With  re- 
ference to  this  result  a  Jewish  rabbi  said  : 

The  ver\'  idea  that  the  dissemination  of  Hebrew  Bibles  proceeds  from 
Christians — a  circumstance  which  in  itself  reflects  great  credit  upon  the  pious  zeal 
of  our  Christian  brethren,  particularly  in  England — ought  to  urge  us  on  to  be  for 
our  part  equally  zealous  in  the  circulation  of  the  Word  of  God. 

Another  remark  was  : 

Fifty  ye.irs  has  Israel's  inheritance — the  Bible — been  the  monopoly  of  our 
Christian  brethren,  upon  whom  it  reflects  honour  to  have  shewn  to  the  people 
called  of  God,  what  ought  to  be  done  to  efiect  a  general  dissemination  of  the 
Word  of  God. 

No  year  passed  during  Poper's  labours  at  Frankfort  without 
the  record  of  one  or  more  baptisms.  He  stated  that  he  had 
opportunities  of  speaking  for  Christ  to  2,500  Jews  in  1853.  The 
number  of  converts  known  to  him  in  that  year  was  42.  Ip 
1856  the  number  had  risen  to  90,  three  of  whom  were  clergymen, 
and  several  were  teachers  in  colleges  and  schools.  In  1859 
Poper  spoke  of  more  than  100  converts  known  to  him,  and 
bore  testimony  to  their  increasing  numbers,  and  general 
consistency  of  conduct.  He  reported  that  there  probably 
were  from  five  hundred  to  a  thousand  converts  in  the  whole 


The  Rev.  J.  A.  Hausmeister  continued  his  excellent  work 
at  Strasburg,  to  which  station  he  had  been  appointed  in  1832. 
During  the  first  seventeen  years  of  residence  he  baptized  forty- 
two  Jews  ;  and  during  the  last  eleven  years,  as  far  as  can  be 
ascertained,  twelve.  He  used  to  visit  Paris  nearly  every 
year,  and  sometimes  Miilhausen,  Metz  and  Nancy.  Luxem- 
burg, Wiirtemberg  and  Baden  also  came  in  for  a  share  of  his 
visitations.  As  there  appeared  room  for  more  than  one 
labourer  in  the  district,  with  its  50,000  Jews  or  more,  the  Rev. 

D.  Hechler  was  stationed  at  Colmar  in  1855  and  the  Rev. 

E.  M.  Schlochow  in  1856.  The  latter,  however,  removed  to 
Strasburg  in  the  same  year,  when  Mr.  J.  B.  Ginsburg  was 
attached  to  the  mission  for  a  short  time. 

In  1858  Miilhausen  became  the  chief  station  of  the  district, 
and  was  in  charge  of  Schlochow. 

Going  further  south,  to  the  kingdoms  of  Bavaria,  Wurtem- 
berg,  and  Baden,  we  may  say  that  they  had  periodically  been 
visited  by  missionaries  stationed  in  other  parts  of  Germany, 
and  a  colporteur  was  employed  at  Nuremberg  from  1844  to 
1852  ;  but  it  was  not  until  1853,  when  Mr.  S.  Deutsch  took 
up  his  residence  at  Fiirth,  in  Bavaria,  that  any  place  in  these 
kingdoms  became  an  actual  station  of  the  Society.  It  was 
his  nominal  residence  until  1858,  but  meeting  with  much 
opposition  in  Bavaria,  he  subsequently  made  Wiirtemburg 
the  chief  scene  of  his  operations.  When  the  restrictions  were 
removed,  he  had  access  to  a  large  number  of  Jews  in  Bavaria, 
and  also  visited  Hesse,  Hanover,  Marburg,  Cassel  and  many 
other  places.  In  1858  Nuremberg  became  the  residence 
of  Deutsch,  who  had  Dr.  Adelberg  to  help  him  from  1850. 

In  consequence  of  the  general  facilities  for  missionary  work 
afforded  to  the  Rev.  J.  A.  Hausmeister,  of  Strasburg,  during 
his  periodical  visits  to  Paris,  and  also  of  a  favourable  report 
from  the  Rev.  J.  C.  Reichardt,  who  visited  the  capital  in 
1854,  the  Committee  decided  to  open  a  station  there  in  1856, 
and  Mr.  H.  A.  Markheim  was  chosen  as  the  first  resident 
missionary.     His  opinion  was  that  Paris,  with  its  then  22,000 


290  WESTERN    MISSION   FIELD  [1850 

Jews,  presented  an  extensive  field  of  usefulness,  although 
their  low  religious  tone  was  a  decided  drawback  to  mission 
progress.  There  was  no  great  desire  to  hear  about  Christ- 
ianity, or  for  controversy,  such  as  is  generally  found  amongst 
bigoted  and  zealous  Jews  ;  consequently  the  circulation  of  the 
Holy  Scriptures  was  limited.  Markheim  had  a  fair  number 
of  enquirers,  of  whom  twelve  were  baptized. 

We  must  now  visit  Hamburg,  which,  after  the  departure  of 
Moritz  in  1840,  had  been  occasionally  visited  by  the  Society's 
missionaries  until  1855,  when  the  mission  was  again 
organized.  The  compulsory  closing  of  the  Poland  mission 
in  1855  offered  an  opportunity  for  the  resumption  of 
missionary  operations  in  this  field.  Consequently,  the  Revs. 
F.  W.  Becker  and  J.  C.  H.  West  proceeded  to  Hamburg, 
which  at  that  time  had  some  11,000  residential  Jews,  mostly 
Talmudists,  the  Reform  Jews  having  only  one  synagogue, 
or  '*  New  Temple,"  as  it  was  called.  There  the  missionaries 
found  only  four  converts ;  but,  at  Ludwigslust,  they  were  shewn 
from  the  parish  register  that  a  great  many  Jews  had  been 
baptized  there  in  the  course  often  years.  The  greatest  number 
of  baptisms  in  one  year  was  fifteen,  and  the  smallest  three.  The 
missionaries  held  services  for  Jews  in  the  French  Reformed 
Church  at  Hamburg.  Notwithstanding  their  unwearied  efforts, 
and  the  friendly  intercourse  they  were  able  to  hold  with  them, 
only  a  few  presented  themselves  for  baptism  at  their  hands. 
A  great  many  towns  in  the  district  were  visited  from  time  to 
time,  such  as  Liibeck,  Altona,  Hanover,  Kiel,  Hildesheim, 
Bremen,  Bremerhaven,  and  other  places. 

Turning  to  the  Baltic  Provinces,  we  find  that  the  Rev. 
E.  M.  Tartakover  was  stationed  at  Konigsberg  and  the 
Rev.  C.  Noesgen  at  Danzig  during  this  Period.  Stettin 
also  had  a  resident  missionary,  Mr.  C.  G.  Petri,  from  1843 
to  1853,  and  likewise  Oleczko.  When  the  missionaries 
were  banished  from  Poland  in  1855,  Mr.  T.  W.  Goldinger 
was  sent  to  Oleczko,  where  he  remained  till  1858.  It 
was   hoped    that    it    might    be    a    favourable    station    for 

i859]  MORITZ    AT    GOTHENBURG  291 

influencing  Polish  Jews,  but  frontier  regulations  prevented 
them  coming  out  from  Russia  into  Prussia.  Goldinger, 
however,  visited  many  towns  in  Poland,  distributing  the 
Scriptures,  but  it  was  felt  that  Konigsberg  was  the  better 
centre,  and  so  he  was  transferred  in  1858  to  that  station. 

We  have  now  to  revert  to  the  year  1843,  when  J.  C.  Moritz 
finally  settled  at  Gothenburg,  where  he  endeavoured  to  renew 
his  acquaintance  with  those  Jewish  families  amongst  whom 
he  had  found  an  entrance  for  his  labours  during  his  former 
residence  in  Sweden.  His  reports  shew  that  the  message  of 
the  Gospel  was  less  acceptable  to  the  Jews  than  in  former 
years,  not  so  much  from  bigotry  and  Talmudical  zeal,  as 
from  a  spirit  of  perfect  indifference,  owing  to  the  spread  of 
rationalistic  views.  Moritz,  however,  was  encouraged  by  occas- 
ionally meeting  with  proofs  that  his  former  visits  to  that 
country  had  not  been  fruitless.  The  comparatively  small 
number  of  Jews  residing  at  Gothenburg  enabled  him  to  make 
extensive  missionary  journeys  in  Denmark  and  Sweden, 
during  which  he  visited  every  town  where  any  considerable 
number  of  Jews  resided,  and  made  a  lengthened  stay  in 
Copenhagen  and  Stockholm,  as  well  as  in  Hamburg.  In 
Stockholm,  weekly  lectures  were  delivered  to  the  Jews,  and 
were  well  attended.  The  Jews  having  applied  in  vain  to  the 
Government  to  expel  Moritz  from  the  town,  or  at  least  to 
prohibit  his  delivering  public  lectures,  their  preacher.  Dr. 
Seligmann,  and  the  elders  of  the  Jewish  congregation,  publicly 
pronounced  an  excommunication  against  all  those  Jews  who 
should  visit  the  missionary  or  receive  him  into  their  houses. 
At  Gothenburg,  also,  lectures  were  delivered,  and  attended 
by  Jews  and  Jewesses.  The  King  and  Queen  of  Denmark, 
as  well  as  many  of  the  higher  authorities,  noticed  and  en- 
couraged Moritz*s  labours  in  the  most  kind  and  gracious 
manner.  Although  he  failed  to  obtain  the  royal  permission 
to  preach  in  public  to  the  Jews,  no  hindrances  were 
allowed  to  be  thrown  in  the  way  of  his  quietly  pursuing  his 
vocation,  which  he  did  for  thirty-five  years.  We  may 
anticipate  by  saying  that  he  retired  from  active  service  on 

U  2 

292  WESTERN   MISSION   FIELD  [1850 

January  1st,  1868,  after  forty-two  years'  connexion  with  the 
Societ>-,  d>'ing  the  following  month  at  the  good  old  age  of 
cight\'-t\i'o,  and,  like  his  wife,  who  had  died  in  1864,  leaving 
all  his  property  to  the  Societ>'.  Nearly  thirty  years  afterward, 
in  1897,  a  further  small  sum  was  received,  in  reversion,  under 
his  wilL 

About  the  year  1850  Moritz  compiled  a  list  of  seventy-six 
members  of  the  house  of  Israel  who  had  been  instructed  by 
him  up  to  that  time,  and  after^\'a^d  received  into  the  Church 
of  Christ  by  baptism  ;  twenty-six  at  Hamburg,  four  at 
Copenhagen,  four  at  Neuwied  (in  1828  and  1829),  twenty- 
one  at  Frankfort-on  the-Main  (1829  to  1833),  three  at  Stock- 
holm (1833  to  1834),  five  at  Danzig  (1840  to  1843),  and 
thirteen  at  Gothenburg  (1843  to  1850).  These  had  almost 
all  been  baptized  at  different  places,  and  in  various  parts  of 
Europe.  Statistics  for  the  subsequent  eighteen  years  are 

In  1858,  what  was  known  as**The  Kametz-Cross"  question, 
arose  on  the  Continent.  A  small  dot  accidentally  introduced 
over  the  kametz,*  making  it  look  like  a  cross,  in  the  i2mo 
edition  of  the  Society's  Hebrew  Bible,  made  a  great  stir  among 
the  Jews.  It  had  got  in,  as  is  often  the  case,  through  an  air 
bubble,  when  the  plates  were  cast  more  than  thirty  years 
before,  but  had  been  removed  when  the  plates  were  again 
revised,  in  1850.  It  was  detected  by  a  Jewish  rabbi  in  the 
older  impressions,  and  made  use  of  as  a  proof  of  wilful 
interpolation.  The  rabbi  wrote  the  following  letter  to  Dr. 
Philippsohn,  of  Magdeburg,  who  inserted  it  in  Die  allgeineine 
Zeitung  des  Judenthums  (No.  54,  p.  617)  : 

Trzcmeszno,  nth  October. — I  have  often  questioned  m}-5elf  whether  it  be 
right  to  permit  the  use  of  the  Bibles  of  missionary  societies,  especially  in  the 
synagogue  ?  Although  the  cheapness  of  the  editions  is  profitable  for  the  poor, 
as  it  enables  them  to  procure  a  Bible  for  themselves,  yet  we  must  expect  that 
these  societies  will  also  take  ad\-antage  of  it  to  sen-e  their  own  purpose.  Now  I 
have  discovered  that  in  several  eilitions  of  the  small  Bible,  which  is  also  used 
in  the  symigc^e,  in  the  passage  in  Deut.  iv.  29,  "I^hSn  'H  HN  DtrO  DHC^pai 
under  Dw*t2  is  placed  a  cross  instead  of  a  kametz.     It  is  true  that,  although  I 

*  Kametz  is  the  name  of  one  of  the  Hebrew  vowel-points,  shaped  like  a 
cross  without  the  top  (t). 

1859]  KLEINHENN    GOES    TO    BUCHAREST  293 

have  carefully  examined  the  Bibles,  I  have  found  no  other  similar  alteration ; 
nevertheless  it  may  easily  be  perceived  what  the  missionaries  intend  to  smuggle 
into  the  soul  of  the  attentive  reader  with  this  cross  in  this  characteristic  passage. 
Since  I  have  made  this  discovery  these  Bibles  have  disappeared  in  my  synagogue. 

We  must  now  say  a  word  about  the  Society's  Adriatic 
Missions.  Jews  have  long  been  numerous  in  the  two  chief 
cities  of  the  Adriatic,  Trieste  and  Venice,  and  in  the  Italian- 
speaking  towns  on  the  coast  of  Dalmatia.  Trieste  was  the 
earliest  of  the  places  selected  for  occupation  on  the  Adriatic. 
In  the  course  of  his  missionary  travels  on  the  Continent  in  the 
later  forties,  the  Rev.  B.  W.  Wright  had  visited  Jews  in  Italy, 
Sardinia,  and  Austria.  He  was  seconded  in  his  efforts  by  the 
British  and  Foreign  Bible  Society,  which  had  just  about  that 
time  established  depdts  in  Austria,  and  sent  twenty-five  col- 
porteurs to  circulate  the  Scriptures  there.  Wright  settled 
at  Trieste  in  1849,  as  British  Chaplain.  Though  not  engaged 
as  the  Society's  missionary,  he  worked  amongst  the  Jews, 
who  not  only  attended  his  church,  but  also  went  to  him 
for  instruction.  Two  of  them  were  baptized  in  1850. 
He  found,  however,  the  Italian  Jews  who  visited  Trieste 
more  accessible  than  the  resident  Austrian  Jews,  and  he 
occasionally  visited  the  Jews  in  Venice,  Padua,  Verona, 
Ferrara  and  Ancona.  He  also  went  to  Sinigaglia,  when 
thronged  by  Jews  from  all  parts  of  the  Mediterranean  at  the 
time  of  its  annual  fair.  Wright  gave  up  the  work  in  1853, 
when  appointed  Secretary  of  the  Society. 

In  June  1856,  Mr.  F.  G.  Kleinhenn  entered  upon  his 
thirty-two  years*  superintendence  of  the  Bucharest  mission. 
Of  the  faithful,  laborious,  and  indefatigable  work  which  he 
accomplished,  it  is  impossible  to  speak  here  even  in  the 
barest  outline.  Incessant  toil  was  the  order  of  the  day, 
morning,  noon  and  night.  Every  kind  of  place  was  visited  : 
inn,  coffee-room,  shop,  hospital,  prison,  market-place,  public 
garden,  road,  street,  workshop,  and  the  family  circle.  All 
classes  were  spoken  to.  Saturday  lectures,  mission  schools, 
and  New  Testament  distribution,  were  some  of  the  means 
employed.     The  seed  was  sown  in  Bucharest,  and  broadcast 

294  WESTERN    MISSION    FIELD  [1850 

throughout  the  Danubian  Principalities.  Kleinhenn's  annual 
reports  are  full  of  interesting  matter,  and  well  repay  careful 
perusal.  He  left  his  indelible  mark  upon  the  mission,  and 
raised  Bucharest  to  the  position  of  one  of  the  largest  and 
most  important  stations  of  the  Society. 

In  Chapter  XXIV.  we  left  the  Rev.  J.  O.  Lord  and  Mr.  J.  B. 
Goldberg  at  Salonica  in  the  midst  of  a  most  flourishing 
work.  The  next  year,  1850,  they  visited  Monastir  in 
Thessaly,  Larissa  and  Janissa  in  Albania,  and  Widdin  and 
Sophia  in  Bulgaria,  with  a  Jewish  population  of  some  twenty 
thousand,  and  met  with  encouraging  receptions  on  the  whole  ; 
whilst  at  Salonica  the  chief  feature  continued  to  be  the 
circulation  of  the  Scriptures. 

Lord  and  Goldberg  were  transferred  to  Constantinople  in 
185 1.  Although  the  Society  had  not  been  represented  there  for 
some  years,  the  Church  of  Scotland  had  conducted  a  mission, 
principally  among  the  Ashkenazim  ;  but  there  was  ample  room 
for  the  re-establishment  of  the  Society's  work,  which  was 
confined  to  the  Sephardim.  The  first  act  was  to  establish  a 
mission  school  at  Ortakeuy,  in  which  there  were  a  few  Jewish 
pupils.  In  1853  the  Rev.  H.  A.  Stern  succeeded  Lord,  and 
the  same  year  Dr.  M.  Leitner  was  appointed  medical  mis- 
sionary, and  opened  a  dispensary  at  Balat. 

The  circulation  of  the  Old  and  New  Testaments  and  tracts 
awakened  among  the  Jews  a  spirit  of  enquiry,  which  all  the 
hatred  of  the  Chachamim  could  not  stifle  or  destroy. 
They  published  their  cherem  against  all  who  should  dare 
to  obtain  or  read  any  Christian  publication,  but  it  proved 
altogether  in  vain.  The  books  were  still  bought,  and 
most  eagerly  read  ;  more  tracts  were  circulated  after  that 
circumstance  than  for  a  length  of  time  previously ;  and  the 
prohibition  only  had  the  effect  of  increasing  the  interest,  and 
exciting  the  curiosity  of  many  to  know  what  they  contained. 
A  colporteur  was  constantly  employed  in  distributing  Bibles 
and  tracts  in  the  Jewish  quarter,  and  many  and  touching  were 
the  conversations  which  he  had  with  the  Jews  while  pursuing 
his  labours.     Numbers  were  thus  reached  who  would  never 


have  come  in  the  way  of  other  opportunities.  The  Ortakeuy 
school  held  on  its  way  with  eighteen  pupils,  though  the 
number  was  increased  to  forty-seven  in  1855  ;  whilst  the 
new  school  at  Balat  had  ninety  scholars.  Other  schools 
were  opened  at  Tatavola  and  Piri-Pasha.  The  Jews  were 
anxious  to  send  their  children,  but  the  Chacham  Bashi 
threatened  banishment  or  imprisonment  to  those  who 
ventured  to  do  so.  There  were  sixteen  enquirers  in  1854, 
and  thirteen  in  1855  ;  of  these  five  were  baptized. 

Stern  was  absent  from  this  station  in  1856,  during  which 
year  he  made  his  famous  journey  to  Arabia,*  and  some 
months  of  the  following  year  were  spent  by  him  in  England. 
C.  S.  Newman,  fresh  from  the  Society's  Hebrew  College 
in  London,  was  added  to  the  staff  in  1857  ;  and  the  Rev.  J. 
Barclay,  afterward  the  third  Anglican  Bishop  in  Jerusalem, 
in  1858.  In  1859  S.  H.  Bronkhorst,  also  a  student  from 
the  College,  joined  the  mission,  only  to  leave  later  in  the 
year  for  Abyssinia  with  Stern. 

♦  See  page  302. 



Jenualem  a^n— NIcolayson  and  staff— HU  death  and  saccessor— Death  of 
Mlaa  Coeper— Her  Jewecses'  Institntion  becomes  the  property  of  the  Sodotap— 
Boys'  School  —  Safed  —  Daniel  obllflred  to  leave  —  5niyma  —  Bagdad— Operative 
Instftntlon— J.  H.  Bruhl  Joins  5tem— Arrival  of  Bppstein— 5tem  and  Bmhl  visit 
Persia— Stem's  Jouniey  through  Arabia. 

JERUSALEM  being  the  chief  Oriental  station  of  the 
Society,  demands  the  first  mention  in  this  chapter. 
When  this  Period  opened,  the  Rev.  John  Nicolayson 
was  still  in  charge,  though  in  the  providence  of  God  his 
ministry  was  drawing  to  a  close. 

Two  events,  each  remarkable  in  its  way,  may  be  chronicled, 
the  foundation,  in  the  winter  of  1849-50,  of  a  Society  for 
the  Literary  and  Scientific  Investigation  of  all  subjects 
connected  with  the  Holy  Land  (history,  language,  coins, 
agriculture,  natural  history,  customs,  &c.),  which  has  proved 
of  much  value.*  The  Bishop  was  the  patron,  and  James 
Finn,  British  Consul,  was  the  president,  and  the  general  body 
consisted  of  resident  and  corresponding  members.  The  other 
event  was  the  admission  to  Holy  Orders,  on  July  7th,  1850, 
of  the  Rev.  C.  L.  Lauria.  The  fact  that  he  had  been  a  rabbi 
invested  his  ordination  with  a  great  deal  of  interest  Since 
his  conversion,  of  which  we  have  spoken  on  page  237,  he  had 
received  missionary  training  in  the  Jerusalem  College. 

The  number  of  converts  at  Jerusalem  steadily  increased 
during  this  Period. 

The  mission  staff  in  1850  consisted  of  Nicolayson  himself, 
J.  E.  Sinyanki  and  H.  C.  Reichardt,  both  of  whom  were 

*  Jewish  Intelligence^  1850,  p.  241 :    185 1,  p.  76,  105. 

1850-9]  DEATH    OF    MISS    COOPER  297 

subsequently  ordained,  E.  B.  Hodges  and  D.  Daniel ; 
Conrad  Schick  and  Paul  Hershon,  at  the  House  of  Industry ; 
besides  colporteurs  and  Scripture-readers.  In  the  hospital 
Dr.  Macgowan  had  the  assistance  of  Mr.  R.  Sandford,  who 
left  the  same  year,  and  also  of  Mr.  E.  S.  Caiman  and  Mr. 
E.  MeshuUam.  During  the  Period  under  review,  the  Revs. 
H.  Crawford,  A.  J.  Behrens,  D.  Hefter  and  W.  Bailey  were 
added  to  the  mission  staff;  and  Mr.  R.  Sim,  Dr.  Simpson,  Mr. 
W.  E.  Atkinson  and  Mr.  A.  E.  Iliewitz  successively  worked 
under  Macgowan  in  the  medical  department.  The  Rev.  J.  C. 
Reichardt  had  charge  of  the  mission  for  fifteen  months  during 
a  temporary  absence  of  Nicolayson. 

The  death  on  October  6th,  1856,  of  Nicolayson,  the  first 
minister  of  Christ  Church,  in  the  fifty-third  year  of  his  age, 
after  a  residence  of  30  years  in  Palestine,  has  now  to  be 
recorded.  The  history  of  his  life  was  practically  the  history 
of  the  mission  in  Jerusalem.  He  was  buried  by  the  side  of 
Bishop  Alexander  in  the  English  cemetery,  where  were 
afterward  also  interred  the  mortal  remains  of  Bishop  Barclay, 
Dr.  Macgowan,  the  Rev.  S.  Burtchaell  and  others.  The 
epitaph  on  Nicolayson's  tomb  reads  thus  : — "  For  twenty- 
three  years  a  faithful  watchman  on  the  walls  of  Jerusalem, 
fearless  in  the  midst  of  war,  pestilence,  and  earthquake,  a 
master  in  all  the  learning  of  the  Hebrews  and  Arabs,  founder 
of  the  English  hospital,  builder  of  the  Protestant  Church ; 
lived  beloved,  and  died  lamented,  by  Christians,  Jews,  and 
Mohammedans."  He  was  succeeded  by  the  Rev.  H. 
Crawford  as  head  of  the  mission. 

The  death  of  Miss  Cooper  in  Jerusalem,  on  November  i8th, 
1859,  removed  one  who  had  been  a  successful  leader  in 
educational  work  amongst  Jewesses.  One  great  obstacle  to 
mission  work  in  the  East,  whether  amongst  Jews  or  others, 
was  the  low  and  neglected  condition  of  the  women  ;  and 
yet,  if  any  permanent  good  was  to  be  effected,  it  could 
only  be  done  by  their  elevation.  Nothing  special  had  been 
attempted  on  behalf  of  the  Hebrew  women  of  Jerusalem 
until  Miss  Cooper,  in  1848,  founded  an  institution  for 
Jewesses  which  was  destined  to  accomplish  a  great  work,  under 

298  EASTERN   MISSION   FIELD  [1850 

both  herself  and  the  Society.  The  establishment  orip^inally 
consisted  of  three  departments,  viz  : — i.  An  Industrial  or 
Working  School,  where  Jewish  women  were  taught  the  use 
of  the  needle,  and  paid  in  proportion  to  their  work.  2.  A 
Girls'  School,  for  the  gratuitous  education  of  daughters  of 
Hebrew  parents,  converts,  or  others,  boarded  and  clothed 
entirely  at  the  expense  of  the  institution.  3.  A  Bazaar,  for 
the  sale  of  work  done  by  the  Jewesses,  and  also  of  various 
articles  for  use  or  ornament,  contributed  by  friends  of  the 
establishment  towards  defraying  its  expenses. 

This  institution  was  transferred  by  Miss  Cooper  to  the 
Society  in  1859,  she  continuing  the  honorary  direction  as 
long  as  she  lived,  which  was  only  for  a  few  months. 

In  the  year  1858  there  was  opened  a  school  for  boys  in 
Jerusalem,  in  the  vicinity  of  Christ  Church,  in  a  building 
which  has  a  deep  interest  for  the  Society,  being  the  very 
first  property  possessed  in  the  Holy  City.  Under  its 
roof  it  was  that  Bishop  Alexander  had  held  his  first  ser- 
vices, the  "  upper  room "  serving  as  the  Society's  chapel. 
It  was  there  that  many  of  its  first  Jewish  converts  were 
baptized  by  him  ;  and  there,  too,  some  of  its  most  able 
and  devoted  missionaries  were  admitted  by  him  into  Holy 
Orders.  When  Christ  Church  was  consecrated  in  1849,  this 
house  became  the  residence  of  one  or  other  of  the  Society's 

The  school  was  opened  in  the  year  1858,  under  the 
superintendence  of  the  Rev.  W.  Bailey.  He  and  Mrs. 
Bailey  devoted  themselves  to  the  teaching  of  the  boys,  the 
number  being  small  at  first. 

Before  leaving  the  Holy  Land  we  must  visit  Galilee, 
where  we  find  Mr.  D.  Daniel  at  work  at  Safed  in  1850.  His 
experience  was  of  a  varied  character.  At  its  commencement 
great  disorder  was  caused  among  the  Jews  owing  to  the  con- 
fession by  an  enquirer  of  his  belief  in  Jesus  Christ.  He  was 
exposed  to  ill-treatment  from  his  unbelieving  brethren,  and 
compelled  to  take  refuge  in  the  mission  house.  It  became 
necessary  to  appeal  to  the  British  Consul  at  Jerusalem  for 
protection,  and  through  his  personal  interference  the  tumult 

i8S9]  EARLY    EFFORTS    AT    SAFED  299 

was  for  the  time  quelled.  In  the  end,  however,  the  enquirer 
proved  unable  to  resist  the  efforts  made  by  his  family  to 
shake  his  resolution,  and  he  returned  to  the  Jews.  These 
events,  as  might  have  been  expected,  led  to  a  complete 
interruption  for  a  long  time  of  all  intercourse  between  the 
missionary  and  the  Jews  at  Safed,  who  were  strictly 
prohibited  by  their  rabbis  from  all  dealings  with  him.  In 
course  of  time  some  again  called  at  the  mission  house,  but 
only  under  pretence  of  having  business  to  transact ;  they 
being  still  enjoined  by  their  rabbis  to  observe  absolute  silence 
and  reserve  on  matters  of  controversy  and  religious  discussion. 
Daniel's  patience  and  perseverance  were  very  severely  tried, 
and,  although  a  visit  which  Nicolayson  paid  to  this  station  in 
December  1850  greatly  cheered  him,  yet  his  health  and  that 
of  Mrs.  Daniel  having  become  greatly  impaired  by  the  trying 
nature  of  their  work,  they  retired  from  Safed  in  1852.  A 
native  assistant  still  remained  for  a  short  time,  but  the  first 
chapter  in  the  history  of  the  Safed  mission  may  be  said  to 
end  here.  Difficulties  had  proved  too  strong,  obstacles  too 
great.  The  unhealthiness  of  the  place,  owing  to  the  utter 
lack  of  sanitary  arrangements,  and  badly-built  houses,  com- 
bined with  continual  fierce  opposition,  and  hostility  on  the 
part  of  the  Jews,  constituted  seemingly  insuperable  difficulties. 
Eight  missionaries — Behrens,  Sternchuss,  Kiel,  Lord,Tymmim, 
Cohen,  Daniel,  and  a  native  assistant — had  laboured  there, 
either  conjointly  or  successively,  and  laboured  faithfully  and 
devotedly,  but  all  were  compelled  to  leave  for  the  reasons 
mentioned.  The  station  was  left  unoccupied,  but  not  aban- 
doned, for  thirty  years,  a  fact  much  to  be  regretted,  considering 
the  really  hopeful  outlook  of  the  work,  and  that  the  Society  had 
acquired  mission  premises  in  the  town.  The  labours  of  these 
early  pioneers  were  not,  however,  thrown  away,  for  they  laid 
the  foundation  of  the  mission  which  has  been  so  successfully 
developed  at  the  present  day. 

At  Smyrna,  at  the  opening  of  this  decade,  there  was  a 
depot  for  the  sale  of  the  Holy  Scriptures  in  charge  of  "  John 
the  Evangelist."      Mr.  J.  O.  Lord  visited  Smyrna  in   1851, 

300  EASTERN    MISSION    FIELD  [1850 

on  his  way  to  Constantinople,  and  spoke  to  many  Jews, 
whom  he  found  very  ignorant,  debased  and  unfriendly  to 
conversation  on  religious  subjects.  The  Rev.  J.  Nicolayson 
passed  through  Smyrna  in  March  1852,  and  in  the  same  year 
the  Rev.  P.  H.  Stemchuss  took  charge  of  the  mission,  but, 
owing  to  ill-health,  was  able  to  remain  there  only  till  1854. 
The  colporteur  stayed  on  till  1855. 

We  must  now  visit  Bagdad,  where,  in  1850  an  Operative 
Institution  for  enquiring  Jews  was  opened  through  the 
generosity  of  two  friends.  Shortly  afterward,  both  Vicars 
and  Sternchuss  resigned  through  ill-health.  The  former 
did  not  live  to  see  home  again,  but  died  at  Marseilles,  on 
August  17th,  1850,  and  Stern  was  thus  left  to  cope  alone  with 
the  duties.  In  the  same  month,  a  Jewish  doctor  was  baptized 
at  Bagdad,  an  incident  which  produced  a  severe  anathema 
from  the  rabbis  against  all  who  should  have  any  intercourse 
with  the  missionary.  "In  order  to  make  the  interdict  more 
impressive,"  wrote  Stern,  "  the  horn  was  blown,  and  all  the 
books  of  the  law  unrolled."  This  they  repeated  several  days. 
Jews,  in  large  numbers,  however,  began  to  call  at  the  dep6t 
which  Stern  opened  ;  and  he  affirmed  that  there  were  many 
who  had  learned  the  truth  from  reading  the  New  Testament. 
In  the  spring  of  185 1  another  baptism  was  recorded. 

Meanwhile  Stern  was  struggling  on  single-handed,  and  over- 
whelmed with  the  work,  but  undeterred  by  the  obstacles  which 
beset  him  on  every  side.  He  could  not,  however,  forbear  a 
cry  for  an  efficient  assistant,  and  Mr.  J.  H.  Briihl  joining  him 
toward  the  end  of  June  1851,  the  two  missionaries  continued 
by  every  means  in  their  power,  by  instruction  of  enquirers, 
circulation  of  Bibles  and  tracts,  preaching,  teaching,  and 
other  means,  to  advance  the  kingdom  of  God  in  Bagdad 
and  also  in  Persia.  Another  baptism  was  chronicled  in 
the  spring  of  1853.  There  was  reason  to  believe  that 
many  a  ray  of  sunshine  had  broken  through  the  thick 
darkness  which  had  so  long  overspread  these  eastern  regions. 
Numerous  were  the  openings.  Much  occurred  to  cheer 
the  hearts  of  the  toilers.     All  classes  of  Jews,  from  rabbis 

1859]  STERN    VISITS    PERSIA  301 

down  to  artizans,  were  ready  to  listen  to  their  message, 
and  yet  there  was  much  and  determined  opposition.  Briihl, 
who  had  received  ordination  at  Jerusalem  in  May  1853,  now 
took  charge  of  the  mission  on  the  transference  of  Stem  to 
Constantinople.  Passing  over  the  events  of  the  next  three 
years,  the  mission  was  strengthened  in  1857  by  the  accession 
of  J.  M.  Eppstein  and  Dubensky,  whom  Briihl,  who  had 
come  home  for  priest's  orders,  took  out  with  him. 

Their  arrival  was  auspiciously  signalized  by  the  acquisition 
of  a  mission  chapel,  in  which  English,  Arabic,  and  Hebrew 
services  were  held  ;  and,  by  means  of  a  printing  press,  the 
attention  of  Jews  was  drawn  to  the  mission.  The  strengthen- 
ing of  the  staff  made  it  possible  to  institute  a  system  of 
visitation  amongst  the  Jews,  as  well  as  to  devote  more  time 
to  their  reception  at  the  mission  house.  Day  and  Sunday 
schools  were  also  opened.  In  one  year  1,200  Old  Testaments, 
or  portions,  and  750  New  Testaments  were  distributed 
amongst  the  Jews.  The  baptism,  in  1858,  of  an  enquirer, 
subjected  him  to  severest  persecution.  Upon  Briihl  one  day 
remarking  to  a  rabbi  that  he  believed  there  were  as  many  as 
twenty  secret  believers  in  Bagdad,  the  rabbi  replied,  "  Say 
five  times  as  many,  and  you  will  be  quite  correct." 

Turning  to  Persia,  we  find  Stern,  at  the  opening  of  this 
Period,  making  a  missionary  tour  through  the  whole  of  the 
province  of  Azarbijan,  the  eastern  portion  of  Kurdistan  ;  and, 
in  1852,  visiting  Kermanshah  (twice),  Hamadan  (twice),  Teh- 
ran, Balfroosh,  Demavend,  and  other  towns  in  the  province  of 

When  he  arrived  at  Hamadan  the  first  time.  Stern  went 
straight  to  the  house  of  the  chief  rabbi,  Chacham  Eliyahu, 
with  whom  he  had  much  religious  intercourse  during  his  stay, 
as  well  as  with  other  Jews,  leaving  them  a  New  Testament,  and 
other  books,  and  tracts.  When  Stern  returned  to  Hamadan; 
Chacham  Eliyahu  gave  him  a  most  cordial  welcome.  Stern  said: 

I  spent  the  greater  part  of  my  time  in  the  mullah^s  house,  and  saw  several 
individuals  who  had  heard  the  preached  Gospel,  and  had  read  the  books  I  gave 
them,  not  without  benefit  to  their  souls. 

302  EASTERN    MISSION    FIELD  [1850 

Briihl  also  visited  Hamadan,  where  he  distributed  600 
New  Testaments. 

Persia  altogether  proved  a  most  encouraging  field  for  labour, 
and  the  Jewish  population  manifested  the  greatest  anxiety  to 
obtain  the  books  of  the  Society.  Day  after  day,  the  houses 
of  the  missionaries  were  filled  to  overflowing  with  Jews  of  all 
ages,  ranks,  and  station,  eager  to  enter  into  discussions  on  the 
subject  of  Christianity.  Their  minds  were  described  as  in  a 
state  of  agitation,  partly  enlightened,  partly  convinced,  partly 
believing.     Thus  was  the  seed  sown. 

In  1859  Eppstein  was  admitted  to  deacon's  orders  by 
Bishop  Gobat,  at  Jerusalem,  and  visited  Mosul  and  other 
places  on  his  journey.  In  the  same  year  missionary  litera- 
ture was  largely  circulated,  and  there  was  not  a  Jewish  house 
in  Bagdad  where  the  Scriptures  were  not  to  be  found. 

In  order  to  escape  persecution  an  enquirer  left  for  Bombay 
to  be  baptized  there.  For  the  same  reason  there  was  opened 
a  Home  for  Enquirers,  in  which  there  were  usually  five  or  six 
Jews  at  a  time. 

Owing  to  the  anarchy  then  prevailing,  it  was  not  safe 
to  remain  in  Persia  for  long,  so  a  return  was  made  to 

We  must  now  leave  Asia  on  our  way  to  Africa,  and  visit, 
for  a  short  time,  that  great  country  that  lies  between  the  two 
continents.  We  have  given  in  Chapter  XIX.  a  description  of 
Dr.  Wolff" 's  journey  in  Arabia.  Twenty  years  afterward  it 
was  visited  by  Stern,  who  left  Constantinople  on  July  12th, 
1856,  and  in  due  course  arrived  at  Hodeida,  a  port  on  the 
Red  Sea,  from  which  he  was  to  penetrate  into  the  interior  of 
the  country.  Before  his  departure  for  Sanaa  his  friends  at 
Hodeida  gave  him  a  letter  of  recommendation,  in  which  they 
called  him  "Dervish  Abdallah,"  the  latter  word  signifying  "The 
servant  of  God."    Stern  took  these  precautions  for  his  safety  : 

I  had  to  adopt  the  native  dress,  and  also  to  shave  my  beard,  head  and 
moustaches,  ^  P  Arabe  ;  and  the  metamorphosis  was  so  complete,  that  persons, 
with  whom  I  had  become  intimate,  doubted  my  identity. 

We  can  give  only  the  barest  outlines  of  this  wonderful 


journey,  which  was  fully  narrated  at  the  time  in  the  Society's 

The  first  Jewish  community  which  Stern  reached,  was  that 
of  Safon,  a  beautiful  town,  situated  on  one  of  the  projecting 
limbs  of  Mount  Harass,  where  he  got  a  hearty  welcome. 
The  report  that  a  man  had  arrived  who  spoke  Hebrew,  and 
yet  was  no  Jew,  dressed  like  a  Mohammedan,  and  yet 
despised  the  Koran,  caused  a  general  sensation,  and  young 
and  old,  women  and  children,  flocked  to  the  house  to  see 
him,  anxious  to  know  the  land  of  his  birth,  age,  creed, 
family,  parentage,  &c.  The  object  of  his  journey,  more  than 
anything  else,  excited  their  incredulity.  He  read  the  New 
Testament  and  discoursed  with  them  till  midnight. 

At  Sachara,  a  little  town  divided  into  two  separate  villages, 
Jewish  and  Mohammedan,  Stern  addressed  a  number  of  Jews 
at  the  house  of  the  chief  of  the  synagogue  ;  at  Menakha  also, 
he  held  a  discussion  with  several  Jews.  At  Uhr  he  held 
lengthened  conversations  with  many  who  had  been  attracted 
by  the  news  rapidly  circulated  through  the  adjacent  villages, 
that  a  friend  of  their  nation  had  come  to  visit  them. 

At  Sanaa  the  room  was  crowded  with  Jews  who  had  come 
to  see  him.     He  says  : 

It  was  an  affecting  sight  to  see  a  multitude  of  men,  many  of  whom  had  already 
reached  the  verge  of  life,  gathered  round  the  missionary,  and  receiving  from  his 
lips  an  account  of  that  Saviour,  to  whose  claims  prejudice  and  ignorance  had  so 
long  blinded  them I  am  convinced,  if  the  dread  of  their  Mohammedan  task- 
masters had  not,  like  a  menacing  spectre,  floated  before  their  minds,  not  one  among 
my  audience  would  have  left  the  room  without  avowing  his  faith  in  the  crucified 
Redeemer.  As  it  was,  two  remained,  and  these,  with  tears  streaming  down  their 
brown,  wan  cheeks,  pressed  the  New  Testament  to  their  quivering  lips,  and  in 
accents  of  intense  earnestness  ejaculated,  "Jesus,  thou  gracious  Redeemer  of  souls, 
pity  our  ignorance,  and  forgive  our  sins  !  *' 

Stern  preached  in  a  synagogue  one  Sabbath,  when  he  had 
an  audience  of  more  than  500.  Altogether  he  spent  twelve 
days  in  the  city  : 

During  the  whole  of  that  time,  with  the  exception  of  a  few  hours'  rest  by  night, 
every  minute  was  occupied  in  preaching  the  Gospel  to  Jew  and  Mohammedan. 
Among  the    former,  besides  the  two  converts  already  adverted  to,  there  were 

*  /ewish  Intelligence^  1857,  pp.  113,  138. 

304  EASTERN    MISSION   FIELD  [1850-9 

several  more  who  felt  the  converting  power  of  the  Gospel,  and  even  desired  to  be 

baptized,  a  request  with  which  their  peculiar  position  forbade  me  to  comply 

Gladly,  indeed,  would  I  have  prolonged  my  stay but  the  public  clamour  against 

me  began  to  be  too  loud  and  vehement  to  resist  it  much  longer. 

The  Jews  were  deeply  affected  when  they  heard  that  I  was  decided  on  leaving, 
and  group  after  group  flocked  into  my  room  to  give  me  the  parting  blessing. 
There  was  a  tone  of  solemn  earnestness  in  these  meetings — an  unconscious  expres- 
sion of  the  soul's  innermost  feeling ;  and  that  last  day  in  Sanaa,  when  old  and  young, 
the  man  already  advanced  in  the  chilly  vale  of  years,  and  the  rabbi  venerable  for 
his  learning,  pressed  forward  to  give  me  the  final  embrace,  or  to  imprint  the  kiss 
of  affectionate  remembrance  on  my  hand — that  last  day,  I  can  truly  say,  I  shall  ever 
consider  as  the  happiest  day  of  my  life — the  happiest  of  my  missionary  career. 

Stern  arrived  safely  at  Constantinople  on  January  ist,  1857, 
after  his  "  great  achievement,"  as  the  Committee  called  it  in 
the  report  for  that  year.     They  added  : 

We  may  well  feel  that  if  that  had  been  the  only  effort  of  this  year,  our  Society 
would  have  been  the  means  of  accomplishing  an  object  worth  its  existence. 



Lauria  and  Relchardt  at  Cairo  — Page  at  TunU— Markhelm  at  Oran— HU 
successful  missionary  Journeys  In  Algeria— Qinsburg  at  Constantino— Marlchelm 
in  Morocco. 

IN  Africa  we  first  visit  Egypt,  to  learn  what  the  Scx:iety 
was  doing  there  during  this  decade.  With  a  view  to 
rendering  the  mission  at  Cairo  more  efficient  a  school 
was  opened  in  the  autumn  of  1850.  Within  a  fortnight 
eight  scholars  were  in  attendance.  The  chief  rabbi,  in 
alarm,  preached  against  the  school,  urging  his  congregation 
to  "  put  away  the  strange  gods  among  you,"  />.,  the  Christians  ; 
to  burn  their  books,  to  attend  the  synagogue^  and  to  send 
their  children  to  Jewish  schools.  This  did  no  harm.  The 
school  prospered,  and  was,  directly  and  indirectly,  a  benefit  to 
the  mission.  On  Saturdays,  Mr.  Lauria's  house  was  "  full  of 
Jews,"  who  came  to  see  the  school,  which  was  thus  the  means 
of  bringing  them  into  contact  with  Christianity.  Jewish  op- 
position was  again  renewed,  and  with  similar  results.  In  1853 
twenty-four  boys  were  being  educated,  many  of  whom  attended 
the  church  services.  The  fruits  of  steady  perseverance  in 
the  work  were  appearing.  In  185 1  an  enquirer  was  baptized 
with  his  three  children,  and  another  later  on  in  the  same 
year,  whilst  eleven  Jews  were  under  instruction. 

Lauria  was  the  means  of  sending  many  Bibles,  Penta- 
teuchs.  Psalters,  New  Testaments,  several  hundred  copies  of 
St.  Matthew's  Gospel,  and  tracts  innumerable,  to  the  Jews 
in  the  Yemen.  Some  Jews  from  that  district  who  called  upon 
him  in  Cairo,  where  they  heard  the  Gospel,  asked  that 
a  large  supply  might  be  sent  to  Arabia.  Unfortunately 
Lauria's  health  gave  way,  and  he  had  to  leave  this  interesting 
sphere  of  work  in   1855.      The  same  year  the  Rev.   H,  C. 

306  SOUTHERN   SHORES    OF    MEDITERRANEAN        [1850 

Reichardt  succeeded  to  the  charge,  and  experienced  much 
encouragement  in  his  work  generally,  being  able  to  occupy  a 
dwelling  in  the  Jewish  quarter.  He  found  but  few  Jewish 
houses  without  a  copy  of  the  Scriptures,  which  had  been  very 
largely  circulated  during  past  years.  The  greatest  success 
was  apparent  in  the  school.  In  1855  as  many  as  95  boys 
received  instruction.  The  next  year  a  school  for  girls  was 
opened,  which  had  40  regular  pupils.  Reichardt  was  ordained 
deacon  at  Jerusalem  in  1857,  and  priest  in  the  following 
year.  The  mission  was  strengthened  by  the  appointment  in 
1857  of  an  assistant,  Mr.  Greiver.  A  Bible  depdt  was  opened 
in  1859.  As  many  as  fifty  Jews  were  present  at  one  time, 
indeed  the  dep6t  was  often  so  full  that  there  was  no  room  to 
move,  whilst  others  were  pressing  and  pushing  at  the  door  and 
window,  eager  to  hear  and  take  part  in  the  conversation.  A 
striking  feature  in  this  connexion  was  the  sale  of  several 
hundred  Bibles  to  a  Jew  at  Aden,  for  circulation  in  Arabia. 

Tunis  had  been  vacant  for  some  years  when  E.  A.  Page, 
who  had  been  trained  in  the  Hebrew  Missionary  College,  was 
sent  out  in  1853.  He  was  joined,  for  a  time,  by  H.  A. 
Markheim,  from  Oran.  The  latter's  presence  was  helpful,  and 
his  opinion  of  the  prospects  of  the  mission  was  most  encourag- 
ing. Embracing  a  very  large  field  of  labour,  and  carried  on 
amidst  a  vast  amount  of  superstition  and  ignorance,  it  was  not 
a  likely  soil  from  which  to  expect  many  enquirers  or  converts. 
Nevertheless,  the  growing  interest  evinced  by  the  Jews  toward 
Christianity,  and  their  increased  confidence  in  the  missionary 
as  displayed  in  a  variety  of  instances,  proved  that  their 
feelings  were  undergoing  a  very  remarkable  change.  In  1855 
Page  established  a  mission  school,  into  which  14  pupils  were 
admitted  during  the  first  fortnight  The  numbers  largely 
increased,  though  the  attendance  somewhat  fluctuated. 

But,  alas !  just  when  the  mission  seemed  to  be  well 
established  and  the  work  prospering,  the  zealous  labourer  fell  a 
victim  to  cholera  in  1856.  He  was  a  devoted  missionary, 
well  qualified  for  his  important  post,  and  of  matured  Christian 
experience  and  conduct,  and  his  brief  ministry  of  three  years 

i859]  MARKHEIM    AT    OR  AN  307 

was    assuredly   not   in   vain.     After  his   death    the   station 
was  not  again  filled  during  this  Period. 

Passing  along  the  coast  to  Algiers,  we  come  to  Oran, 
which  was  occupied,  as  we  have  seen,  for  a  short  time  in  1845. 
Difficulties  then  were  quite  insurmountable.  Four  years  later 
all  this  was  changed  ;  for  in  1850,  when  H.  A.  Markheim 
went  out,  the  aspect  of  the  work  was  very  cheering 
especially  in  regard  to  the  demand  for  the  Holy  Scriptures. 
There  were  days  when  the  Jews  flockeJ  to  the  missionary's 
house  in  such  multitudes  that  it  was  impossible  for  one 
person  to  attend  to  them  all.  At  other  times  the  enemies 
of  the  work  stirred  up  opposition.  That  this  did  not  prove 
to  be  of  a  serious  nature,  was  mainly  owing  to  the  friendly 
offices  of  the  British  Consul.  It  was  hoped  that  the  mission 
was  firmly  established.  The  chief  rabbi,  under  the  direction 
of  the  government,  made  proclamation  in  the  synagogue  that 
no  Jew  should  dare  to  use  offensive  language,  or  otherwise 
molest  the  missionary,  on  pain  of  severe  punishment.  In 
consequence,  he  found  yet  greater  facilities  for  preaching  the 
Gospel.  The  applications  for  Scriptures  were  not  less 
numerous  after  the  chief  rabbi,  in  his  warning,  had  advertised 
them  for  sale  by  designating  Markheim  as  "  the  one  who 
brought  out  Bibles  from  London  ; "  and  New  Testaments 
and  tracts  were  also  freely  circulated. 

Markheim  in  the  spring  of  1852  made  a  missionary 
journey  to  the  south-west  of  Oran,  visiting  the  interesting 
town  of  Tlemcen,  which  then  had  a  Jewish  population  of 
4,000,  with  eight  synagogues.  He  there  met  Paul  Lichten- 
stein,  a  descendant  in  the  sixth  generation  of  one  Aaron, 
a  Christian  Israelite,  the  son  of  a  rabbi,  who  was  baptized  at 
Hamburg  about  200  years  previously.  Paul  Lichtenstein,  to 
whom  Markheim  had  consigned  a  case  of  Scriptures,  helped 
him  in  his  work.  In  less  than  an  hour  50  Bibles  were  sold, 
and  a  considerable  number  of  New  Testaments  distributed. 
Thereupon  the  chief  rabbi  prohibited  the  retention  of  the 
books.  "  I  therefore  went  to  see  him,**  wrote  Markheim, 
"  and  to  my  very  great  astonishment  he  gave  me  a  friendly 

X  2 

308  SOUTHERN   SHORES    OF    MEDITERRANEAN         [1850 

reception,  and  on  hearing  that  the  books  came  from  England, 
and  that  they  were  sent  by  pious  English  Christians  to  them, 
he  at  once  said  :  *  Since  they  come  from  that  just  land,  let 
every  son  of  Israel  buy  them.'  " 

Day  after  day  Markheim  was  able  to  preach  to  a  large 
number  of  his  benighted  brethren  in  this  remote  r^ion  of 
North  Africa.  Two  and  a  half  years  later,  in  1854,  he  again 
visited  this  district,  calling  at  Jamma,  Ghazoat,  Tlemcen, 
Sid i-Bel- Abes,  Mascara  and  Mostaganem.  At  Tlemcen  the 
Jews  visited  him  in  great  numbers,  again  purchasing  copies 
of  the  Scriptures.  The  New  Testaments,  sold  during  his 
previous  visit,  had  evidently  been  well  read. 

We  have  seen  above  that  Markheim  visited  Tunis  in  1853. 
On  his  way  back  to  Algeria,  he  stayed  at  many  places  in 
Tunisia,  where  Jews  resided.  At  Bona  he  called  on  some  of  its 
500  Jews,  and  preached  in  their  synagogue.  At  Philippeville 
he  sold  a  considerable  number  of  Scriptures  amongst  the  1 50 
Jews  living  there.  At  Constantine  he  had  wonderful  times 
amongst  its  10,000  Jewish  residents.  His  preaching  outside 
one  of  the  synagogues  advertised  his  presence  in  their  midst. 
The  next  day  but  one,  a  body  of  fifty  Jews  called  upon  him, 
their  numbers  being  afterward  swelled  so  greatly,  that  the 
street,  in  which  his  lodging  was  situated,  was  completely 
blocked  up.  He  accompanied  the  crowd  back  to  their 
quarter,  where  he  had  an  extensive  sale  of  Scriptures.  Every 
day  of  his  visit  was  spent  in  an  equally  useful  manner.  In 
one  day  he  spoke  to  no  less  than  300  Jews,  and  had  not  "a 
single  leaf  remaining."  Two  visits  to  synagogues  were 
utilised  for  discussions  with  the  worshippers.  No  wonder 
that  he  reported  that  Constantine  offered  "an  ample  and 
large  field  of  missionary  work."  Batua,  Stora,  Bougie,  and 
Algiers  were  also  visited. 

After  this  extensive  journey  along  a  large  portion  of  the 
north  coast  of  Africa,  during  which  he  circulated  2,000 
volumes  of  the  Holy  Scriptures,  and  proclaimed  the  Gospel 
to  150,000  Jews,  Markheim  was  transferred  to  Tangier,  from 
which  Algiers,  Blidah,  Medeah,  Miliana,  Bougie,  Philippeville, 
and   Constantine   were  visited    in  the  winter  of  1854,  with 

i859]  MARKHEIM    IN    MOROCCO  309 

equally  gratifying  results.  In  1855  Markheim  was  transferred 
to  Paris,  and  his  place  in  North  Africa  was  supplied  by 
E.  R.  Hodges,  who  was  stationed  at  Bona  in  1856,  though 
only  for  a  short  time,  as  his  health  gave  way,  and  he 
was  obliged  to  return  home.  In  the  autumn  of  1855  ^^ 
and  the  Rev.  E.  A.  Page  made  a  visit  to  Constantine,  to 
which  place  J.  B.  Ginsburg  (afterward  the  Rev.  J.  B.  Crighton- 
Ginsburg)  was  appointed  in  1857.  In  looking  over  the 
review  of  his  first  year's  work,  we  find  that  Ginsburg  delivered 
his  message  to  hundreds  of  Jews  in  Constantine,  and  in  the 
fourteen  towns  and  villages  which  he  visited.  Rabbis,  rich 
and  poor,  and  Jews  of  all  ages  and  both  sexes,  thronged  his 
house  at  all  times.  Twenty-five  received  regular  instruction. 
The  circulation  of  Bibles  was  large.  His  experience  led  him 
to  say,  "  I  have  great  hope  for  the  African  Jews,  yet  to  see 
that  hope  realized  much  time  is  required." 

Passing  still  further  west  to  Morocco,  we  find  Markheim, 
who  was  a  great  traveller,  making  a  very  interesting  and  pro- 
fitable journey  through  the  country  in  1852,  visiting  Mogador, 
Tangier,  Saffee,  Mazagan,  Azmoor,  Casablanca,  Rabat,  Sallee, 
Larache,  Arzel^,  and  other  places.  He  was  brought  into 
contact  with  large  numbers  of  Jews,  and  had  continuous 
opportunities  of  proclaiming  the  Gospel  message.  The  state 
of  the  Jews  in  the  empire  of  Morocco  was,  as  it  still  is, 
deplorable  in  the  extreme.  They  suffered  severely  from  a  host 
of  bodily  sicknesses,  without  the  means  of  obtaining  medical 
advice,  and,  living  in  the  most  unwholesome  parts  of  the 
various  towns,  surrounded  by  a  noxious  atmosphere,  thousands 
annually  sank  down  into  an  untimely  grave.  At  Mogador 
there  was  not  one  amongst  the  10,000  inhabitants  who  could 
prescribe  any  remedy  for  the  various  diseases  which  prevailed 
from  time  to  time.  They  were  left  to  pine  away  under 
sickness,  or  to  nature's  cure  alone. 

Cruel  oppression  and  degradation  were  also  the  lot  of  the 
outcast  Jew.  Yet,  wonderful  to  relate,  Markheim  found  very 
many  facilities  for  the  distribution  of  the  Word  of  God,  and 
the  Jews  bought  it  whole  or  in  part,  with  great  eagerness. 

310  SOUTHERN   SHORES    OF    MEDITERRANEAN        [1850^ 

Old  and  New  Testaments,  the  Old  Paths,  the  Pilgrim's 
Progress,  and  various  tracts,  met  ^nth  purchasers,  and  went 
forth  as  messengers  of  mere}-  amongst  the  ancient  people  of 

Markheim  ^i-as  stationed  at  Tangier  during  the  years 
1852-4.  In  the  last-mentioned  year  he  again  made  extensive 
journeys  from  west  to  east,  and  distributed  1,600  copies  of  the 
Bible  and  800  tracts,  which  were  received  with  the  most  lively 
demonstrations  of  joy  and  gratitude.  Many  of  the  Jews 
seemed  scarcely  able  to  express  their  delight  at  becoming 
the  possessors  of  a  treasure  so  long  coveted. 



Preliminary  announcements— Celebrations  in  London— Great  Commemoration 
Meetlnsr— Bishop  off  Carlisle  on  the  principles  off  the  Society— Its  open  constitution- 
Dallas— T.  R.  Blrks— Edward  Hoare— Jubilee  Sermon  by  Dr.  Marsh— Celebrations 
In  the  Provinces  -Closing  Meeting— Jubilee  Funds- Receipts  and  disposal— 3peclal 

THE  celebration  of  the  Jubilee  aroused  great  expecta- 
tions, as  may  be  seen  from  the  first  allusion  to  this 
important  epoch  in  the  existence  of  the  Society  in 
the  last  sentence  of  the  Annual  Report  presented  in  1857, 
wherein  the  Committee  say  : 

We  have  to  ask  all  our  friends  that  the  Coming  Jubilee  may  be  crowned  with 
a  rich  blessing,  and  greatly  advance  that  work  in  which  we  are  interested,  of 
gathering  unto  Christ  the  Jewish  remnant  according  to  the  election  of  grace. 
Thus  shall  we  prepare  the  way  for  the  full  salvation  of  Israel,  and  for  Messiah's 
glory  throughout  the  whole  earth. 

The  "  coming  Jubilee "  formed  one  of  the  leading  topits 
of  the  speeches  that  followed,  the  second  resolution  especially 
calling  upon  the  Society  to  review  the  mercies  of  the  last  fifty 
years.  The  Revs.  S.  Minton  and  W.  R.  Fremantle  handled 
the  subject  most  appropriately,  the  latter  saying : 

I  think  the  history  of  the  Jubilees  of  our  Christian  and  missionary  associations 
in  this  country  would  rather  lead  us  to  suppose  that  the  Gentile  b  the  elder  brother, 
and  the  Jew  the  younger  brother,  for  they  have  had  their  jubilees — they  are  fifty 
years  old — but  the  Jew  is  only  just  coming  to  that  age.  If  so,  let  the  younger 
brother  have  the  best  jubilee.  Our  elder  brothers  among  the  Gentiles  have 
learnt  from  the  Jew  that  there  is  such  a  thing  as  a  jubilee,  for  without  the  Jews 
they  would  have  known  nothing  about  it ;  but  having  found  out  that  there  is  a 
jubilee,  let  the  Jew  have  his  jubilee,  and  let  that  jubilee  be  the  most  conspicuous, 
and  the  most  interesting  and  the  most  edifying  of  all. 

In  reference  to  these  words,  an  editorial  in  the  succeeding 
magazine  (July  1857)  expressed  the  hope  that  the  "younger 
brother's  "  portion  might  be,  in  its  relation  to  other  societies, 

312  THE  JUBILEE  [1850 

"a  Benjamin's  mess,  five  times  as  much  as  any  of  theirs," 
which  was  to  be  effected,  as  subsequently  explained  in  the 
September  number,  by  a  Jubilee  Fund,  of  which  more  will  be 
said  later.  At  the  Committee  meeting  in  October  detailed 
arrangements  were  made  for  the  coming  celebrations.  The 
Rev.  A.  A.  Isaacs,  association  secretary  for  the  North  of 
London  district,  was  appointed  "  Jubilee  Secretary,"  his  former 
duties  being  undertaken  by  the  Rev.  T.  D.  Halsted,  Principal 
of  the  Missionary  College. 

The  Society  entered  upon  its  fiftieth  year  on  February  iSth, 
1858,  and  on  that  day  the  proceedings  of  the  celebration  in 
London  commenced.  About  100  of  the  official  friends  of 
the  Society,  from  different  parts  of  the  country,  breakfasted 
together  at  eleven  o'clock  in  the  Freemasons'  Tavern.  At 
twelve  o'clock  they  adjourned  to  the  Great  Hall,  when  the 
Chair  was  taken  by  Mr.  J.  M.  Strachan,  Vice-President,  A 
large  number  of  other  clergy  joined  those  already  assembled 
there.  The  Secretary,  the  Rev.  C.  J.  Goodhart,  read  an 
address  to  the  Committee  on  the  occasion  of  the  Jubilee  from 
the  Westphalian  Jews'  Society.  Letters  were  read  from  Canon 
Carus,  the  friend  and  fellow-worker  with  Simeon  in  the  cause, 
and  from  others  of  the  first  members  of  the  Society  who  were 
prevented  by  age  or  other  reasons  from  being  present.  The 
aged  Dr.  Steinkopff,  formerly  minister  of  the  Lutheran  Savoy 
Chapel,  and  one  of  the  leading  foreign  Protestants  of  London, 
who  had  shewn  much  interest  in  the  Society's  work  on  the 
Continent,  also  sent  a  letter  of  apology.  An  address  from 
thirteen  Christian  Israelites  at  Smyrna,  forwarded  by  the  Rev. 
Abraham  Ben  Oliel,  was  likewise  read.  Captain  Layard  next 
read  the  original  minute,  passed  on  February  15th,  1809,  at  the 
meeting  held  at  Artillery  Street  Chapel,  for  the  formation  of 
the  Society.*  The  meeting  was  then  addressed  by  W.  Leach, 
the  oldest  member  of  the  Committee,  the  Revs.  A.  M.  Myers, 
Ridley  H.  Herschell,  W.  R.  Fremantle,  E.  Hoare,  Dr. 
Ewald,  and  A.  S.  Thelwall.  Fremantle  in  his  remarks  pointed 
out  that  the  platform  had  been,  undesignedly,  so  arranged 

•  See  page  34. 


that  it  was  immediately  under  the  portrait  of  the  Society's 
first  patron,  the  Duke  of  Kent.  Hoare  said  that  the  Jubilee 
seemed  ill-timed^  insomuch  that,  if  our  fathers  had  followed 
the  Scriptural  rule  in  their  efforts,  the  Jubilee  of  the  Society 
would  have  preceded,  and  not  have  followed,  those  of  Gentile 
societies.  This  most  interesting  and  solemnizing  re-union 
was  terminated  with  prayer  by  the  Rev.  T.  Nolan. 

The  great  Commemoration  Meeting  was  held  on  Tuesday, 
February  i6th,  in  Exeter  Hall,  and  hearty  interest  was 
manifested  in  the  proceedings.  The  children  of  the  Society's 
schools  in  Palestine  Place  were,  as  at  the  annual  meetings, 
ranged  on  the  upper  portion  of  the  platform,  and  sang  a 
number  of  sacred  pieces.  The  Chair  was  taken  at  eleven 
o'clock  by  the  President,  the  Earl  of  Shaftesbury.  On  the 
platform  were : — The  Bishop  of  Carlisle  (Montagu  Villiers), 
the  Bishop  of  Ripon  (Bickersteth),  the  Hon.  and  Rev.  L. 
Barrington,  Archdeacon  Davis,  and  nearly  all  the  well-known 
leading  supporters  of  the  Society  in  London. 

The  meeting  was  opened  with  prayer  by  the  Bishop  of 
Ripon.  After  a  letter  had  been  read  from  the  Bishop  of 
London  (Tait),  regretting  his  unavoidable  absence.  Lord 
Shaftesbury  expressed  his  regret  that  owing  to  indisposition 
he  could  speak  only  a  few  words.    He  said  : 

I  might  have  wished  to  stay  away,  but  the  occasion  was  too  important  for  that. 
I  was  afraid  lest  any  one  should  think  that  I  had  lost  any  portion  of  the  zeal 
which  I  had  felt  for  this  great  and  blessed  cause  of  our  Lord  and  Saviour.  Far 
from  it.  The  more  I  see,  and  the  older  I  grow,  and  the  more  I  reflect,  the  more 
deeply  am  I  convinced  that  we  ought  to  bless  God  for  this  distinguishing  feature 
of  the  times,  the  most  conservative  agency  of  the  day  in  which  we  live. 

The  Secretary  (Goodhart)  then  read  the  Jubilee  Report, 
which  was  practically  a  brief  historical  sketch  of  the  rise, 
progress  and  present  operations  of  the  Society,  although  it 
unaccountably  omitted  to  give  essential  statistics,  namely, 
that,  after  forty-eight  years  of  work,  the  Society  had  32 
stations,  104  agents,  20  schools,  and  an  income  of  ;^32,57i.* 

The  Bishop  of  Carlisle  moved  the  first  resolution,  which 

*  Annual  Report  for  1856-7,  which  had  been  presented  at  the  Annual 
Meeting  on  May  8th,  1857. 

314  THE  JUBILEE  [1850 

expressed  the  thankfulness  of  the  meeting  for  the  founding 
of  the  Society,  its  preservation  amid  great  and  continued 
difficulties,  and  its  manifest  and  large  success.  The  Bishop 
rejoiced  to  think  that  the  Society  was  a  Church  of  England 
Society,  and  at  the  same  time  in  good  hands.     He  said  : 

I  may  venture  to  say  that  those  who  are  now  advocating  the  cause  of  this 
Society,  and  those  to  whose  hands  its  management  is  now  confided,  will  ever  be 
animated  by  the  same  principles  as  those  who  have  gone  before  them,  that  they 
will  ever  be  actuated  by  a  determination  that,  in  the  selection  of  those  whom  they 
send  forth,  and  in  all  the  regulations  which  they  make  for  carrying  on  the  work, 
they  will  keep  in  view  the  grand  Evangelical  doctrines  which  are  all  founded  on 
**  Jesus  Christ,  the  same  yesterday,  to-day,  and  for  ever."  And  inasmuch,  my 
friends,  as  your  Committee  are  determined  to  build  entirely  on  that  one 
foundation,  I  have  no  fear  that  the  work  which  God  has  begun,  will  ever  be 
forsaken  by  its  great  Author.  I  believe  that  He  will  prosper  His  own  handiwork  ; 
and,  though  assuredly  none  present  will  ever  live  to  see  another  jubilee  on  earth, 
yet  I  do  believe  there  will  be  another  jubilee  seen  in  Heaven,  when  those  who 
have  been  converted  through  the  instrumentality  of  this  Society,  and  many  more 
who  shall  be  led  to  follow  the  Lord  by  His  own  miraculous  agency,  in  the  great 
day  of  His  appearing,  will  together  with  ourselves  sit  down  at  the  marriage- 
supper  of  the  Lamb. 

We,  too,  may  venture  to  say,  after  the  lapse  of  fifty  years, 
that  the  good  Bishop's  confidence  was  not  misplaced.  The 
Society  has  ever  been  conducted  on  the  same  principles.  By 
its  constitution  and  the  letter  of  its  laws,  it  is  simply  a  Church 
of  England  Society  without  any  qualification  whatever,  except 
that  of  subscription,  and  its  members  may  belong  to  any 
"party"  or  section  of  the  same.  But  by  tradition,  the  Society 
is  Evangelical,  and,  as  a  matter  of  fact,  as  the  contribution 
lists  testify,  the  majority  of  its  members,  both  leaders  and 
rank  and  file,  have  been  numbered  amongst  that  school  of 
thought  in  the  Church.  Though  the  Society  has  this  "  open 
constitution,"  which  is  the  description  Mr.  Stock  gives*  of  the 
like  composition  of  the  C.M.S.,  no  attempt  has  ever,  to  their 
honour  be  it  said,  been  made  by  men  of  other  parties  to 
capture  the  Society,  or  to  modify  its  principles  and  methods 
of  work  in  any  way  whatever. 

Alexander  Dallas,  founder  of  the  Irish  Church  Missions, 
in  seconding  the  resolution,  made  a  most  excellent  speech, 

*  History  of  the  C.  M,  5.,   vol.  i.,   109. 

i859]  JUBILEE    SERMON  BY  DR,   MARSH  315 

which  must,  however,  have  been  eclipsed  by  that  of  Professor 
T.  R.  Birks  which  followed.  Starting  off  with  the  remark 
that  the  institution  of  the  Jubilee  was  on  this  occasion, 
for  the  first  time,  returning  to  its  natural  home,  inasmuch  as 
the  jubilee  was  originally  a  Jewish  institution,  he  launched 
out  into  the  following  historical  recollection  : 

I  cannot  forget  that  this  year  (1858)  is  just  300  years,  or  a  period  of  six  Jubilees, 
from  the  ascension  of  Queen  Elizabeth,  when  the  Protestant  constitution  of 
this  great  nation  was  first  fully  established  ;  this  has  been  the  basis  of  all  the  other 
blessings  we  have  enjoyed. 

Birks  dealt  with  the  blessings  of  each  of  these  periods  in 
masterly  fashion,  and  came  down  to  the  time  when  the 
missionary  spirit  was  fully  roused  in  the  Church,  namely, 
about  the  end  of  the  eighteenth  century  and  the  beginning 
of  the  nineteenth.  He  was  followed  by  the  Rev.  Dr.  Henry, 
of  Dublin,  a  most  eloquent  Irishman,  after  which  Pauli,  the 
Society's  representative  at  Amsterdam,  gave  what  must  have 
been  one  of  the  most  stirring  speeches  ever  delivered  on  a 
Jewish  missionary  platform. 

Edward  Hoare  spoke  last, as  he  had  done  ten  years  previously 
at  the  Jubilee  of  the  C.M.S.  His  glowing  words  were  a  fitting 
termination  to  a  great  meeting  on  a  great  occasion  : 

Now  is  the  time  for  the  people  of  God — for  those  who  love  the  Jewish  nation, 
and  above  all  for  Christians  who  love  the  Jewish  King — not  to  lag  behind,  but  to 
go  forward  to  the  work  with  fresh  prayer,  fresh  perseverance,  and  fresh  faith  for 
Jerusalem.  God  grant  that  the  work,  while  it  lasts,  may  be  a  work  carried  on  in 
prayer  !  God  grant  that  the  work,  while  it  lasts,  may  be  a  work  carried  on  in 
faith  !  God  grant  that  the  work  may  not  last  long — but  that  the  glorious  Jubilee 
may  soon  be  ushered  in  I  God  grant  that  the  King  of  kings  may  soon  come  in  His 
glory  !  God  grant  that  we  may  be  found,  some  even  of  us  now  present,  standing 
there,  to  welcome  Him  when  the  whole  of  His  elect  shall  be  gathered,  when  Jew 
and  Gentile  shall  unite  in  one  hymn  of  praise— when  there  shall  be  that  glorious 
meeting  of  believing  Jew  and  believing  Gentile  on  earth,  uniting  with  that  great 
company,  already  gathered,  of  believing  souls  now  standing  before  the  throne, 
all  uniting  in  one  glorious  hymn  of  praise  to  Him  that  has  saved  every  individual 
of  them  by  His  own  most  precious  blood,  to  Him  from  whom  is  all  the  strength, 
through  whom  is  all  the  hope,  by  whose  blood  is  all  the  pardon,  and  to  whose 
most  holy  name  be  all  the  everlasting  glory  ! 

The  following  day,  February  17th,  was  marked  by  the 
preaching  of  the  Jubilee  Sermon  in  the  Society's  Church  by 
Dr.  Marsh,  the  sole  survivor  of  the  very  earliest  friends  of  the 

316  THE  JUBILEE  [1850 

Society.  The  sermon  of  this  very  venerable  servant  of  God 
was  a  brief  exposition  of  Romans  xi.  33,  "  O  the  depth  of  the 
riches  both  of  the  wisdom  and  knowledge  of  God"  "  Few 
who  had  the  privilege  of  being  present  on  that  occasion,"  said 
The  Jubilee  Record,  "  will  forget  the  earnestness  and 
impressiveness  with  which  the  cause  of  Israel  was  pleaded  by 
this  aged  father  in  Christ." 

The  Jubilee  was  also  widely  celebrated  in  the  Provinces. 

At  Norwich,  on  the  8th  of  March,  a  sermon  was  preached  in  St.  Stephen's 
Church,  by  Goodhart,  and  the  next  morning  a  sermon  was  preached  by  the 
Bishop  of  Norwich  in  St.  Peter  Mancroft.  On  Wednesday  a  juvenile  meeting 
was  held  in  St  Andrew's  Hall,  2,000  persons,  principally  children,  being 
present ;  and  on  Thursday,  Sir  Samuel  Rignold  presided  at  a  tea  in  the  same  hall, 
followed  by  a  large  meeting. 

Norwich  has  ever  been  famous  for  its  enthusiasm  for  the 

Jubilee  meetings  were  held  at  Darlington,  addressed  by  the  Rev.  T.  Minton  ; 
at  Derby,  addressed  by  the  Rev.  J.  Cohen  and  the  Jubilee  Secretary  ;  at  York, 
addressed  by  Hugh  McNeile,  who  also  preached  in  one  of  the  city  churches. 
At  Cambridge  a  very  full  attendance  of  University  men  was  secured,  the  Society 
being  represented  by  W.  Cadman,  T.  R.  Birks  and  Goodhart.  At  Oxford  a 
sermon  was  preached  in  the  University  Church  by  Canon  Champneys,  rector  of 
Whitechapel.  At  Hull,  W.  Vincent,  of  Trinity  Church,  Islington,  T.  Nolan, 
A.  A.  Isaacs  and  others  preached  in  eight  churches,  and  spoke  at  the  Jubilee 
meeting.  At  Brighton  the  Earl  of  Chichester  presided  at  a  meeting  addressed 
by  Fremanile,  J.  B.  Owen,  incumbent  of  St.  Jude's,  Chelsea,  and  J.  B.  Goldberg, 
missionary  at  Constantinople.  At  Birmingham,  Fremantle,  J.  H.  Titcomb, 
(afterward  Bishop  of  Rangoon),  Dr.  Miller  (rector),  and  J.  W.  Reynolds  repre- 
sented the  Society,  both  on  the  platform  and  in  the  pulpit.  At  Leamington, 
T.  R.  Birks  made  one  of  his  lucid  appeals.  Dr.  Marsh,  who  was  to  have  presided 
at  the  Chelmsford  meeting  had  not  serious  indisposition  stood  in  the  way,  sent  a 
characteristic  letter.  At  Penrith,  a  sermon  was  preached  by  the  Bishop  of 

We  cannot  give  any  more  details  ;  suffice  it  to  say  that  at 
different  times  in  the  Jubilee  year  sermons  were  preached  and 
meetings  held  throughout  London  and  the  country,  when  the 
services  of  all  the  best-known  clerical  friends  of  the  Society 
were  requisitioned. 

Professor  Birks,  who  was  most  active  throughout  the 
commemorations,  gave  the  address  at  the  Jubilee  Anniversary 
Breakfast  in  Exeter  Hall,  on  May  7th. 

i8s9]  JUBILEE    FUNDS  317 

The  week  beginning  with  Sunday,  October  17th,  was  set 
apart  and  devoted  to  special  prayer  on  behalf  of  the  Society 
and  its  objects.  The  Committee  sent  out  an  invitation  to  this 
effect  and  suggested  various  topics  of  prayer  for  each  day 
in  the  week. 

The  close  of  the  Jubilee  year  was  commemorated  by  a 
Devotional  Meeting  of  the  Committee  and  friends  of  the 
Society,  held  in  the  Freemasons'  Hall,  on  the  evening  of 
February  15th,  1859,  under  the  presidency  of  the  Earl 
of  Shaftesbury,  succeeded  by  Lord  Henry  Cholmondeley. 
It  was  announced  that  the  amount  received  for  the  Jubilee 
Fund  had  then  reached  ;^S,ii9.  The  Revs.  A.  M.  Myers, 
and  Dr.  Fry  of  Hobart  Town,  made  excellent  speeches,  and 
with  prayer  by  Goodhart,  the  Jubilee  commemorations  came 
to  an  end. 

The  objects  to  which  it  was  proposed  to  apply  the  Jubilee 
Fund  were : 

I. —-Exploratory  Missionary  Journeys  to  the  Jews  in  countries  hitherto 
entirely,  or  for  the  most  part,  unvisited,  together  with  the  establishment  of  an 
effective  Mission  on  the  North  Coast  of  Africa,  in  commemoration  of  the  Jubilee. 

II. — Printing  fresh  editions  of  the  Hebrew  Scriptures,  and  of  books  and 
tracts  suitable  to  the  present  state  of  the  Jewish  mind. 

III. — Erection  of  Mission  Premises,  Industrial  and  Operative  Institutions, 
Schools,  Hospitals  and  Dispensaries,  and  Temporary  Homes  for  Enquirers. 

Altogether  ;^7,358   i6s.  2d.  was   raised   during  the  year. 

Of  this  ;^i,7i8  IIS.  sd.  was  paid  direct  to  the  London  office, 

and  the  rest  contributed  through  the  Auxiliary  Associations. 

We  may  especially  name  the  following  as  giving  contributions 

of  ;^ioo  or  more  : 

Reading,  jf  100  :  Chester  and  Cheshire,  Jii\^\  Derby  and  Derbyshire,  £\o^\ 
Bristol,  ;f  168  ;  Islington,  ;f  142 ;  Norfolk  and  Norwich,  £,^1% ;  Brighton  and 
East  Sussex,  ;f  153  ;  Birmingham  and  vicinity,  £2^0  \  Hull,  ;^ii8;  Skipton, 
;^ioo  ;  York,  ;^I4I ;  and  Ireland,  ;f  109. 

These  sums  were  not  the  mere  transfer  of  gifts  from  one 
fund  to  another,  but  additional  donations  to  the  Society's 
treasury.  Some  of  the  money  was  raised  on  new  ground 
altogether.  The  Associations  also  yielded  in  the  same  year 
more  than  £\fyoo  over  the  previous  amount  of  their  ordinary 

318  THE  JUBILEE  [1850-9 

The  Fund  was  thus  disposed  of: 

I. — **  For  Exploratory  Missionary  Journeys^ 
Travelling  and  other  expenses  of  the  first  Explonitory  Mission  (consisting  of 

the  Rev.  H.  A.  Stern  and  party)  to  the  Falashas  in  Abyssinia,  ;^l,ioi. 

Mission  of  Enquiry  by  the  Rev.  J.  H.  Briihl,  of  Bagdad,  to  Bombay,  and  the 

Western  Coast  of  India,  ;f  140. 
Expenses    attending    re-establishment    of  the   Mission  in  Tunis,   under   the 

Rev.  W.  Fenner,  £,7.%^. 

II. — **  For  Printing  fresh  editions  of  Hebreut  Scriptures^  dr'c." 

Revised  edition  of  the  New  Testament,  in  Hebrew  8vo.,  £^14* 
1000  Copies  of  Our  Missions ^  ;f  156. 

Printing  Journal  of  Mr.  Stem's  Exploratory  Mission  into  Abyssinia,  Jubilee 
Addresses  and  Records,  &c.,  £2oS. 

III. — **  For  Mission  Premises^  I ftdust rial  Institutions ^  d^f." 

Grant  toward  the  Erection  of  Premises  for  the  Industrial  Institution  and 
School  for  Jewesses,  in  Jerusalem,  ;t  1,300. 

Legalizing  the  titles  to  the  residence  for  the  Physician,  bequeathed  to  the 
Society  by  the  late  Dr.  Macgowan,  and  other  properly  belonging  to  the  Society 
at  Jerusalem,  ;f  261. 

Library  of  the  late  Dr.  Macgowan,  for  the  use  of  the  Mission  at  Jerusalem 


Grant  toward  the  cost  of  erecting  the  Mission  Church  in  Berlin  ;f  1,500. 

Purchase  and  erection  of  a  new  School  House  for  the  Mission  at  Constan- 
tinople, ;^385. 

Various  sums  voted  toward  the  establishment,  or  maintenance,  of  Temporary 
Homes  for  enquirers,  including  those  in  London,  Mulhausen,  Algiers,  and 
L^horn  ;f  346. 

Expenses  of  Jubilee  Celebrations,  and  Salary  of  Jubilee  Secretary,  ;f86i. 

The  Children's  Jubilee  Memorial  Fund  amounted  to 
£(>^g  1 6s.,  which  was  given  toward  a  mission  school-house  at 
Haskeuy,  Constantinople.  Thus  ;^8,I38  12s.  2d.  was  the 
total  amount  of  the  Jubilee  Funds. 

Amongst  the  special  papers  prepared  for  the  Jubilee  were  : 
A  Plea  for  Israel^  and  Israel's  Spiritual  Jubilee,  both  by 
Dr.  John  Macbride,  Principal  of  Magdalen  Hall,  Oxford. 
Three  Jubilee  Records  were  issued  during  the  year,  giving  a 
few  particulars  ;  and  in  1867  appeared,  very  belatedly,  it  must 
be  confessed,  A  Jubilee  Memorial,  containing  the  various 
papers,  sermons  and  addresses  published  during  1858-9,  the 
list  of  contributions,  and  other  statistical  and  historical 
particulars  about  the  Society. 

Seventh    petiob, 



Speali  nnto  ti^e  cf^ilxrren  of  Ssratl,  t^t  t^ep  go  fortDacXr. 

Exodus  xnr.  15. 

SEVENTH  PERIOD,  18604874 



A  lonsr  Period— Important  events  In  the  taUtory  off  the  world  afffecttng  the  Society 
—  Abyssinian  Expedition —  *' Alliance  Israelite  Unlverselle  **—  Number  off 
Jewish  Missionary  Societies— Wolverhampton  and  Brighton  Church  Congresses- 
Exploratory  missionary  Journeys- Deputation  to  Canada— Missionary  work  In 
New  York— Day  off  Intercession  ffor  Foreign  Missions  appointed— Jewish  Mis- 
sionary Confference  at  Cllffton— Appointment  off  missionaries— Archbishop  Long- 
ley,  Patron— Vice-Patrons— Vice-Presidents— Trustees— Honorary  Llffe  Oovemors 
—Committee— Anniversary  Sermons  and  Meetings— Death  off  the  Revs.  O.  3olbe, 
H.  Crawford,  Dr.  McCaul.  A.  3.  Thelwall,  Dr.  Marsh,  J.  J.  Reynolds,  Dr.  Woifff 
and  other  fformer  missionaries  and  friends— Resignation  off  Ooodhart— The  Secre- 
tariat—Death off  Captain  Layard— Association  Secretaries— Periodicals  off  the 
Society— Hebrew  New  Testament— Halsted's  Our  Missions. 

THE  Period  upon  which  we  are  entering  embraces 
fifteen  years,  from  i860  to  1874  inclusive.  The 
grouping  of  so  many  years  together  has  both  its 
advantages  and  disadvantages.  Amongst  the  former  may 
be  reckoned  a  longer  consecutive  history  of  each  branch 
of  the  work  ;  amongst  the  latter,  a  departure  occasionally 
from  chronological  sequence.  For  example,  some  events  will 
be  narrated  in  the  Home  section,  which  really  occurred  later 
than  those  afterward  related  in  the  Foreign  sections.  Thus 
we  come  to  Dr.  Stern's  work  in  England  from  1870  onward, 
before  we  speak  of  his  work  in  Abyssinia  ten  years  previously. 
But  as  long  as  the  reader  bears  this  in  mind,  no  practical 
inconvenience  will  be  felt. 

The  years  which  this  Period  covers  were  most  important  in 
the  history  of  the  world,  and  their  events  exercised  a  great 
effect  on  the  history  of  the  Society.  A  notable  event  in 
1862   was   the  International  Exhibition  in   London,  where 


Jews  were  present  from  almost  every  country.  Then,  the 
devastating  Civil  War  in  America  (i860 — 5)  paralysed  the 
chief  seats  of  industry  at  home,  and  gave  rise  to  the  Cotton 
Famine  in  Lancashire,  proving  that  even  countries  are 
members  one  of  another,  and  that  "  whether  one  member 
suffer,  all  the  members  suffer  with  it."  Then  came  the  Prusso- 
Danish  and  Austro-Prussian  Wars  of  1866,  and  shortly  after- 
ward, in  1870,  the  inevitable  dislocation  of  the  work  in  France 
and  Germany,  owing  to  the  momentous  Franco-Prussian  War, 
which  ended  in  the  downfall  of  the  Bonaparte  dynasty  in 
France,  the  consolidation  of  Germany  as  a  new  Empire,  the 
collapse  of  the  Papal  temporal  power,  and  the  opening  of 
Italy  to  evangelistic  efforts.  The  British  invasion  of  Abyssi- 
nia in  1868,  to  release  the  captives  who  had  been  imprisoned 
since  1 864,  drew  public  attention  to  a  mission  which,  for  the 
first  nine  years  of  this  Period  (i860 — 8),  almost  overshadowed 
every  other  branch  of  the  Society's  work.  Continual  efforts 
to  effect  their  release  were  made  by  the  Queen  and  her 
Government,  who  assured  the  Committee  that  everything  in 
their  power  should  be  done.  The  suspense  was  indeed  long 
drawn  out,  but  relief  came  at  length,  as  will  be  narrated  in 
the  chapter  on  Abyssinia. 

The  Disestablishment  and  Disendowment  of  the  Church  of 
Ireland  in  1869,  and  the  Rationalistic  and  Ritual  controversies 
of  the  time  were  not  conducive  to  missionary  enthusiasm 
or  progress. 

An  important  event  in  the  Jewish  world  was  the  founda- 
tion, in  i860,  by  six  Jews  of  Paris — Astruc,  Cohen,  Carvallo, 
Leven,  Manuel,  and  Netter — of  the  "  Alliance  Israelite 
Universelle,"  in  the  moral  and  civil  interests  of  the  Jews 
throughout  the  world,  but  especially  in  Eastern  Europe,  North 
Africa  and  Asia  Minor,  with  the  following  objects :  {ct)  To 
work  everywhere  for  their  emancipation  and  moral  improve- 
ment ;  {p)  To  assist  all  suffering  persecution  ;  (r)  To  encourage 
all  publications  striving  to  promote  these  ends.  During  its 
first  four  years  the  number  of  its  members  increased  from 
17  to  3,000;  but  it  does  not  come  within  our  province 
to  pursue   its  career,  or  to  give  an   account  of  its   work. 

i874]         MISSIONS    TO  JEWS   AT   CHURCH   CONGRESS  323 

which,  though  more  or  less  of  a  spasmodic  character,  fairly 
accomplishes  the  objects  for  which  it  was  founded. 

It  was  computed  in  1865  that  there  were  33  Missionary 
Societies  then  working  amongst  the  Jews.  If  this  were  the 
case,  few  can  have  been  of  any  magnitude,  seeing  that,  out  of 
200  agents  employed,  126  were  in  the  service  of  our  Society. 

The  claims  of  the  Jews  were  put  before  the  Church 
Congress,  for  the  first  time,  at  Wolverhampton  in  1867,  when 
the  Rev.  A.  M.  Myers,  a  Hebrew  Christian,  and  vicar  of  All 
Saints',  Dalston,  read  an  excellent  paper,  summing  up  the 
Society's  experience  after  nearly  sixty  years  of  work.  At 
the  Church  Congress  at  Brighton  in  1874  the  Revs.  Dr. 
Barclay  and  C.  H.  Banning  read  papers  on  Missions  to  Jews, 
which  were  followed  by  a  speech  from  Prebendary  Churton, 
vicar  of  Icklesham. 

Exploratory  missionary  journeys  were  an  important  feature 
in  the  opening  years  of  this  Period  ;  such  as  Stem's  visit  to 
Abyssinia,  Briihl's  visit  to  Bombay,  and  Ginsburg's  journey 
in  North  Africa,  for  all  of  which  the  Jubilee  Funds  had  made 
provision.     These  will  be  narrated  in  their  proper  order. 

A  new  departure  was  made  in  1863  by  sending  a  deputation 
to  the  United  States  and  Canada  in  order  to  plead  the  cause 
of  the  Society,  in  the  person  of  the  Rev.  Buchan  Wright, 
a  former  secretary.  He  preached  in  Halifax  and  St.  John, 
New  Brunswick,  on  his  way  out,  and  spoke  at  crowded 
meetings.  He  then  paddled  in  a  canoe  to  an  Indian 
settlement,  but  could  find  no  traces  whatever  of  any  Hebrew 
origin,  as  some  had  strangely  supposed,  in  the  Red  men. 
Wright  preached  to  a  large  congregation  in  the  Church  of  the 
Redemption,  in  New  York,  and  next  day  addressed  the  ilite 
of  the  Episcopal  clergy  on  the  origin,  resources  and  manage- 
ment of  the  Society.     He  said  : 

It  was  a  noble  sight  to  see  these  pious  and  learned  men  assembling  together  for 
such  a  purpose,  and  at  such  a  time,  in  the  midst  of  the  travail  of  such  a  national 
calamity  (/.^.,  the  Civil  War) ;  and  it  reminded  him  of  what  took  place  in  England 
about  fifty  years  ago,  when  some  pious  men,  whose  faith  could  penetrate  far  into 
futurity,  relying  upon  the  promise  of  God,  assembled  together  and  laid  the  foun- 
dation of  the  Jewish  mission,  notwithstanding  that  England  was  at  that  time 
engaged  in  a  gigantic  war  with  the  greatest  conqueror  of  modern  times. 

Y  2 


Jewish  missionary  work  was  now  begun  in  New  York,  a 
missionary  being  appointed,  with  a  colporteur  to  assist  him  ; 
and  there  was  also  a  school,  with  upward  of  thirty  Jewish 
children  in  daily  attendance.  The  Church  Society  for  Pro- 
moting Christianity  amongst  the  Jews  in  New  York  was 
not  established  till  some  years  afterward.  Wright  went  on 
to  Canada  and  preached  or  lectured  at  Hamilton,  London, 
Montreal,  Quebec,  Toronto  and  other  cities,  and  formed 

Another  event  of  great  importance  was  the  setting  apart 
of  a  day  for  Special  Intercession  on  behalf  of  Foreign  Missions, 
in  November  1872.  The  Archbishop  of  Canterbury  (Tait) 
issued  an  invitation  to  all  missionary  societies  to  observe  a  like 
day  (December  3rd)  in  the  succeeding  Advent  1873,  which 
was  duly  and  thankfully  responded  to.  After  this,  the  eve  of 
St.  Andrew's  Day  was  selected  for  the  annual  intercession. 
In  1879  the  day  was  altered  to  the  Tuesday  before  Ascension 
Day.  In  1885  there  was  a  reversion  to  the  eve  of  St.  Andrew's, 
which  has  since  remained  the  Day  of  Intercession. 

In  the  closing  year  of  the  Period  the  first  Conference 
on  Jewish  Missions  ever  held  was  convened  at  the  Victoria 
Rooms,  Clifton,  on  June  nth  and  12th,  and  largely  attended 
by  both  clergy  and  laity.  The  Chairman  was  the  Bishop 
of  Bath  and  Wells  (Lord  Arthur  Hervey),  and  the  following 
took  part  in  the  deeply  interesting  discussions  (afterward 
published)  in  the  four  sessions  held  :  Bishop  Anderson, 
Archdeacon  Kaye,  the  Revs.  Canon  Fremantle,  A.  I.  McCaul, 
H.  Moule,  C.  W.  Marsh  Boutflower,  E.  B.  Frankel,  H.  A. 
Stern,  F.  A.  Morgan,  Frederick  Smith,  J.  E.  Brenan,  J.  B* 
Goldberg,  Flavel  S.  Cook,  C.  H.  Banning,  J.  Richardson, 
C.  J.  Goodhart,  Dr.  Barclay,  Colonel  Rowlandson  and  General 
Aylmer.  An  interchange  of  views  on  the  important  subject 
of  Jewish  Missions  must  result  in  a  fuller  appreciation  of  the 
solemn  obligation  on  the  part  of  the  Christian  Church  to 
make  known  the  Gospel  of  Christ  to  the  seed  of  Abraham, 
and  it  is  to  be  regretted  that  such  Conferences  have  not  been 
held  more  frequently. 

This  Period  saw  a  great  number  of  missionaries  appointed 


to  the  various  mission  fields  of  the  Society : — E.  Flecker  to 
Frankfort,  and  L.  E.  Griinwald  to  Breslau,  in  i860;  Dr.  T. 
Chaplin  to  the  Jerusalem  hospital,  and  the  Rev.  D.  Hechler 
to  Heidelberg,  in  1861  ;  H.  A.  Stern  and  H.  Rosenthal  to 
Abyssinia,  in  1862  ;  G.  H.  Handler  to  Konigsberg,  the  Rev.  E. 
B.  Frankel  to  Paris,  Marcus  VVolkenberg  to  Jassy,  and  J. 
Zabanski  to  Constantinople,  in  1863  ;  the  Rev.  E.  B.  Frankel 
to  Jerusalem,  the  Rev.  H.  C.  Reichardt  to  Corfu,  and  the  Rev. 

B.  W.  Wright  to  Cairo,  in  1865  ;  H.  Friedlander  to  London,  in 
1866;  the  Rev.  J.  M.  Eppstein  to  Smyrna,  A.  C.  Adler  to 
Bucharest,  and  G.  E.  Andersson  to  Jerusalem,  in  1867  ;  the 
Rev.  Dr.  Klee  to  Danzig,  the  Rev.  Professor  Paulus  Cassel  to 
Berlin,  M.  Nachim  to  Bucharest,  L.  C.  Mamlock  to  London, 
and  Dr.  Henry  Biesenthal  to  Leipzig,  in  1868;  the  Rev. 
W.  Burnet  to  Paris,  H.  Friedlander  to  Tunis,  and  G.  H. 
Handler  to  Prague,  in  1869;  J.  Skolskowski  to  Konigsberg, 
A.  C.  Adler  to  Frankfort,  the  Rev.  F.  Hausig  to  Berlin,  the 
Rev.  E.  B.  Frankel  to  Damascus,  and  the  Rev.  H.  A.  Stern 
to  London,  in  1870  ;  the  Rev.  James  Neil  to  Jerusalem,  the 
Rev.  R.  H.  Cotter  to  Trieste,  the  Rev.  J.  T.  Schleicher  to 
Hamburg,  the  Rev.  A.  Bernstein  to  Jerusalem,  the  Rev.   H. 

C.  Reichardt  to  Alexandria,  J.  M.  Flad  to  Mannheim,  the 
Rev.  E.  M.  Schlochow  to  Strasburg,  and  the  Rev.  J.  H. 
Bruhl  to  Vienna,  in  1871  ;  the  Rev.  S.  B.  Burtchaell  to  Rome, 
H.  G.  Heathcote  to  Tunis,  M.  Rosenthal  to  Damascus, 
J.  Hymans  to  London,  and  the  Rev.  D.  A.  Hefter  to  Frankfort, 
in  1872 ;  the  Rev.  J.  Lotka  to  Lemberg,  and  the  Rev.  A.  C. 
Adler  to  Amsterdam,  in  1873  i  ^he  Rev.  E.  B.  Frankel  to 
Marseilles,  the  Rev.  H.  C.  Reichardt  to  Damascus,  the  Rev. 
S.  T.  Bachert  to  Hamburg,  M.  Rosenthal  to  London,  and 
N.  Rappoport  to  Cracow,  in  1874. 

Archbishop  Longley,  formerly  Bishop  of  Ripon,  again 
became  the  Patron  of  the  Society  in  1863,  and  the  patronage 
roll  was  further  extended  during  this  Period  by  the  accession 
of  the  following  Archbishops  and  Bishops  as  Vice-Patrons: — 
Beckles  of  Sierra  Leone,  in  i860  ;  Jackson  of  Lincoln  (after- 
ward of  London),  and  Gell  of  Madras,  in  1861  ;  Thomson  of 
Gloucester  and  Bristol  (subsequently  Archbishop  of  York)  and 


John  Gregg  of  Cork,  in  1862;  Ellicott  of  Gloucester  and 
Bristol,  and  Thomas  of  Goulburn,  in  1863  ;  Trench  (Arch- 
bishop) of  Dublin,  Harold  Browne  of  Ely,  and  Trower  of 
Gibraltar,  in  1864;  Bromby  of  Tasmania,  in  1865; 
Bernard  of  Tuam,  and  Alford  of  Victoria,  Hong  Kong,  in 
1867  ;  Butcher  of  Meath,  in  1868  ;  Marcus  Gervais  Beresford 
(Archbishop)  of  Armagh,  Alexander  of  Derry,  and  Hatchard 
of  Mauritius,  in  1869;  Lord  Arthur  Hervey  of  Bath  and 
Wells,  Machray  of  Rupertsland  (subsequently  Archbishop), 
and  Stirling  of  the  Falkland  Islands,  in  1870 ;  Hughes 
of  St.  Asaph,  Oxenden  of  Montreal,  Parry  of  Dover, 
and  Mackenzie  of  Nottingham,  in  1871  (the  two  last  being 
the  first  Suffragan  Bishops  to  be  elected) ;  Hellmuth  of 
Huron,  and  Williams  of  Waiapu,  in  1872;  DayofCashel, 
Cheetham  of  Sierra  Leone,  Horden  of  Moosonee,  Piers 
Claughton,  Archdeacon  of  London  (late  Bishop  of  Colombo), 
and  Crowther  of  the  Niger  Territory,  in  1873;  Sandford  of 
Gibraltar,  Burdon  of  Victoria,  Hong  Kong,  and  Utterton  of 
Guildford,  in  1874. 

The  Earl  of  Cavan  was  elected  a  Vice-Patron  in  i860, 
and  Lord  Fitzwalter  in  1874.  The  following  became  Vice- 
Presidents  :  Vice- Admiral  Sir  Henry  Hope  Hope,  C.B.,  who 
since  1839  had  been  a  member  of  Committee,  in  1861,  but  he 
died  the  same  year ;  Admiral  F.  Vernon  Harcourt,  also  a 
member  of  Committee  since  1848,  in  1864;  Lieut-General 
A.  Clarke,  Chairman  of  Committee  for  ten  years,  and  a 
member  since  1858,  in  1868;  Lieut-Colonel  Sotheby,  C.B., 
member  of  Committee  since  1839,  in  1870;  and  Mr. 
R.  C.  L.  Bevan,  the  banker,  and  a  munificent  donor, 
in   1871. 

In  1870  the  Trustees  of  the  Society,  being  only  two  in 
number  (Lord  Shaftesbury  and  Mr.  J.  M.  Strachan),  General 
Clarke,  Messrs.  William  Vizard,  W.  N.  West,  and  John 
Deacon  were  added  in  that  year,  and  Mr.  T.  R.  Andrews 
in  1873.  Mr.  Deacon  was  elected  Treasurer  in  1864, 
and  held  the  office  till  his  death  in  1901.  Mr.  Vizard  was 
elected  Honorary  Solicitor  in  1861,  holding  the  post  till 

i874]  COMMITTEE  327 

The  Honorary  Life  Governors  of  the  Society  were  in- 
creased by  the  Revs.  T.  R.  Govett  and  J.  Montagu  Randall  in 
1866,  and  by  Archdeacon  Kaye,  the  Rev.  E.  Auriol,  and  Mr. 
Henry  Smith,  of  Morden  College,  Blackheath,  in  1870. 

On  looking  over  the  list  of  laymen  on  the  Committee  at 
this  Period,  we  find  the  following  new  members,  given  in  order 
of  election,  some  of  whom  were  eminent  in  other  connexions. 
Robert  Baxter,  of  the  great  firm  of  solicitors,  Baxter,  Rose  & 
Norton  ;  T.  R.  Andrews,  J.  Goldingham,  a  member  also  of 
the  C.M.S.  Committee ;  J.  Hawkesworth,  Horace  J.  Smith, 
better  known  as  H.  J.  Smith-Bosanquet  ;  J.  Payne,  a  County 
Court  judge  and  a  f)oet ;  W.  N.  West,  the  Hon.  W.  Ashley  ; 
Francis  N.  Maltby,  formerly  in  the  Indian  Civil  Service  at 
Travancore  ;  C.  A.  Moody,  W.  Tollemache,  H.  F.  Bowker, 
afterward  one  of  the  "  Keswick  leaders " ;  General  Sir 
William  Hill,  K.C.S.I.,  Chairman  of  the  General  Council  on 
Indian  Education,  and  subsequently  Honorary  Secretary  of  the 
C.E.Z.M.S. ;  Colonel  W.  Macdonald-Macdonald,  Chairman  of 
the  National  Club;  J.  Bateman,  F.R.S.,  sometime  editor  of  the 
English  Churchman;  General  Sir  I.  C.  Coffin,  K.C.S.I., 
General  Rowlandson,  of  the  Chinese  Evangelization  Society ; 
W.  Melmoth  Walters,  now  Honorary  Solicitor,  Trustee  and 
Vice-President ;  Captain  H.  Needham  Knox,  R.N.,  now 
Vice-President;  Inspector-General  W.  Ord-Mackenzie ;  Cap- 
tain (afterward  Admiral)  Rodd,  R.N.  ;  and  E.  D.  (now  the 
Rev.)  Stead.  Of  this  long  list,  Messrs.  Walters,  Knox  and 
Stead  are  the  only  survivors. 

Amongst  the  clergy  who  used  to  attend  the  Committee 
meetings  at  this  Period  we  notice  the  new  names  of  W. 
Ayerst,  I.  Brock,  W.  H.  Graham,  T.  D.  Halsted,  A.  A.  Isaacs, 
J.  W.  Reynolds,  W.  Seaton,  J.  Scott  and  B.  W.  Wright. 

The  preachers  of  the  Anniversary  Sermons  were — 
Edward  Hoare,  in  the  Parish  Church  of  Marylebone,  and 
S.  T.  Altmann,  in  the  Episcopal  Jews'  Chapel,  in  i860, 
this  being  the  last  occasion  on  which  one  was  preached 
in  the  Society's  own  church,  and  also  the  last  year  in  which 
two  Sermons  were  preached,  until  1906;  in  1861,  W. 
Harrison,   in   St.   Michael's,   Pimlico ;    the  next  four  years. 


Sir  E.  Bayley,  E.  Garbett,  Fielding  Ould  and  Archbishop 
Thomson  respectively,  in  Marylebone  Parish  Church ;  E. 
Auriol  and  Payne  Smith,  in  1866  and  1867,  in  St 
George's,  Bloomsbury  ;  T.  Nolan,  C.  J.  Goodhart,  Bishop 
Bickersteth  of  Ripon.  J.  Bardsley,  Dallas  Marston,  Arch- 
deacon Kaye  and  J.  Richardson,  from  1868  to  1874,  in 
St.  Margaret's,  Westminster. 

There  were  some  notable  speakers  at  the  Anniversary 
Meetings,  at  every  one  of  which  the  Earl  of  Shaftesbury 
presided,  during  the  Period.  The  Archbishop  of  Armagh 
(M.  G.  Beresford),  Bishops  Villiers  of  Carlisle,  in  i860 — he 
died  the  next  year— Tait  of  London,  Lord  Arthur  Hervey  of 
Bath  and  Wells,  Robert  Bickersteth  of  Ripon  (twice),  John 
Gregg  of  Cork  (twice).  Perry  of  Melbourne,  Beckles  of 
Sierra  Leone,  Daly  of  Cashel,  Smith  of  Victoria, 
Hong  Kong,  Hatchard  of  Mauritius,  Ryan,  late  of  Mauritius 
(twice),  and  Crowther  of  the  Niger.  The  following  distin- 
guished clergymen  spoke  :  Archdeacon  Hellmuth,  afterward 
Bishop  of  Huron  ;  J.  C.  Ryle,  afterward  Bishop  of  Liverpool 
(twice)  ;  J.  Barclay,  afterward  Anglican  Bishop  in  Jerusalem 
(twice)  ;  E.  H.  Bickersteth,  afterward  Bishop  of  Exeter  ; 
F.  F.  Goe,  afterward  Bishop  of  Melbourne ;  Hugh  McNeile, 
afterward  Dean  of  Ripon  ;  Canon  Fremantle,  subsequently 
Dean  of  Ripon  (seven  times)  ;  the  Rev.  Sir  Emilius  Bayley  ; 
R.  W.  Forrest,  now  Dean  of  Worcester ;  Canon  Clayton  ; 
James  Bardsley  of  Manchester  (twice) ;  Canon  Stowell 
(twice)  ;  Edward  Hoare  ;  John  Richardson,  afterward  Arch- 
deacon of  Southwark  ;  Dr.  Miller,  rector  of  Birmingham  ; 
Canon  Edward  Garbett  (twice) ;  T.  R.  Birks,  Professor  of 
Moral  Philosophy  at  Cambridge ;  David  Stewart ;  Talbot 
Greaves  ;  John  Patteson,  rector  of  Spitalfields ;  James  Cohen, 
rector  of  Whitechapel  (twice) ;  William  Cadman,  afterward 
Canon  of  Canterbury  ;  Prebendary  Dalton  of  Lichfield  ; 
Prebendary  Cross  ;  Daniel  Wilson,  vicar  of  Islington  ; 
Thomas  Nolan  ;  Dr.  Neligan,  Secretary  of  the  Church  of 
Ireland  Auxiliary  ;  Flavel  S.  Cook  ;  R.  Cousens  ;  Dr.  Tyng, 
of  New  York  ;  A.  M.  Myers ;  W.  L.  Rosenthal  (sub- 
sequently Rosedale) ;  C.  J.  Goodhart,  Honorary  Secretary  ; 

i874]  SPEAKERS    AT    ANNUAL    MEETINGS  329 

W.  Ayerst  and  T.  D.  Halsted,  former  Secretaries  ;  and 
C.  H.  Banning,  then  Secretary  of  the  Society. 

The  following  laymen  also  spoke  during  this  Period  : 
Earl  Cairns,  Lord  Dynevor,  Lord  Radstock ;  also  H.  F. 
Bovvker,  Robert  Hanbury,  M.P.,  Colonel  Rowlandson, 
J.  Bateman,  Robert  Baxter  and  T.  R.  Andrews,  members 
of  Committee :  and  John  Macgregor  ("  Rob  Roy  "). 

The  missionary  speakers  during  the  Period  were:  Dr. 
Ewald  (twice),  H.  A.  Stem,  fresh  from  Abyssinia,  in  1861 
and  1862,  again  in  1869,  after  his  release  from  captivity 
there,  and  once  again,  in  1873,  when  he  had  taken  charge 
of  the  London  mission  ;  D.  A.  Hefter,  from  Jerusalem  ;  E.  M. 
Schlochow,  from  Miilhausen  ;  W.  Bailey,  from  Jerusalem ; 
F.  G.  Kleinhenn,  from  Bucharest  (twice) ;  E.  B.  Frankel,  from 
Jerusalem ;  S.  B.  Burtchaell,  from  Rome ;  and  C.  W.  H. 
Pauli,  from  Amsterdam. 

The   meeting   in    1872  was   important,   as    the    following 

Memorial,  drawn    up   by  Lord  Shaftesbury,  was  moved  by 

Lord  Dynevor,  seconded  by  Fremantle,  and  carried : 

To  the  Right  Honourable  the  Earl  Granville,  K.G.,  Her  Majesty's  Principal 
Secretary  of  State  for  the  Foreign  Department.  We,  the  members  of  the 
•*  London  Society  for  Promoting  Christianity  amongst  the  Jews,"  assembled  at  the 
Annual  Meeting  of  the  Society  in  Exeter  Hall,  London,  the  President,  the  Right 
Honourable  the  Earl  of  Shaftesbury,  K.G.,  in  the  chair,  approach  your  Lordship 
with  an  earnest  request  that  your  Lordship  will,  in  the  spirit  of  Christian  sympathy, 
exercise  your  friendly  offices  with  the  Government  of  Roumania,  in  order  to 
impress  upon  them  the  duty  and  necessity  of  maintaining  the  civil  rights  of  the 
Jewish  people  within  their  territory,  and  of  repressing  the  cruel  and  undeser\'ed 
treatment  of  which  they  have  been  the  victims.  Your  petitioners  regard  such 
interposition  as  the  unquestionable  duty  of  a  Christian  country. 

The  following  gave  the  Breakfast  Addresses  during  this 
Period  :  the  Revs.  J.  B.  Cartwright,  A.  Thorold  (subsequently 
Bishop  of  Rochester  and  of  Winchester),  Sir  E.  Bayley,  E. 
Garbett  (twice),  W.  Cadman,  T.  R.  Birks,  T.  Nolan,  J.  C  Ryle, 
S.  Garratt,  Canon  Hoare,  Prebendary  Dalton,  J.  Richardson, 
Canon  Fremantle,  and  Dr.  Boultbee.  Garratt's  address  was 
the  first  to  be  printed  in  the  magazine,  in  1869,  and  the  second 
was  Freman tie's  in  1873,  and  the  third  Boultbee's  in  1874. 

No  Period  passes  without  leaving  the  Society  bereft  of 
numerous    friends,   and   this    was    certainly    no    exception 


to  the  rule.  Some  of  the  deaths  are  noted  in  this  chapter, 
whilst  those  of  missionaries  dying  in  harness  are  given  under 
the  particular  mission  to  which  they  belonged. 

The  Rev.  G.  Solbe,  missionary  of  the  Society  at  Smyrna 
from  1843  to  1848,  died  in  i860.  His  faithful  labours,  under 
which  he  broke  down,  have  already  been  narrated  in  Chapter 
XXVII.  He  came  home  to  England,  and  at  the  time  of 
his  death  was  curate  of  Stanfield  in  Suffolk. 

The  Rev.  H.  Crawford,  late  missionary  in  Jerusalem,  died 
at  Clifton  on  March  19th,  1863,  in  the  forty-eighth  year  of  his 
age.  He  succeeded  the  Rev.  J.  Nicolayson  as  head  of  the 
Jerusalem  mission  in  1856,  but  retired,  owing  to  ill-health  in 

The  death  of  Dr.  McCaul,  on  November  13th,  1863, 
removed  one  who,  as  before  stated,  left  an  indelible  mark 
on  the  Societj'.  Of  his  early  years  and  work  in  Warsaw 
and  London,  we  have  spoken  in  previous  chapters,  very 
inadequately  indeed,  but  a  large  volume  would  be  required  to 
give  a  true  account  of  this  most  eminent  ser\'ant  of  the 
Society.  Of  all  the  members  of  its  Gentile  missionary  staff 
throughout  the  hundred  years  of  its  existence,  he  was  fcudle 
princeps,  in  scholarship,  in  learning,  in  power  and  influence. 
He  appeared  upon  the  scene  at  the  right  time,  when  some  one 
was  wanted  to  shew  how  missionary'  work  could  best  be  done 
amongst  the  Jews;  for  he  was  essentially  a  pioneer  and  leader, 
and  by  his  writings,  especially  his  Old  Paths,  he  inaugurated 
a  new  era  in  the  histor}-  of  Missions  to  Jews.  The  distinguish- 
ing features  of  his  work  were  abl\-  shewn  by  the  Rev.  W. 
Ayerst,  in  an  article  in  the  Jezi^ish  Intelligence  for  February, 
1864.  McCaul  took  a  leading  part  in  the  establishment  of 
the  Jerusalem  Bishopric,  and,  on  the  highest  grounds,  declined 
the  offer  of  it,  thinking  it  should  be  bestowed  on  a  Hebrew 
Christian.  He  was  appointed  rector  of  St  Magnus,  London 
Bridge,  in  1849,  and  later  a  Prebendar\-  of  St  Paul's,  and 
a  Vice-President  of  the  Society  in  1854.  He  continued  to 
manifest  unbounded  interest  in  the  Society's  work,  and  espec- 
ially in  the  Operative  Jewish  Converts'  Institution,  of  whose 
Committee  he  was  a  member  for  thirty  years,  his  last  public 

Prebendary  A.    McCaul.   D.D. 

i874]  DEATH    OF    DR,    McCAUL  331 

speech  of  a  missionary  nature  being  delivered  at  its  anniversary. 
His  health  rapidly  failed  during  the  last  three  months  of  his  life. 
Just  before  his  death  on  November  13th,  he  said,  quoting 
2  Corinthians  v.  19,  and  St.  Luke  xv.  13, — "  Upon  these  two 
texts  I  take  my  stand."  The  Bishop  of  Rochester  (Wigram) 
officiated  at  his  funeral,  which  was  attended  by  the  Principal 
of  King's  College,  several  Professors,  and  all  the  students  in 
the  Theological  department,  the  President  and  Fellows  of  Sion 
College,  and  many  of  his  former  associates  in  the  Society's 
work.  A  few  months  afterward  a  marble  tablet  was  erected 
in  the  Society's  church  bearing  the  following  inscription  : 



Revd.   ALEXANDER   McCAUL,    D.D., 

















BORN    I 6th   may,    1799. 
DIED    I3TH   NOVEMBER,    1863. 


Ten  days  later,  in  the  same  month,  died  another  well- 
known  former  missionary  of  the  Society  at  Amsterdam,  the 
Rev.  A.  S.  Thelwall.  After  his  retirement  in  1827,  he  became 
Secretary  of  the  Trinitarian  Bible  Society,  and  Lecturer  at 
King's  College,  London. 

By  the  death  of  the  venerable  Dr.  William  Marsh  on  August 


29th,  1864,  in  his  90th  year,  was  snapped  the  sole  remaining 
link  with  the  earliest  days  of  the  Society.  He  had  held 
charges  at  Reading,  Brighton,  Colchester,  Birmingham, 
Leamington  and  Beddington,  and,  notwithstanding  his  most 
abundant  labours  in  all  these  places,  he  ever  found  time  to 
help  on  the  Society's  cause,  and  that  with  all  his  heart  and  soul. 
It  is  well-known  that  his  interest  was  created  through  being 
called  upon  to  preach  for  the  Society  in  place  of  a  sick  friend. 
He  took  with  him  the  latter  s  carefully  prepared  notes  of  a 
sermon,  but  his  luggage  went  astray !  Whereupon  he  had  on 
the  Saturday  night  to  prepare  something  himself — and  his 
far-famed  leaflet,  "  St.  Paul's  Reasons  "  from  Romans  xi.,  was 
the  result.  He  preached  the  Anniversary  Sermon  in  1812, 
and  again  in  1827,  and  the  Endowment  Sermon  before  the 
University  of  Oxford  in  1849.  He  gave  the  address  at  the 
Society's  Breakfast  in  1850  and  again  in  1852,  and  spoke 
no  less  than  twenty-five  times  at  its  Annual  Meetings.  On 
many  of  these  occasions  he  gave  a  short  address  to  the 
school  children  assembled  on  the  platform.  These  addresses 
were  subsequently  (1871)  published  in  a  volume  by  William 
Myers,  the  schoolmaster  in  Palestine  Place.  Marsh  preached 
the  Jubilee  Sermon  in  1858,  and  at  the  Anniversary  Meet- 
ing in  the  following  May  seconded  the  resolution  for  the 
adoption  of  the  Report,  which  had  been  moved  by  the 
Bishop  of  London.  This  was  his  last  effort,  when  he  was  84 
years  old,  after  which  he  lived  in  retirement,  corresponding 
with  numerous  friends  on  the  truths  which  had  ever  been  so 
dear  to  his  heart. 

An  old  Secretary  of  the  Society  passed  away  in  1865,  in 
the  person  of  the  Rev.  James  Jubilee  Reynolds,  who  received 
his  second  Christian  name  from  the  fact  that  he  was  baptized 
in  1 8 10,  the  jubilee  year  of  King  George  HI.  He  was 
appointed  Secretary  in  1837,  holding  that  position  till  1846, 
and  residing  in  Palestine  Place.  In  1846,  owing  to  poor  health, 
he  was  obliged  to  resign  his  post,  and  to  accept  the  association 
secretaryship  of  the  northern  district.  He  resided  at  York  till 
1850,  when  he  was  transferred  to  Birmingham,  taking  charge  of 
the  midland  district.     In  1851  he  was  appointed  to  the  incum- 

1874]  DEATH    OF    DR.     WOLFF  333  ' 

bency  of  Bedford  Chapel,  Exeter.  He  was  the  first  editor  of 
the  children's  Jewish  Advocate^  and  author  of  Six  Lectures  on 
the  JewSy  a  course  of  sermons  which  he  preached  in  St. 
Saviour's  Church,  York,  in  1847.  They  are  most  excellent 
discourses,  and  have  been  of  great  help  to  many  who  wished 
to  become  acquainted  with  the  Scriptural  aspect  of  the 

Several  former  Hebrew  Christian  missionaries  of  the 
Society  passed  away  during  this  Period.  Foremost  amongst 
them  was  Dr.  Joseph  Wolff,  who  died  in  1862.  His  labours 
for  the  Society  have  already  been  narrated.  He  afterward 
became  vicar  of  Linthwaite,  in  Yorkshire.  We  may  here 
quote  the  particulars  of  his  later  life  from  the  author's 
biography  of  him : 

Wolff  shortly  afterward  removed,  on  account  of  his  wife's  health,  to  the  sole 
charge  of  High  Hoyland,  another  Yorkshire  village,  with  about  120  souls.  There, 
too,  he  must  have  felt  like  a  lion  in  a  cage  ;  and  when,  five  >ears  later,  he  resigned 
his  charge  on  the  ground  of  not  being  able  to  meet  his  expenses,  and  undertook 
his  second  journey  to  Bokhara,  he  must  indeed  have  rejoiced  in  an  aftermath  of  the 
freedom  and  action  of  his  earlier  career.  One  little  incident  is  too  good  to  be 
omitted.  Before  Wolff  entered  upon  the  curacy,  his  predecessor,  doubting  the 
sentiments  of  his  successor,  preached  his  farewell  sermon  from  the  text,  **  After 
my  departure  shall  grievous  wolves  enter  in  among  you."  Wolff  remarks, 
"  However,  he  was  very  merciful,  and  made  no  allusion  to  the  coming  *  Wolff*  in 
his  sermon  !  "  On  his  return  from  Bokhara,  Wolff  was  appointed  to  the  living 
of  lie  Brewers,  in  Somersetshire,  with  a  population  of  300,  amongst  whom 
were  two  farmers,  all  the  rest  being  peasants.  There  Wolff  remained  for  the 
remainder  of  his  life,  his  talents  and  brilliant  gifts  being  wasted  in  such  retirement, 
but  his  energy  knowing  no  diminution.  He  built  a  new  parsonage  and  schools, 
defraying  a  portion  of  the  expense  from  the  proceeds  of  his  works  and  lectures  ; 
and  erected  a  new  church,  for  the  cost  of  which  he  laid  all  his  numerous  friends, 
and  everybody  else,  under  contribution  by  incessant  correspondence  and  personal 
applications.  He  was  a  father  to  his  poor,  and  ever>'  winter  supported  35  families 
with  the  necessities  of  life.  Wolff  was  the  neighbour  and  firm  friend  of  George 
Anthony  Denison,  **  dearer  to  him  than  any,"  although  theologically  in  the 
opposite  camp.  Amongst  Wolff's  other  numerous  friends  and  acquaintances,  we 
may  mention  the  names  of  Sir  Walter  Scott,  Dean  Stanley,  Dean  Hook,  Alfred 
Tennyson,  and  Alfred  and  Margaret  Gatty. 

Wolff  died  in  1862,  at  the  age  of  66  or  67  years — a  long  life,  when  the  restless 
activity  of  brain  and  body  is  taken  into  account,  and  a  full  life,  in  every  sense  of 
the  word.  He  exemplified  in  his  person  the  saying,  "It  is  better  to  wear  out 
than  to  rust  out."  His  epitaph  might  well  have  been,  "  The  zeal  of  Thine  house 
hath  eaten  me  up.'* 


The  Greville  Me^noirs,  published  in    1887,  contained  the 
following  notice  of  Dr.  Wolff  from  Mr.  Greville's  diary  : — 

Dined  with  Lord  Anglesey  yesterday,  to  meet  Wolff,  the  miisionary.  I  had 
figured  to  myself  a  tall,  gaunt,  severe,  uncouth  man  ;  but  I  found  a  short,  plump, 
cheerful  person,  with  a  considerable  resemblance  to  the  Buonaparte  family,  and 
with  some  to  old  Denon,  with  one  of  the  most  expressive  countenances  I  ever  saw, 
and  so  agreeable  as  to  compensate  for  very  plain  features  ;  eyes  that  become  sud- 
denly illuminated  when  he  is  warmed  by  his  subject,  and  a  voice  of  peculiar 
sweetness  and  power  of  intonation.  He  came  prepared  to  hold  forth,  with  his 
Bible  in  his  pocket ;  and  accordingly  after  dinner  we  gathered  round  him  in  a 
circle,  and  he  held  forth.  It  would  be  no  easy  matter  to  describe  a  discourse 
which  lasted  a  couple  of  hours,  or,  indeed,  to  say  very  precisely  what  it  was  about. 
It  was  a  rambling,  desultory  reference  to  his  travels  and  adventures,  in  fluent,  and 
sometimes  eloquent  language,  and  not  without  an  occasional  dash  of  humour  and 
drollery.  He  illustrated  the  truth  of  the  Scriptures  by  examples  drawn  from  his 
personal  observation,  and  the  habits,  expressions  and  belief  of  the  present  inhabi- 
tants of  Palestine,  and  he  spoke  with  evident  sincerity  and  enthusiasm.     He  sang 

two  or  three  hymns,  as  specimens  of  the  psalmody  now  in  use  at  Jerusalem 

He  told  us  that  he  had  learnt  fourteen  languages,  and  had  preached  in  nine. 

In  1864  died  J.  G.  Lazarus,  formerly  stationed  at  Liverpool 
and  Manchester,  aged  64 ;  and  in  the  following  year, 
Dr.  Neumann,  who  did  pre-eminent  service  at  Breslau  for 
25  years,  was  taken  to  his  rest  in  the  87th  year  of  his  age. 
He  was  a  Professor  at  the  University,  and  influenced  Hell- 
muth  amongst  others  toward  Christianity,  as  related  on 
page  167.  J.  G.  Lange,  who  had  been  connected  with  the 
Society  for  42  years,  fell  asleep  on  August  4th,  1869,  aged 
65  years.  He  was  originally  a  pupil  in  Janickd's  celebrated 
seminary  at  Berlin,  and  entered  the  Society's  College  in 
1827.  He  worked  with  much  blessing  at  Amsterdam, 
Warsaw,  Lublin,  Suwalki,  again  at  Warsaw,  and  finally  at 
Breslau,  retiring  from  active  service  in  1866  to  Griinberg, 
where  he  occupied  the  three  remaining  years  of  life  helping  in 
the  revision  of  the  Society's  Hebrew  New  Testament 

On  October  i6th,  1869,  there  died,  in  British  Guiana,  the 
Rev.  Joseph  Abraham  Pieritz,  aged  65.  He  was  rector  of  the 
parish  of  St.  Patrick,  Berbice,and  had  for  many  years  laboured 
faithfully  for  the  Society  at  Bristol,  Bath  and  other  places 
in  the  West  of  England.  His  end  was  painfully  sudden,  the 
result  of  a  carriage  accident.  He  lingered  for  four  days  in  the 
greatest  agony,  but  with  wonderful  patience  and  trust  in  his 


Saviour.  He  was  greatly  respected,  the  Bishop  of  Guiana 
(Spencer)  reading  the  funeral  service,  which  was  attended  by 
over  2,000  persons. 

Before  the  end  of  the  same  year,  on  December  17th,  the 
Society  lost  another  old  missionary,  the  Rev.  John  Stockfeld, 
at  the  age  of  73.  Born  in  Prussia  in  1796,  he  laboured 
successively  from  1825  at  Amsterdam,  Cologne,  Neuwied, 
Kreuznach  and  in  Bavaria.  Most  of  his  time  was  thus  spent 
in  his  native  country.  He  retired  in  1868,  after  a  lengthened 
service  of  43  years,  but  did  not  long  enjoy  his  well-earned 

The  next  year,  1870,  J.  Waschitscheck  died  at  Fraustadt, 
aged  70.  He  entered  the  Society's  ranks  in  1829,  laboured 
at  Amsterdam,  Warsaw  and  Fraustadt,  retiring  in  1861,  after 
nearly  32  years  of  faithful  service. 

William  Crickmer,  the  Society's  Accountant,  died  at 
Croydon  on  June  30th,  1870,  in  the  78th  year  of  his  age.  He 
was  officially  connected  with  the  Society  for  47  years,  and 
greatly  respected  by  all  who  knew  him. 

The  next  year  a  very  old  friend  of  the  Society  died  in 
Ireland — the  Rev.  John  Hare.  Ordained  to  the  curacy  of 
St  James',  Dublin,  he  was  appointed  in  1828,  by  Archbishop 
Magee,  minister  of  the  Free  Church,  Great  Charles  Street. 
There,  for  some  time,  he  worked  conjointly  with  the  Rev.  W. 
Mayers,  a  converted  Jew,  and  ultimately  held  the  appoint- 
ment solely  up  to  the  time  of  his  death,  July  21st,  187 1,  a 
period  of  forty-three  years.  The  Rev.  J.  Eustace  Brenan, 
who  was  then  Irish  Secretary,  said  of  him  : 

He  was  one  of  the  earliest  supporters  of  Jewish  Missions  in  Ireland,  and  his 
interest  in  the  work,  so  far  from  diminishing  as  time  wore  on,  was  sustained,  if 
possible,  with  increasing  power  to  the  end  of  his  life.  For  forty-seven  years 
consecutively  he  acted  as  a  member  of  the  Irish  executive  committee,  and  for 
sixteen  years  held  the  position  of  honorary  secretary.  His  duties  in  this  respect 
were  by  no  means  a  sinecure.  He  visited  the  office  almost  every  day,  encouraging 
those  connected  with  it  by  his  unobtrusive  kindness  and  sympathy,  and  helping 
them  with  his  valuable  counsel  and  advice.  His  love  for  Israel  was  no  mere 
momentary  enthusiasm  ;  it  was  the  desire  and  work  of  his  life.* 

The  death  of  two  ladies  connected  with  the  Society  must 

*  Jewish  Intelligence^  1 87 1,  p.  222. 


be  noted — that  of  Mrs.  Nicolayson,  widow  of  the  Rev.  John 
Nicolayson,  at  Glenageary,  Kingstown,  Ireland,  in  1866,  and 
of  Mrs.  Alexander,  widow  of  the  Bishop,  at  St  Leonards- 
on-Sea,  in  1872.  It  is  interesting  to  note  that  one  of  the 
latter's  daughters  married  the  Rev.  T.  G.  Hatchard,  Rector 
of  Havant,  afterward  Bishop  of  Mauritius.  He  was  the  son 
of  the  Hatchard  of  Plymouth,  who  had  baptized  both 
Alexander  and  his  wife. 

The  Rev.  C.  J.  Goodhart,  who  had  been  Secretary  from  1853, 
resigned  his  position  toward  the  close  of  1868,  on  his  acceptance 
of  the  living  of  Wetherden  in  Suffolk,  and  was  appointed 
Honorary  Secretary.  During  his  tenure  of  office  he  had  also 
held  the  incumbency  of  Park  Chapel,  Chelsea ;  the  double 
duties  not  then  being  thought  beyond  the  power  of  one  man 
to  discharge,  as  they  most  certainly  are  at  the  present 
day.  But  Goodhart  was  no  ordinary  man — he  dominated 
the  Committee  and  ruled  the  missionaries  with  a  rod  of  iron. 
Yet  they  all  appeared  to  like  it !  For  he  not  only  thus 
magnified  his  office,  but  also  made  it  honourable.  And, 
which  was  more  to  the  purpose,  he  magnified  the  cause, 
and  increased  its  popularity,  especially  amongst  that  class 
who  were  more  interested  in  the  Jewish  question  than  in  the 
actual  work  of  the  Society,  and  who  held  the  same  prophetical 
views  as  himself.  These  he  was  never  tired  of  advocating, 
nor  his  hearers  of  hearing.  What  Sydney  Smith  said  of 
Bishop  Blomfield  of  London,  might  ceteris  mutandis  be  said  of 
Goodhart.  Sydney  Smith  said  Blomfield  was  "  the  Church  of 
England  here  upon  earth,"  and  "  when  the  Church  of  England 
is  mentioned,  it  only  means  Charles  James  London."*  So  in 
the  same  emphatic  way  Goodhart  was  the  Society,  and  the 
Society  for  the  time  being  was  Goodhart.  His  acquaintance 
with  its  actual  work  was  not  so  circumstantial  or  exten- 
sive as  that  possessed  by  his  predecessor,  William  Ayerst, 
which  was  gained  in  the  mission  field  itself;  but  Goodhart 
had  a  more  marked  personality  which  impressed  every  one 
with   whom   he   came   into   contact.     Both  these  men  were 

*  Memoirs  of  Bishop  Blomfield^  i.  205. 

i874]  SECRETARIAT  337 

very  highly  esteemed  and  honoured  for  their  work's  sake. 
Goodhart  was  succeeded  from  January  ist,  1869,  by  the 
Rev.  C.  H.  Banning.  In  1871  the  Rev.  Frederick  Smith 
succeeded  Captain  Layard,  the  lay  secretaryship  being 
abolished,  and  a  second  clerical  secretary  appointed.  When 
Banning  resigned  in  1873,  on  his  acceptance  of  the  living 
of  Christ  Church,  Greenwich,  a  new  departure  was  made, 
and  instead  of  a  full  secretary  being  appointed,  the  Rev. 
G.  T.  Braine,  metropolitan  secretary,  was  elected  also 
Assistant  Secretary,  but  he  held  the  post  only  a  short 

Captain  Henry  Layard,  the  third  and  last  of  the  "  Lay 
Secretaries,"  died  in  harness  on  February  24th,  1871,  after 
a  protracted  illness  borne  with  Christian  fortitude.  He 
had  formerly  been  Captain  in  the  97th  Regiment,  serving 
in  India  until  his  retirement  in  1835.  He  lived  in  Ceylon 
from  1 84 1  to  1849.  He  had  already  been  led  to  take  an 
interest  in  the  Jews  by  Bishop  Alexander  and  Dr.  Wolff, 
and  in  the  latter  year  was  appointed  Lay  Secretary,  and 
discharged  the  trust,  as  the  Committee  left  on  record,  "  with 
unwearied  zeal  and  indefatigable  labour,  devoting  his  talents, 
which  were  of  a  high  order,  and  his  mature  experience,  to 
the  duties  of  his  office,  with  a  single  eye  to  the  glory  of  God." 
On  his  appointment  he  gave  his  days  and  nights,  sleeping  at 
the  Society's  House  for  that  purpose,  to  the  careful  perusal  of 
the  minutes  of  previous  years,  that  he  might  put  himself  fully 
in  possession  of  all  the  circumstances  and  events  in  their 
minutest  detail.  His  colleague  for  fifteen  years,  Goodhart, 
thus  wrote  of  him  : 

He  thoroughly  loved  the  Jewish  nation  ;  clearly  discerned  their  place  in  the 
Word  and  purposes  of  God ;  felt  both  the  privilege  and  the  duly  of  seeking  the 
salvation  of  the  remnant  according  to  the  election  of  grace  ;  and  was  abundant  in 
prayers  and  labours  throughout  his  time  of  service  on  behalf  of  Israel.  Thus 
really  loving  the  work  in  which  he  was  engaged,  he  worked  at  it  diligently,  and 
often  beyond  his  strength  ;  and  in  the  weakness  of  his  latter  years,  it  seemed  his 
recreation  and  delight  instead  of  a  burden. 

We  believe  his  visits  to  Jerusalem  and  to  other  missions  of  the  Society, 
in  six  lengthened  tours,  were  of  the  greatest  value ;  and  by  many  of  our 
missionary    brethren    he    became    most     highly     esteemed,    as    an    invaluable 


friend  and  brother.  We  often  found  him  singularly  sagacious  in  suggesting 
the  right  man  for  a  particular  post.  He  sometimes  said — almost  perhaps 
too  freely  and  plainly — what  he  thought  was  wrong  and  what  he  thought 
was  right  * 

The  following  were  appointed  clerical  Association  Secre- 
taries  during   this   Period :    E.   Geare   (eastern   and   north- 
midland  districts,  i860 — 73),  afterward  vicar  of  St.  George's, 
Wolverhampton ;   C.   Godfrey   Ashwin    (north-western    and 
south-western  districts,  1861 — 1890),  now  rector  of  Christon  ; 
Frederick  Smith  (south-eastern   and   metropolitan  districts, 
1861 — 71),   subsequently   chief  Secretary,   now  "Visitor   of 
Associations  "  and  rector  of  Woodchester  ;  J.  Drury  (south- 
midland    district,    1862 — 1875),    who    died   at    Cheltenham 
in  188 1  ;   C.    H.    Banning   (eastern    and    metropolitan    dis- 
tricts,   1862—69),    afterward    chief    Secretary;    J.    Christo- 
pherson  (north-eastern  district,   1863 — 73),  afterward    rector 
of  Aslackby;  J.  J.  Jeckell  (eastern  district,  1865 — 71),  after- 
ward rector  of  Thwaite  All   Saints,  Norwich,  and  Rylstone, 
Yorkshire;  F.  A.  Morgan  (south-western  district,  1866—69), 
now  vicar  of  Broadway,  Worcestershire  ;  J.  Eustace  Brenan 
(south-eastern  district,  1869 — 73),  afterward  vicar  of  Christ 
Church,  Ramsgate,  and  Emmanuel,  Clifton  ;  Cecil  B.  Carlon 
(south-western  district,  1 869—  79),  afterw  ard  rector  of  Stanton 
Prior ;   W.  J.    Adams   (eastern   and   south-eastern   districts, 
1 87 1 — 5),  subsequently  Assistant  Secretary  of  the  Society, 
then  chief  Secretary  and  incumbent  of  St.  Paul's,  Kilburn  ; 
G.    T.    Braine   (north-midland    and    metropolitan    districts, 
1873 — 84),   afterward   vicar   of  Liskeard  ;  G.  O.  Brownrigg 
(north-eastern  district,  1873 — 75),  subsequently  vicar  of  St. 
Mary's,  Harrogate ;  Mervyn  Archdall  (eastern  and  northern 
districts,   1874 — 82),  now  rector  of  Balmain  and   Canon    of 
Sydney,  N.S.W.  ;  and  F.  S.  Legg  (north-midland,  1874 — 6), 
now  rector  of  Alfald,  Sussex. 

With  regard  to  the  publications  of  the  Society  :  from 
January  ist,  1 861,  The  Jcivish  Records,  which  were  practically 
supplements  to  the  monthly  magazine,  were  published 
monthly  instead  of  quarterly,  as  had  been  the  case  since  1822, 

*  Jewish  InUUi^eme,   1S71,  p.   Id. 

i874]  HEBREW   NEW    TESTAMENT  339 

an  arrangement  which  enabled  more  missionary  information 
to  be  imparted.  The  Society  now  had  thirty-two  stations, 
and  necessarily  much  interesting  matter  had  to  be  omitted 
or  postponed  till  it  could  hardly  be  called  recent  We 
know  what  this  means  to-day,  even  with  our  far  larger 
periodical.  In  1869,  another  **  new  series  oi  Jewish  Records** 
unnumbered,  was  commenced,  and  continued  till  1884,  when 
a  larger  monthly  magazine  rendered  them  unnecessary. 
Mrs.  Knight  edited  the  Jewish  Advocate  from  1865  to  1879, 
when  it  passed  into  the  hands  of  the  Secretaries  of  the  Society. 

A  revised  edition  of  the  Hebrew  New  Testament,  with 
points  and  accents,  was  issued  in  1866.  The  first  translation, 
as  we  have  seen,  was  published  in  1 817,  and  a  second  in  1838, 
but  these  contained  points  only,  and  not  accents.  The 
addition  of  the  latter  rendered  it  of  greater  value  in  the  eyes 
of  Jews  accustomed  to  regard  the  presence  of  the  accents  in 
the  Old  Testament  with  peculiar  veneration. 

In  1866  a  series  of  papers,  which  had  previously  appeared 
in  the  Jewish  Intelligence^  by  the  Rev.  T.  D.  Halsted,  a 
former  Association  Secretary,  was  published,  under  the  title 
of  Otir  Missions^  dealing  with  the  history  of  the  Society  from 
its  foundation  to  that  date. 

z  2 



Dr.  Ewaid'5  labours— Death  of  Cartwrlffht— Isaac  Brock  appointed  Chaplain- 
Succeeded  by  W.  Warren— Death  of  Ewald— Appointment  of  H.  A.  5tem— Services 
and  Meetings— Woric  for  Jewesses  by  Mrs.  Reynolds— Death  of  J.  C.  Reichardt— 
The  Provinces— Training  of  students. 

DR.  Ewald  pursued  his  indefatigable  labours  in  London 
for  the  first  ten  years  of  this  Period,  but  was  almost 
at  its  commencement  to  lose  his  fellow-worker  and 
friend,  the  Rev.  J.  B.  Cartwright.  Whilst  Ewald  had  been 
the  active  missionary,  bringing  the  lost  sheep  of  Israel  under 
the  sound  of  the  Gospel,  Cartwright  had  admitted  them  into 
the  fold,  and  subsequently  tended  them.  It  was  on  February 
8th,  1 86 1,  at  the  comparatively  early  age  of  63,  that  Cart- 
wright, whose  connexion  with  the  Society  had  lasted  for  35 
years,  entered  into  rest.  The  way  in  which  he  was  led  to  its 
service  is  very  interesting.  When  an  undergraduate  of  Cam- 
bridge Universit}'  he  used  to  attend  Simeon's  church.  After 
serving  two  curacies,  he  was  appointed  to  the  living  of 
Brierley,  in  Yorkshire,  where  he  started  an  Auxiliar>'  Asso- 
ciation of  the  Society.  One  of  his  local  reports  fell  into  the 
hands  of  Simeon,  who  was  so  much  struck  by  jt  that,  in  con- 
junction with  Marsh  and  Hawtrey,  he  invited  him  to  become 
Secretary.  He  accepted  the  post  and  held  it  from  1826  to  184 1. 
For  several  years  he  travelled  much  as  deputation,  and  this, 
in  addition  to  his  other  duties,  impaired  his  health.  So  he 
was  glad  to  settle  in  Palestine  Place  in  1832,  as  the  minister 
of  the  Hebrew  Christian  congregation,  although  he  retained 
his  secretaryship  until  1841.  From  1850  to  1856  he  was 
Principal  of  the  College.  But  it  was  in  his  pastorate  that  he 
was  most  greatly  blessed,  and  it  is  that  for  which  he  is  chiefly 

i86o-74]  DR.    EWALD'S    LABOURS  341 

remembered.  He  probably  baptized  more  Jews  than  any 
clergyman  since  the  early  days  of  Christianity,  and  to  these, 
as  also  to  the  Jewish  children  in  the  Society^s  schools,  he  was 
ever  a  most  faithful  spiritual  father  and  friend.  A  tablet  to 
his  memory  was  erected  in  the  church. 

He  was  succeeded  in  the  chaplaincy  by  the  Rev.  Isaac 
Brock,  who  held  it  till  1866,  when  he  was  appointed  to  the 
Chapel  of  Ease,  Islington,  his  place  being  taken  by  the  Rev. 
William  Warren,  curate  of  Trowbridge. 

Ewald's  work  continued  to  be  abundantly  blessed.  Since 
1 85 1  he  had  prepared  fifty-eight  Jewish  families  for  baptism, 
besides  individuals.  By  this  time  the  number  of  Hebrew 
Christians  in  England  was  large,  and  many  had  taken  Holy 
Orders  in  the  Church,  as  may  be  seen  from  the  following 
letter  written  to  Ewald  in  1866  : 

Forty  years  ago  not  a  member  of  my  family  had  been  known  to  have  become  a 
Christian.  Since  that  time  the  results  have  been  as  follows  :  My  father  and 
mother,  now  greatly  advanced  in  years,  with  their  eight  children,  have  become 
sincere  and  devoted  Christians.  Taking  their  immediate  relatives,  there  were 
four  brothers  and  two  sisters  on  my  father's  side,  and  four  brothers  and  three 
sisters  on  my  mother's  side.  On  my  father's  side  there  were  forty-one  nephews 
and  nieces,  and  on  my  mother's  twenty-five  ;  of  these  there  are  not  ten  who  have 
not  become  Christians,  and  the  change  to  Christianity  has  in  some  instances  taken 
place  to  the  prejudice  of  their  worldly  interests.  Add  to  this  that  four  of  the 
number  are  clergymen  of  the  Church  of  England.  I  have  taken  no  account  of  a 
large  number  of  children  who  now  form  the  third  generation  of  English  Christians 
issuing  from  the  same  Jewish  stock. 

Ewald  went  on  working  till  1870,  and  when,  owing 
to  increasing  years,  he  retired  from  the  mission,  he  could 
thankfully  look  back  upon  a  highly  successful  career. 
During  his  residence  in  the  metropolis  hundreds  of  Jews 
were  baptized  out  of  some  thousands  instructed  by  him. 
He  enjoyed  his  well-earned  rest  for  only  a  brief  space,  and 
died  at  Gipsy  Hill,  London,  on  August  9th,  1874,  ^^  the  age 
of  73  years.  He  was  one  of  the  most  famous  of  Hebrew 
Christian  missionaries.  Educated  by  the  Society,  he  entered 
its  service  in  1832,  and  was  ordained  in  1836;  he  was  in  North 
Africa  from  1832  to  1841  ;  in  Jerusalem  for  the  next  ten 
years;  and  in  London  from  185 1  to  1870.  His  work  has 
been  recorded  under  the  history  of  these  various  missions. 

342  HOME    MISSION   AGAIN  [i860 

He  published  in  1856  a  German  translation  of  Abodah 
Zarah  (Idolatrous  Worship),  the  name  of  one  of  the  treatises 
of  the  Talmud,  for  which  his  University  of  Erlangen  con- 
ferred upon  him  the  degree  of  Doctor  of  Philosophy.  A 
distinction  which  he  valued  still  more  highly  was  the  degree 
of  Bachelor  of  Divinity,  which  was  conferred  upon  him  by 
the  Patron  of  the  Society,  the  Archbishop  of  Canterbury 
(Tait),  in  consideration  of  his  proficiency  in  divinity,  Hebrew, 
and  Oriental  languages  and  literature ;  and  also  of  his  mis- 
sionary labours  and  eminent  services  in  the  promotion  of 
Christianity  amongst  the  Jews. 

Bishop  Montagu  Villiers  of  Carlisle  spoke  of  Dr.  Ewald 
as  a  "  missionar)^  genius,"  a  description  fully  deserved  for 
his  ability  and  devotion  to  the  work  to  which  he  gave  his  life. 

It  was  no  easy  matter  to  find  a  man  qualified  to  succeed 
him.  Only  one  seemed  possible,  Henry  Aaron  Stem, 
whose  health,  undermined  by  long  and  severe  sufferings  in 
Abyssinia,  no  longer  permitted  him  to  serve  the  Society  in 
the  East.  He  was  appointed  Ewald's  successor  from 
January  ist,  1871,  and  brought  to  his  new  sphere  a  wide 
experience  in  Jewish  missionary  work,  gained  in  Persia, 
Turkey,  Arabia,  and  Abyssinia,  and  an  acquaintance  with 
a  dozen  or  more  languages,  an  invaluable  possession  for 
a  missionary  in  the  metropolis,  who  has,  by  personal  inter- 
course and  correspondence,  to  deal  with  Jews  of  many  different 
nationalities.  Though  Stern  missed  in  England  the  refined 
courtesy  of  the  German,  and  the  religious  gravity  of  the 
Oriental  Jew,  and  consequently  those  winning  qualities  which 
helped  on  friendly  intercourse  and  mutual  interchange  of 
convictions  between  missionary  and  Jew,  he  yet  found  that 
most  of  the  Jews  in  London  were  able  to  discuss  religious 
questions  calmly  and  dispassionately.  The  three  chief  means 
which  Stern  relied  upon  to  win  his  way  amongst  them 
were  circulation  of  tracts,  domiciliary  visitation,  and  special 
sermons  in  Spitalfields  and  Whitechapel.  The  last  were 
highly  successful.  Jews  attended  in  large  numbers,  attracted 
by  the  fame  of  the  preacher,  and  the  glowing  and  burning 
eloquence  which  flowed  from  his  lips  as  he  pointed  them  to 

i874]  WOKK   FOK  JEIVESSES  343 

the  Messiah.  An  attendance  from  400  to  500  Jews  was  of 
frequent  occurrence.  A  German  prayer  meeting  was  sub- 
stituted for  the  service  hitherto  held  on  Friday  evenings, 
in  order  to  draw  together  some  of  the  2,000  converts,  and 
numerous  enquirers  then  in  London.  This  paved  the  way 
for  the  establishment,  in  1882,  of  the  "Hebrew  Christian 
Prayer  Union."  * 

The  Annual  Reports  of  this  Period  will  repay  careful 
perusal.  Thousands  of  Jews  were  addressed  in  public  and  in 
private,  in  streets,  houses,  shops,  and  in  churches  and  mission 
halls.  A  mission  hall,  situated  in  Whitechapel,  became  a 
useful  centre,  where  meetings  on  Saturdays  and  other  days, 
were  generally  well  attended.  There  was  a  daily  Bible  Class 
held  for  Jews.     Baptisms  were  numerous. 

The  work  amongst  Jewesses  was  not  neglected  during  this 
Period,  for  in  1870  Mrs.  Reynolds  was  appointed  as  mis- 
sionary to  work  in  their  midst  The  daughter  of  Sir  David 
James  Hamilton  Dickson,  M.D.,  R.N.,  she  married,  in  1859, 
the  Rev.  James  Jubilee  Reynolds,  many  years  incumbent  of 
Bedford  Church,  Exeter,  and  previously  one  of  the  secretaries 
of  the  Society.  After  his  death  she  came  to  London,  and 
offered  her  services  to  the  Committee.  She  laboured  very 
zealously  for  seventeen  years  amongst  Jewesses  and  their 
children  in  the  East  of  London,  by  paying  personal  visits, 
distributing  the  Holy  Scriptures,  and  holding  night  classes 
for  Jewish  children  in  the  Wentworth  Street  Ragged  Schools. 
She  was  assisted  by  two  helpers. 

Just  before  the  close  of  this  Period  the  London  Mission 
sustained  a  further  heavy  loss  by  the  death  on  March  13th, 
1873,  in  the  70th  year  of  his  age,  of  the  Rev.  John  Christian 
Reichardt,  who  for  very  nearly  half  a  century  had  devoted 
his  life  as  a  missionary  to  the  Jews.  Appointed  as  far  back 
as  1824,  he  worked,  as  we  have  already  seen,  in  Warsaw,  and 
in  London,  and  also  temporarily  in  Jerusalem,  and  in  Holland. 
He  was  Clerical  Superintendent  of  the  Operative  Jewish  Con- 
verts* Institution  from  1831  to  1851.   A  brilliant  scholar,  he  is 

*  See  page  424. 

344  HOME    MISSION   AGAIN  [1860-74 

chiefly  remembered  for  his  great  work,  already  referred  to,  con- 
tinued for  many  years,  on  the  Society's  editions  of  the  Hebrew 
Old  and  New  Testaments.  He  also  rendered  conspicuous 
service  in  the  training  of  candidates  for  missionary  employ- 
ment. He  had  great  influence  with  the  Committee,  whose 
meetings  he  frequently  attended — an  influence  which  was 
increased  by  his  connexion  by  marriage  with  Goodhart,  at 
that  time  secretary.  Reichardt's  death,  which  occurred  almost 
suddenly  in  the  midst  of  his  multifarious  labours,  snapped  a 
link  with  the  second  generation  of  the  Society,  which  was 
incalculably  the  poorer  by  the  departure  of  three  of  its  very 
foremost  workers— Cartwright,  Ewald  and  Reichardt — within 
twelve  years. 

Very  little  need  be  said  about  the  Society's  efforts  in  the 
Provinces  during  this  Period.  The  Rev.  Jacob  Hirsch,  whom 
we  left  in  Liverpool,  continued  his  good  work  until  1874, 
when,  owing  to  failing  sight,  he  was  obliged  to  relinquish  it. 
At  the  sister  town  of  Manchester  the  mission  was  under  the 
supervision  of  the  Rev.  H.  Friedlander,  from  1866  to  1870, 
and  from  1870  to  1876  Mr.  L.  C.  Mamlock  was  in  charge. 

A  word  must  be  said  about  the  training  of  missionary 
students.  From  i860  to  1872,  and  again  from  1873  to  1875, 
candidates  were  under  private  tuition  at  the  hands  of  the 
Revs.  A.  S.  Thelwall,  T.  D.  Halsted,  F.  T.  Bassett, 
W.  Ayerst,  Senior,  and  G.  W.  Butler,  whilst  two  students 
were  at  St.  John's  College,  Highbury,  from  1872  to  1876. 
Amongst  those  trained  under  these  systems  we  may  men- 
tion, M.  Wolkenberg,  G.  E.  Andersson,  M.  Rosenthal,  H.  G. 
Heathcote,  and  E.  H.  Shepherd,  now  the  Rev.  H.  E.  Archer- 
Shepherd,  rector  of  Avenbury. 



Territorial  disposition  of  Jews— Work  In  Holland— Death  of  Isaac  da  CosU— 
Paul!  and  Adier— Berlin  Mission— SchuIze  and  Bellson— Christ  Church  built— 
Paulus  Cassel— De  le  Roi  at  Breslau— Biesenthal  at  Leipzig— Professor  Delitzsch— 
Oraf  at  Posen— Rhine  district— Prankfort«on«the«Maln— Dr.  Paper's  work— A.  C. 
AdIer— Baltic  Provinces— B.  M.  Tartakover,  Q.  H.  Handler,  J.  Skolkowskl  and 
others— Hamburg— Death  of  P.  W.  Becker— Appointment  of  S.  T.  Bachert. 

THE  majority  of  Jews  in  the  world  are  found  in 
Christian  lands,  a  much  smaller  number  in  Moham- 
medan countries,  and  scarcely  any  at  all  amongst  the 
heathen.  This  disposition  ought  to  be  an  important  factor 
in  the  progress  of  the  Gospel  amongst  them.  And  so  it 
has  been  the  policy  of  the  Society  for  the  last  few  years  to 
restrict  its  work  in  Protestant  countries,  in  order  to  send  a 
larger  contingent  of  missionaries  to  other  lands,  either  those 
where  the  pure  light  of  the  Gospel  is  not  shining,  or  those 
where  total  darkness  still  prevails.  Consequently,  the  Society's 
missions  in  Protestant  Europe  are  now  a  dwindling  group, 
although  they  had  hardly  become  so  within  the  present 

For  the  sake  of  convenience  the  European  missions  in 
this  and  two  following  chapters  are  divided  into  three 
groups — missions  in  Protestant,  in  Roman  Catholic,  and  in 
Mohammedan  Europe.  This  chapter  deals  with  those  in 
Protestant  countries.     Let  us  take  Holland  first 

The  cause  of  missions  suffered  a  serious  loss  in  i860  by 
the  death  of  Dr.  Isaac  da  Costa,  an  eminent  Hebrew 
Christian  at  Amsterdam,  whose  history  is  given  in  Chapter 
VI.  He  had  just  finished  bringing  out  a  complete  edition,  in 
sixteen  large  volumes,  of  the  Poetical  Works  of  Bilderdyk^  his 
spiritual  father.  His  death  was  deplored  as  a  national  loss. 
The  Rev.  A.  S.  Thelwall,  the  Society's  former  missionary  at 
Amsterdam,  said  : 


I  consider  him  as  one  of  the  most  beautiful  examples  of  EHvine  grace  that  I 
ever  met  with.  If  ever  I  had  a  foretaste  of  heaven  upon  earth,  it  was  in  the 
Christian  communion  that  I  had  with  him,  and  his  dear  friend  Dr.  Capadose, 
when  we  read  together  the  Scriptures,  and  sang  together  the  Psalms  of  David, — 
while  the  howl  of  persecution  was  around  us,  and  we  knew  that  there  were 
persons  without,  who  could  not  mention  our  names  without  curses.  And  when 
I  look  upon  the  results  of  hb  conversion  and  of  his  Christian  labours — the 
influence  of  which  has  been  felt,  and  is  still  felt,  in  various  ways,  throughout  the 
length  and  breadth  of  the  countr>'  in  which  he  lived,  it  is  no  exaggeration  to 
say,  that  I  am  not  aware  of  the  conversion  of  any  Jew,  since  the  days  of  the 
Apostles,  which  was  so  important,  and  so  worthy  of  note,  as  that  of  Isaac  da  Costa. 

Pauli  continued  his  indefatigable  labours  in  Amsterdam,  and 
by  1 87 1  the  number  of  converts  had  risen  from  five  or  six  in 
1844,  when  he  first  went  there,  to  400  or  500,  and  were  to  be 
found  in  every  town  in  Holland.  During  his  thirty  years' 
residence  in  Amsterdam  he  himself  baptized  105  Jews.  In 
1874,  owing  to  advancing  years,  he  had  to  relinquish  the  post, 
and  was  succeeded  by  the  Rev.  August  Charles  Adler,  who 
had  been  assisting  in  the  mission  since  the  previous  year, 
having  formerly  worked  in  the  Danubian  Principalities  and  at 

We  must  now  re-visit  the  Society's  important  station  of 
Berlin,  where,  in  i860,  the  Rev.  Dr.  Schulze  was  added  to  the 
list  of  missionaries ;  but,  although  efforts  were  redoubled,  it 
was  found  that  the  work  of  evangelizing  the  Jews  became  more 
and  more  difficult  in  proportion  as  they  gained  influence.  The 
number  of  baptisms  had  fallen  off  in  recent  years,  although, 
from  1844  to  1864  inclusive,  the  Rev.  R.  Bellson  baptized 
1 30  Jews.  At  this  time  it  appears  to  have  been  increasingly  felt 
that  the  Society's  work  in  Berlin,  and  the  growing  number  of 
Hebrew  German  Christians,  called  for  a  church  where  worship 
should  be  conducted  in  accordance  with  the  rites  of  the 
National  Church  of  Prussia,  but  by  the  missionaries  of  the 
Society.  It  would  not  be  possible  for  the  Society  to  build  a 
Lutheran  place  of  worship  to-day,  or,  indeed,  any  building, 
where  Divine  Ser\'ice  would  not  be  conducted  according  to 
the  use  of  the  Church  of  England.  But  in  the  early  sixties, 
when  a  certain  portion  of  its  missionaries  were  Lutheran 
ministers,  such  an  objection  was  apparently  not  thought  of. 

i874]  PAUL  US    CASS  EL  347 

Through  the  efforts  of  the  Society's  missionaries  in  Berlin, 
aided  by  the  Committee  at  home,  about  ;f  6,500  was  raised  for 
the  purchase  of  a  site  and  the  erection  of  Christ  Church,  a 
stately  Gothic  building,  with  1,020  sittings,  situated  in  Wilhelm- 
strasse.  The  church  was  opened  on  November  23rd,  1 864,  in  the 
presence  of  a  large  congregation.  The  King  of  Prussia  was 
unavoidably  prevented  from  attending.  The  Committee  were 
represented  by  Captain  Layard  (secretary),  and  the  Rev. 
J.  C.  Reichardt.  Local  interest  in  the  mission  increased,  the 
result  of  this  new  centre  of  evangelization,  the  services  being 
conducted  by  Drs.  Schulze  and  Klee.  Christ  Church,  however, 
became  still  better  known  on  the  appointment,  on  January 
1st,  1868,  of  the  learned  and  distinguished  Professor  Paulus 
Cassel,  D.D.,  to  be  its  minister. 

Two  years  later,  in  1870,  Bellson  retired  from  active 
service,  and  was  succeeded  by  Cassel  as  head  of  the  mis- 
sion. He  was  very  ably  assisted,  for  eight  years,  by  the 
Rev.  F.  Hausig,  and,  at  other  times,  by  Mr.  A.  N.  Romann, 
who  died  in  1 870,  and  by  colporteurs.  Dr.  Klee  had  been 
transferred  to  Danzig  in  1867,  having,  during  the  last  three 
years  of  his  service  at  Berlin,  baptized  eight  Jews ;  and  Dr. 
Biesenthal  had  been  appointed  to  Leipzig  in  the  same  year. 

Paulus  Cassel,  in  many  respects,  was  one  of  the  most 
remarkable  missionaries  ever  in  the  Society's  ranks.  Selig 
Cassel,  as  his  original  name  was,  was  born  at  Glogau,  in 
Silesia,  on  February  27th,  1821,  of  Jewish  parents.  After 
having  been  prepared  for  the  University  at  the  Gymnasium 
(College)  of  Schweidnitz,  he  went  to  Berlin,  in  order  to  study 
history  as  a  pupil  of  the  famous  historian,  Dr.  Ranke.  For  a 
time  he  was  on  the  journalistic  staff  of  the  Constittitianelle 
Zeitungy  in  Berlin.  Afterward,  in  1850,  Cassel  went  to 
Erfurt,  where  he  was  the  editor  of  the  Erfurter  Zeitung  from 
1850  to  1856.  His  Christian  friends,  and  especially,  accord- 
ing to  his  own  statement,  his  study  of  the  history  of  Israel, 
led  him  to  Christianity,  which  he  embraced  in  1855,  being 
baptized  at  Biissleben,  a  village  near  Erfurt,  on  May  28th, 
receiving  the  names  "  Paulus  Stephanus."  Every  year  subse- 
quently he  was  wont  to  celebrate  this  "  second  birthday,"  as  he 

348  Af/SS/OXS    IN    PROTESTANT   EUROPE  [i860 

called  it,  amidst  his  friends  and  congregation.  For  a  feni'  years 
Cassel  remained  in  the  tow-n  where  the  great  change  in  his  life 
had  taken  place.  He  became  the  custodian  of  the  public  library 
and  the  secretary  of  the  Erfurt  Academy.  He  was  then 
called  to  Berlin  by  the  Prime  Minister,  who  entrusted  him 
with  the  editorship  of  the  official  Deutsche  Reform.  He 
resigned  the  post  at  the  end  of  six  months  to  return  to  his 
books  and  studies  at  Erfurt  King  Frederick  William  IV.  of 
Prussia  honoured  him  with  the  title  of  "  Professor."  The 
Universit>'  of  Erlangen  conferred  on  him  the  d^^ree  of 
**  Licentiatus  Theologiae."  Afterward  in  Vienna,  Cassel 
obtained  that  of  "  Doctor  Theolc^ae  "  (Doctor  of  Divinity). 
In  1859  he  returned  to  Berlin  and  arranged  public  lectures, 
which  were  more  and  more  largely  attended  and  appreciated 
by  both  Jews  and  Gentiles.  These  lectures  made  him  kno^^-n 
throughout  the  capital  and  the  countiy.  Dr.  Cassel  was  elected 
a  member  of  the  "Landtag,"  the  Prussian  Parliament,  in 
1866,  and  became  a  prominent  member  of  the  Conservative 
party.  As  this  mandate  took  him  too  much  from  his  literary 
work,  he  soon  laid  it  do^Ti. 

Passing  on  to  Breslau,  where  we  left  a  large  staff  of  workers 
in  1859,  nothing  of  importance  is  to  be  noted  until  1866,  when 
the  Rev.  J.  F.  de  le  Roi  joined  the  mission,  and  conducted 
services  for  Jews  and  converts  in  the  Barbara  Church,  as  well 
as  editing  the  periodical,  Dibre  Emeth,  for  Jews  and  Christians, 
which  had  been  established  by  Mr.  Hartmann  in  1843. 
Mr.  T.  \V.  Goldinger  also  was  attached  to  the  staff  from  1866 
until  his  death  in  1876,  after  34  years' ser\'ice.  For  twenty 
years,  from  1861  onward,  the  Society  made  a  grant  to  a 
school  conducted  by  Mrs.  Silberstein,  where  there  were  from 
25  to  64  Jewish  children  in  attendance. 

In  the  autumn  of  1868,  as  already  said,  that  learned  mis- 
sionary of  the  Society,  Dr.  Henry  Biesenthal,  was  sent  from 
Berlin  to  inaugurate  mission  work  at  Leipzig.  He  found 
a  great  many  Hebrew  Christians  living  there,  and  subse- 
quently gave  it  as  his  opinion  that  they  might  be  **  numbered 

i874]  RHINE    DISTRICT  349 

by  hundreds."  There  was  a  Jewish  community  of  about 
500,  who,  since  1849,  had  enjoyed  the  rights  of  citizen- 
ship. This  may  seem  but  a  small  field  of  work  for  a  man  of 
such  attainments,  but  he  was  the  only  missionary  to  the 
Jews  throughout  the  whole  kingdom  of  Saxony ;  and,  more- 
over, Leipzig  was  the  resort  of  many  foreign  Jews  from 
Poland,  Russia,  Turkey,  Greece,  Persia,  and  even  from 
America,  and  thus  altogether  an  important  missionary  centre. 
No  visible  results  in  the  form  of  baptisms  were  seen  from 
Biesenthal's  labours,  although  the  indirect  results  must  have 
been  great  and  far-reaching.  As  a  scholar  his  name  was,  for 
many  years,  a  household  word  in  Germany,  especially  in  those 
circles  where  Missions  to  Jews  exerted  an  influence.  His 
Commentaries  on  the  Gospels  and  the  Epistles  to  the  Romans 
and  to  the  Hebrews,  so  eminently  adapted  for  mission  work, 
obtained  well  deserved  eminence. 

The  Lutheran  Mission  to  Jews  had  by  this  time  ceased  its 
operations  in  Leipzig,  but  Professor  Delitzsch  was  a  host  in 
himself  in  his  labours,  both  in  word  and  work,  for  the  Jews. 

The  Rev.  J.  H.  Graf  continued  in  charge  of  Posen  from 
1844  until  his  death,  in  December,  1866,  at  the  age  of  69, 
having  been   in   steadfast   service  for  40  years.     The   Rev 

D.  A.  Hefter  was  in  charge  of  the  mission  from  1869  to 
1872  when  extensive  missionary  journeys  were  made,  and 
large  numbers  of  Holy  Scriptures  and  tracts  were  distributed  ; 
and  Hefter  met  with  much  encouragement  in  his  public 
preaching  to  Jews  in  Posen  and  other  towns.  They  attended 
his  sermons  and  addresses  in  numbers  varying  from  fifty  to 
two  hundred,  whilst  on  one  occasion  as  many  as  three 
hundred  were  present. 

Coming  to  the  neighbourhood  of  the  Rhine — the  Rev.  J.  A. 
Hausmeistcr  ended  his  38  years  of  faithful  work  at  Strasburg 
in   i860.     This  has  been  alluded  to  in  previous  pages.     Mr. 

E.  M.  Schlochow  was  at  work  at  Mulhausen,  v/here  a  Home 
for  Jewesses  was  opened  in  1861.  From  1858  Mulhausen  was 
considered  the  chief  station  of  the  district  until  1871,  when 


Strasburg  again  became  the  head-quarters  of  the  mission 
in  Alsace  and  Lorraine.  Every  year  a  vast  amount  of 
itinerating  work  was  done  throughout  these  provinces  ;  and 
the  Jews  were  found  to  be  more  accessible  after  they  had 
passed  under  the  German  dominion. 

In  i860  and  1861  Mr.  S.  Deutsch  and  Dr.  H.  Adelberg,  who 
were  stationed  at  Nuremberg,  visited  Fiirth  and  many  other 
Bavarian  towns.  The  latter  retired  in  the  last  named  year, 
and  Deutsch  continued  his  labours  at  Nuremberg  till  1864, 
when  he  was  removed  by  death  at  the  age  of  73,  after  thirty- 
six  years  of  service. 

The  next  province  to  be  occupied  was  Baden,  the  Rev.  D. 
Hechler  being  located  at  Heidelberg  in  1861  and  1862, 
at  Diirlach,  in  1864,  and  at  Carlsruhe,  in  1865.  From  these 
centres  he  regularly  visited  a  large  number  of  places  in 
Germany.  Hechler  continued  his  work  at  Carlsruhe  until 
1875,  when  he  retired.  He  died  in  1878  in  his  sixty-sixth 

A  few  words  will  dispose  of  the  work  at  Frankfort-on-the- 
Main  in  this  Period.  Dr.  Poper  carried  on  his  earnest  work 
up  to  1 870  most  successfully,  as  his  very  voluminous  reports 
testifiy.  His  own  baptisms,  from  1843  to  1870,  amounted  to 
eighty-eight,  and  he  gave  it  as  his  opinion  that  there  were 
not  many  Jewish  families  in  Europe  of  which  one  or  two 
members  had  not  become  Christians.  He  sold  7,647  German 
Bibles  during  the  last  ten  years  of  his  life.  He  died  in  1870, 
at  the  comparatively  early  age  of  57  years,  of  which  28  had 
been  spent  in  the  Society's  service.  In  July  1870  Mr.  A.  C. 
Adler  succeeded  to  the  work,  into  which  he  threw  himself  with 
characteristic  ardour,  visiting  no  less  than  eighty-five  places 
in  the  Grand  Duchy  of  Hesse,  and  the  provinces  of  Hesse- 
Cassel  and  Nassau  in  1871,  and  forty-four  towns  in  the 
Taunus  and  Vogelsberg  in  1872.  Early  in  the  following 
year,  Adler,  having  received  ordination,  was  appointed  to 
Amsterdam,  and  the  Rev.  D.  A.  Hefter  took  his  place. 

Visiting  once   again   the   Baltic   Provinces   we    come    to 

i874]  BALTIC    PROVINCES  351 

Konigsberg,  where  the  Rev.  E.  M.  Tartakover  was  in  charge 
when  this  Period  opened,  but  retired  from  active  service 
in  1862.  He  was  a  faithful  and  diligent  missionary,  and 
was  instrumental  in  leading  many  Jews  to  baptism  in 
the  Church  of  Christ.  During  the  last  few  years  of  his 
labours  he  was  assisted  by  T.  W.  Goldinger  (from  1858 
to  1 861),  and  by  the  Rev.  G.  H.  Handler  (in  1861), 
who  succeeded  to  the  charge  of  the  mission  from  January 
1863,  and  remained  there  till  1869,  when  he  was  followed 
by  Mr.  J.  Skolkowski.  This  remarkable  man,  a  Christian 
Israelite  from  Russian  Poland,  had  been  baptized  at  Konigs- 
berg, and  trained  for  missionary  work  in  the  Society's 
College,  under  Dr.  McCaul.  He  then  laboured  successively 
at  London,  Cairo,  Gnesen,  Lublin,  Posen,  and  lastly  at 
Konigsberg.  His  annual  reports  supplied  most  interesting 
details  of  mission  service,  together  with  glimpses  of  the 
social  condition,  pursuits,  and  religious  opinions  of  the  Jews. 
Amongst  these  he  devotedly  carried  on  his  work.  He 
also  yearly  visited  neighbouring  districts  on  evangelistic 

Memel  was  occupied  as  a  missionary  centre  by  the  Rev. 
D.  A.  Hefter,  from  1863  to  1869.  At  Danzig,  another  of  the 
Society's  stations  in  the  Baltic  Provinces,  the  work,  from  i860 
to  1865,  was  carried  on  by  the  Rev.  H.  Lawrence,  with  the 
help  of  the  Rev.  F.  Gans,  and  by  the  Rev.  F.  Von  Schmidt, 
from  1866  to  1867,  and  by  the  Rev.  Dr.  Klee,  from  the  latter 
year  onward.  The  work  at  this  station  has  always  been 
essentially  of  an  itinerating  character,  and  numerous  were  the 
places  visited  year  after  year  by  the  missionaries. 

Passing  to  Hamburg,  the  first  important  event  to  be 
chronicled  during  this  Period,  is  the  death  in  1863,  at  the 
age  of  66,  of  the  Rev.  F.  W.  Becker,  after  forty-two  years  of 
devoted  service  for  the  Society.  His  last  sermon  was  on 
the  words,  "  And  yet  there  is  room."  His  work  at  Warsaw 
and  Cracow  has  already  been  described.  When  he  and  the 
Rev.  J.  C.  H.  West  had  to  leave  Russia  they  went  to  Hamburg, 
where  they  pursued  their  faithful  labours,  not  without  tokens 

352  Af/SS/OAS    IX   PROTESTANT   EUROPE  [1860-74 

of  the  Divine  blessing.  West  retired  in  1867,  after  37  years* 
ser\ice,  and  died  in  1873.  Amongst  the  various  results  of 
the  work  carried  on  at  Hamburg  from  1855  till  then,  eleven 
Jews  and  Jewesses  had  been  admitted  by  baptism  into  the 
Church  of  Christ ;  more  than  1,300  copies  of  the  New  Testa- 
ment had  been  circulated ;  and  400  German  Bibles,  1 50 
Hebrew  Bibles,  a  very  large  number  of  Pentateuchs,  Pro- 
phetical writings  and  Psalters,  and  20,000  tracts  distributed. 

The  next  missionary  to  be  stationed  at  Hamburg  was  the 
Rev.  J.  T.  Schleicher,  who  remained  for  only  two  years, 
1 87 1 -3,  as  ill-health  compelled  his  resignation.  He  baptized 
four  Jews  during  that  time.  His  successor,  in  1874,  was  the 
Rev.  S.  T.  Bachert  Hamburg  then  had  18,000  Jews  and 
Altona  another  5,000.  These  two  places,  and  several  others 
in  the  district,  offered  many  facilities  to  an  active  missionary. 
The  better  class  Jews  looked  with  a  tolerant  eye  upon  Christ- 
ianity, many  of  the  Reform  Jews  even  desired  a  Christian 
education  for  their  children,  and  some  families  even  mani- 
fested a  deep  interest  in  its  holy  truths.  There  was  a 
willingness  to  listen  and  a  readiness  to  receive  Mr.  Bachert 
when  he  called  upon  them.  On  the  other  hand,  the  orthodox 
and  Talmudist  Jews,  who  formed  the  great  majority,  in  their 
prejudice  against  Christianity,  which  was  increased  by  the 
national  sentiment  of  anti-Semitism,  threw  many  impediments 
in  his  wav. 



Three  new  statloiift— Work  at  Cracow—Lemberg— Briihl  and  Lotka— Hefter  at 
Buda-Pestb— Handler  at  Prague-Vienna- Ayerst's  vUit-BrUhl  at  Vienna— Mark- 
helm  and  Prankel  at  Paris— International  Exhibition  of  1867— Burnet— Pall  of 
Napoleon  III.— Siege  of  Paris—Markhelm  In  Spain— Opening  of  Rome  Mission- 
Pope  Plus  IX.— Proseiytism— Burtchaeil-Laurla  at  Turin  and  Leghorn— Cotter  at 
Modena,  Milan  and  Trieste— Markhelm  at  Nice— Ancona. 

THIS  Period  saw  the  establishment  of  three  new  missions 
in  Roman  Catholic  Europe,  namely  at  Lemberg, 
Vienna,  and  Rome.  Before  describing  these  new  fields 
of  labour  we  must  take  a  brief  glance  at  Cracow,  where  we  left 
Dr.  Otremba  at  work.  The  number  of  converts  increased  each 
year,  and  the  work  attracted  much  attention.  At  the  funeral  of 
one  of  the  converts  in  i860,  as  many  as  lOO  Jews  were  present. 
"  It  was  an  affecting  sight,"  wrote  Dr.  Otremba,  "  to  see  Jews 
carrying  the  body  of  one  of  their  baptized  brethren  to  its  last 
resting-place,  and  listening,  with  attention  and  em  otion,  to 
my  funeral  address,  from  the  words,  *  Christ  is  the  Way,  the 
Truth,  and  the  Life.'"  Dr.  Otremba  worked  on  with  a 
gratifying  amount  of  success,  baptisms  being  recorded  every 
year  but  one  from  i860  to  1873,  when  he  retired  and 
the  Rev.  G.  H.  Handler  assumed  charge  of  the  mission. 
Dr.  Otremba  did  not  long  survive  his  resignation,  but 
died  in  1876,  aged  j6  years.  Handler,  with  the  Rev. 
J.  Lotka,  who  was  then  at  Lemberg,  made  an  extensive 
missionary  journey  to  Galician  towns,  where  they  encountered 
a  great  deal  of  fanaticism  on  the  part  of  the  Jews.  From 
1874  to  1876  Mr.  N.  Rappoport  was  helping  in  the  work  at 

Lemberg,  the  capital  of  Galicia,  with  its  large  Jewish 
population,  and  the  many  important  towns  in  its  vicinity, 
offers   a   wide    scope    for    missionary    activity,    though    the 

A  A 


work  has  to  be  carried  on  with  extreme  caution,  and  under 
grave  disabilities  and  disadvantages.  Colportage  is  strictly 
forbidden  by  the  Austrian  authorities,  and  the  sale  of  books 
interdicted.  Even  gratuitous  circulation  is  not  allowed,  except 
under  cover  of  the  missionary's  own  house,  neither  is  preaching 
in  the  open-air  permitted.  Owing  to  these  harassing  restrictions 
the  masses  cannot  be  reached,  but  the  faithful  servant  of  Christ 
has  to  plod  on  his  way,  content  to  proclaim  his  Master's 
message  to  individuals  whom  he  may  encounter  in  "  the  streets 
and  lanes  of  the  city,*'  in  its  parks,  and  railway  stations,  and  in 
"  the  highways  and  hedges  "  of  the  country  districts.  Again, 
the  Jews  themselves  are  not  very  promising  material  to  work 
upon,  being  either  extremely  orthodox  Chassidim,  or  free- 
thinkers. The  difficulties  for  enquirers  are  practically  insur- 
mountable, as  the  Jews  hold  nearly  all  the  trade  of  Lemberg 
in  their  hands,  and  monopolize  business  of  every  kind. 
There  is  no  effort  made  by  the  Christians  of  the  place,  not 
even  by  the  Protestant  Christians,  to  evangelize  the  Jews. 
Thus  there  are  many  obstacles  which  hamper  the  missionary's 
usefulness  and  lessen  his  opportunities.  Each  successive 
worker  has  had  this  experience.  Still,  the  laborious  efforts 
made  in  Galicia  have  not  been  without  results. 

The  Rev.  J.  H.  Bruhl  was  stationed  at  Lemberg  from  1867 
to  1 87 1,  and  has  left  it  on  record  that  there  was  little  to 
encourage  him  in  Lemberg  itself,  but  more  promise  in 
the  country  districts,  through  which  he  made  extensive 
journeys.  In  1873  the  Rev.  J.  Lotka  took  up  the  work. 
It  is  an  interesting  fact  that  he  and  the  Rev.  A.  Bernstein, 
both  Polish  Israelites,  baptized  on  the  same  day  in  1863  in 
London  by  Dr.  Ewald,  and  ordained  in  the  Episcopal  Church 
of  America,  were  both  accepted  as  missionaries  by  the  Society. 
Bernstein  went  to  Jerusalem,  and  Lotka  to  Lemberg.  The 
latter,  like  his  predecessor,  made  long  missionary  tours  in 
Galicia,  Hungary,  and  the  Bukowina,  and,  on  one  occasion, 
even  to  Russia.  He  had  a  small  number  of  enquirers  every 

In  Hungary  the  Society's  work  has  been  of  a  very  limited 

i874]  HANDLER    AT    PRAGUE  355 

nature,  Buda-Pesth,  which  is  a  most  important  Jewish  centre, 
having  been  occupied  for  a  short  time  only.  The  Rev.  D.  A. 
Hefter  was  sent  there  in  the  autumn  of  1862,  from  Cracow. 
He  found  the  Hungarian  Jews  more  ignorant  of  the  Talmud 
than  the  Galician,  and  on  that  account  more  accessible  to  the 
missionary.  A  fair  number  of  copies  of  the  Holy  Scriptures 
were  sold,  and  he  had  a  few  enquirers.  The  Free  Church 
of  Scotland  having  resumed  its  mission  at  Buda-Pesth,  he 
was  withdrawn  in  the  spring  of  1864,  the  practice  of  the 
Society  being  not  to  send  its  missionaries  where  the  ground 
has  been  previously  well  occupied  by  others. 

Prague,  the  capital  of  Bohemia,  and  one  of  the  most 
interesting  towns  in  Europe,  and  also  one  of  the  most  ancient, 
dating  from  about  A.D.  700,  offers  an  important  sphere  for 
Jewish  missionary  effort.  The  Jewish  quarter,  or  Judenstadty 
now  called  Josephstadt,  with  its  10,000  inhabitants,  is  the  oldest 
and  quaintest  part  of  the  city.  In  the  old  Jewish  cemetery  there 
are  two  tombs,  each  a  thousand  years  old.  An  ancient  Jewish 
synagogue,  the  A Itneusc/iu/e  (the  "old  new  school")  dating 
from  the  thirteenth  century,  and  the  old  Jewish  Rathhaus, 
with  its  peculiar  clock,  having  the  hours  marked  by  Hebrew 
letters,  necessitating  a  backward  reading,  are  the  most  interest- 
ing Jewish  antiquities  in  the  city.  Prague  has  not  been 
occupied  by  the  Society  for  any  length  of  time,  owing 
principally  to  the  fact  that  both  the  Scotch  Society  and  the 
British  Society  have  had  agents  there  for  many  years.  The 
Rev.  G.  H.  Handler,  indeed,  has  been  the  only  missionary  of 
the  Society  resident  at  Prague,  and  he  only  for  four  years, 
from  1869  to  1872.  His  experiences  were  not  encouraging. 
Impediments  were  great,  the  circulation  of  Holy  Scriptures 
small,  the  state  of  the  Jews  not  calculated  to  excite  hopes  for 
a  successful  mission,  and  the  number  of  enquirers  few.  Three 
baptisms  took  place  in  1871.  Handler,  during  his  residence 
at  Prague,  made  several  missionary  expeditions  to  Bohemia, 
and  one  to  Poland,  where,  in  his  native  place  he  happily  met, 
and  was  able  to  preach  the  Gospel  to  his  only  brother,  twenty 
other  Jewish  relations,  and  thirty  school-fellows. 

A  A  2 

356  MISSIONS    IN    ROMAN    CATHOLIC    EUROPE  [i860 

We  now  come  to  Vienna,  which,  before  it  was  occupied  as 
a  mission  centre,  was  frequently  visited  by  J.  C.  Hartmann, 
D.  A.  Hefter,  A.  I.  Behrens,  G.  H.  Handler,  and  Dr.  Cassel  ; 
the  last-named  of  whom  had  delivered  lectures  there.  The 
attention  of  the  Committee  had  thus  been  drawn  to  the  need 
for  effort  in  this  great  Jewish  city  ;  but  it  was  the  visit  of  the 
Rev.  W.  Ayerst  in  1870  which  finally  induced  the  Committee 
to  establish  a  permanent  mission  there  the  next  year.  During 
a  four  months*  residence,  Ayerst,  with  a  mission-assistant^ 
visited  the  Jews,  and  gave  lectures,  and  his  report  was 
most  encouraging.  The  Jews  of  Vienna  had  increased  tenfold 
in  numbers  in  a  quarter  of  a  century  ;  many  of  them  were  re- 
fined, rich,  and  highly  cultivated.  Religiously  they  were  divided 
into  two  parties,  the  Reform,  who  were  worldly  and  indifferent^ 
and  the  Orthodox,*who  were  pious  and  studious.  The  difficul- 
ties which  the  newly-established  mission  had  to  encounter  were 
formidable.  The  circulation  of  Holy  Scriptures  and  tracts 
was  restricted  here,  as  at  Lemberg,  by  the  Austrian  laws ;  the 
influence  of  Ultramontane  Romanism  was  wide-spread  and 
powerful,  to  which  difficulties  that  of  anti-Semitism  afterward 
had  to  be  added.  The  Rev.  J.  H.  Briihl  was  the  first  missionary 
to  be  appointed  permanently,  in  1871.  He  found  a  very  large 
number  of  Christian  Jews  in  Vienna,  principally  Roman 
Catholics,  and  had  a  small  number  of  enquirers  each  year» 
several  of  whom  were  baptized.  He  had  easy  intercourse  with 
rabbis,  some  of  whom  he  regularly  visited.  The  International 
Exhibition  of  1873  afforded  him  many  facilities  to  deliver 
his  message  to  Jews  of  all  countries  and  classes.  Briihl  twice 
visited  Galicia ;  and  also  spent  some  months  in  Hungary 
travelling  from  place  to  place  and  preaching  the  Gospel. 

The  work  in  France  during  this  Period  was  of  a  somewhat 
intermittent  character.  Markheim  remained  at  Paris  till 
1 86 1,  when  he  was  removed  to  Marseilles,  and  thence 
made  long  missionary  journeys  in  the  south  and  west  of 
the  country  until  1863,  when  he  was  transferred  to  Italy.  The 
Rev.  E.  B.  Frankel  succeeded  Markheim  at  Paris  in  1862, 
During  his  short  stay  of  two  years,  he  instructed  forty-four 

i874]  FALL    OF    NAPOLEON    III  357 

enquirers,  nine  of  whom  received  baptism,  and  he  visited  a  good 
many  of  the  large  cities  of  France  and  Belgium.  For  some 
years  after  FrankeFs  departure  for  Jerusalem,  Paris  was 
periodically  visited  by  the  Rev.  E.  M.  Schlochow  of 

During  the  Paris  International  Exhibition  of  1867,  the 
Society  furnished  a  court,  "  Antiquit^s  Hebraiques,"  on  the 
ground  allotted  to  Missions,  with  models  of  the  Holy  City, 
Hebrew  MSS.,  and  a  number  of  other  objects  of  interest. 
These  attracted  crowds  of  Jews  from  all  parts  of  the  world, 
and  all  the  reigning  Protestant  Sovereigns  and  Princes  visited 
the  Society's  court,  amongst  them,  William  I.  of  Prussia,  and 
his  son,  the  Crown  Prince  Frederick,  the  Prince  of  Wales, 
now  King  Edward  VH.,  and  Oscar,  Crown  Prince  of  Sweden  ; 
all  of  whom  encouraged  the  missionaries  by  the  interest 
which  they  manifested  in  the  Society's  work.  The  court 
served  also  as  a  dep6t  for  the  sale  and  distribution  of  the 
Holy  Scriptures  and  other  books.  Mr.  Schlochow  was  in 
charge  of  this,  and  preached  the  Gospel  to  hundreds  of  Jews, 
who  examined  the  objects  displayed.  He  was  aided  by  Jacob 
Lotka,  then  a  student  of  St.  Chrischona,  Basle. 

Eleven  years  later,  at  the  Paris  International  Exhibition  of 
1878,  a  similar  course  was  adopted,  and  a  model  of  the 
tabernacle  attracted  a  large  number  of  Jews,  with  many  of 
whom  Messrs.  Mamlock  and  Bernstein  were  able  to  hold 

Paris  was  again  permanently  occupied  in  1869,  when  the  Rev. 
W.  Burnet  took  up  the  work  amongst  the  then  30,0CK)  Jews 
of  the  capital,  and  those  in  the  country  generally.  This  was 
soon  to  be  interrupted  by  the  Franco-Prussian  War  of  1 870-1, 
when  the  greater  number  of  the  Hebrew  Christians  were 
scattered  to  other  lands. 

Napoleon  III.  had  shewn  himself  well  disposed  to  the  Jews 
of  France,  and  his  fall  was  thus  lamented  by  the  Jewish 
Chronicle : 

So  long  as  Napoleon  the  Third  swayed  the  sceptre  of  Imperial  France,  he 
protected  the  interests  of  our  people  ;  he  manifested  towards  them  a  strenuous,  an 
ardent,  an  energetic  regard.     When  Sir  Moses  Montefiorc,  the  veteran  champion 

358  A//SS/OXS    IN    ROM  AX    CATHOUC    EUROPE  [i860 

of  our  oppressed  brethren,  set  out  on  one  of  his  expeditions  of  mercy,  the 
Emperor  Napoleon  placed  at  hb  disposal  a  French  ship  of  war  ;  and  he  has  on 
more  than  one  occasion  manifested  towards  him,  or,  rather,  towards  the  cause 
which  he  represents,  affectionate  sympathy.  Napoleon  exerted  himself  on  behalf 
of  the  sofiering  Jcm-s  of  Roumania,  and  has  always  been  ready  to  co-operate  with 
other  Powers  on  their  behalf  at  the  instance  of  our  representatives.  The  Jews  of 
the  French  Empire  have  found  in  him  a  generous  and  an  impartial  sorere^. 
Were  we  at  such  a  moment  to  forget  these  things  we  should  be  the  most  ungrateful 
of  beings,  and  should  never  more  deserve  any  manifestation  of  fitvour  from  any 
monarch  of  the  earth.  If  human  sympathy  be  due  to  any  man,  it  is  due  on  the 
part  of  the  Jews  to  the  Emperor  Napoleon. 

Burnet  found  the  Jews  most  indifferent  to  the  claims  of 
religion  generally,  and  therefore  disinclined  to  hear  about 
Christianity.  Of  the  fifty  or  so  enquirers,  whom  he  instructed 
during  his  six  years'  residence  in  Paris,  only  one,  as  far  as 
can  be  ascertained,  was  baptized  there,  though  some  received 
baptism  elsewhere.  Burnet  visited  many  towns  in  France, 
where  his  experiences  were  similar  to  those  gained  in  the 
capital.  Yet,  in  resigning  his  work  in  1875,  to  take  a  curac}', 
he  spoke  gratefully  of  the  measure  of  encouragement  vouch- 
safed to  his  efforts.     He  is  now  vicar  of  Childerditch,  Essex. 

Markheim  happened  to  be  in  Paris  during  its  memorable 
siege,  when  he  was  frequently  able  to  speak  words  of  consola- 
tion to  many  a  son  of  Israel : 

I  often  had  opportunities  with  the  Mobiles  and  National  Guards  in  the  public 
squares  after  drill.  Some  few  of  the  former,  I  grieve  to  say,  heard  the  truth 
for  the  first  and  last  time.  On  all  such  occasions  I  went  out  provided  with  tracts, 
the  reading  of  which,  I  have  reason  to  believe,  was  not  in  vain.  I  was  in  the 
habit  of  doing  this  three  times  a  week  for  the  first  three  months  of  the  siege,  when 
I  also  visited  some  of  my  numerous  Jewish  friends. 

Spain  was  visited  by  Markheim  in  i860,  when  he  went  to 
Gibraltar,  where  he  had  some  delightful  experiences  in  his  work 
amongst  the  resident  Jews,  who,  at  that  time,  numbered  about 
2,500 ;  and  especially  amongst  the  Moroqueen  Jews,  who  had 
taken  refuge  at  Gibraltar,  after  the  massacres  at  Tetuan, 
He  visited  them,  4,000  in  number,  in  their  camp  on  the 
"  neutral "  ground,  i>.,  belonging  neither  to  England  nor  Spain, 
and  was  able  to  alleviate  their  temporal  distress,  and  also  to 
proclaim  to  them  the  glad  tidings  of  salvation.  There  was  a 
great  demand  for  the  Holy  Scriptures,  7(^  copies  or  portions 
being  distributed. 

i874]  OPENING    OF    ROME    MISSION  359 

The  withdrawal  of  the  French  troops  from  Rome,  and  the 
unification  of  Italy  under  Victor  Emmanuel  as  a  result  of 
the  Franco-Prussian  War  of  1870,  gave  the  Society  the 
opportunity  of  commencing  work  in  the  Eternal  City. 
Notwithstanding  certain  trying  restrictions,  the  condition  of 
the  Jews  in  Italy  has  been  quite  as  favourable  as  that  in 
any  other  European  country,  with  the  single  exception  of 
Holland.  As  a  rule  the  Popes  protected  them.  They  saw 
the  folly  of  expelling  them,  and  knew  the  use  to  be  made  of 
an  industrious  people,  skilful  in  commerce,  who  had  no 
dislike  to  Papal  authority,  and  no  disposition  to  assist 
"  heretics,  schismatics,  or  reformers,"  and  made  no  proselytes 
to  their  own  religion.  Several  of  the  Popes,  indeed,  treated 
the  Jews  with  marked  kindness,  or  at  least  did  not  make  any 
invidious  distinction  between  them  and  Christians.  A  story 
is  told  of  Pius  IX.  which  does  honour  to  his  memory.  Once, 
when  walking  down  a  street,  he  gave  a  gratuity  to  a  poor 
Jew,  who  was  begging,  whereupon  one  of  those  in  high  rank 
near  the  Pope  said,  "  He  is  a  Jew  ; "  but  Pius  IX.  replied, 
"  What  of  that  ?  he  is  a  man'*  It  was  commonly  reported 
that  Pius  IX.  was  a  grandson  of  one  Matai,  a  converted 
Jew,  though  the  Pontiff  himself  denied  it. 

Whether  the  Popes  understood  the  true  way  of  promoting 
Christianity  amongst  the  Jews  is  a  very  different  question. 
For  many  years  a  compulsory  attendance  of  fifty  Jews  and 
fifty  Jewesses  was  required  every  Saturday  afternoon  at  the 
beautiful  Church  of  San  Angelo  in  Pescheria.  In  this  way 
the  inhabitants  of  the  Ghetto  were  all  in  turn  reached.  But 
to  what  purpose?  To  be  lectured  by  a  Roman  priest  on 
their  obstinacy,  impenitence  and  unbelief!  What  with  the 
compulsory  attendance,  the  memory  of  past  and  present 
persecutions,  the  converts  thus  made  could  neither  be 
numerous  nor  sincere.  As  one  left  the  Ghetto,  one  passed  a 
Church,  where,  over  the  entrance  was  an  inscription  in 
Hebrew  and  Latin,  "  I  have  spread  out  My  hands  all  the  day 
unto  a  rebellious   people." 

It  was  left  to  the  Society  to  shew  a  more  excellent  way. 

The  Rev.  Somerset  B.  Burtchaell  was  the  first  missionary 

360  MISSIONS    IN    ROMAN    CATHOLIC    EUROPE  [i860 

of  the  Society  to  be  stationed  at  Rome.  He  arrived  in 
January  1872,  and  his  early  labours  were  of  a  preparatory 
kind.  They  principally  consisted  in  regular  house-to-house 
visiting  in  the  Ghetto,  and  seeking  the  friendship  of  the 
Jews  by  his  sympathy  and  earnest  Christian  teaching.  His 
memory  is  held  in  most  affectionate  memory  by  the  Jews, 
both  rich  and  poor,  even  to  this  day.  He  was  assisted  by 
E.  P.  Arias,  a  convert,  and  the  two  made  missionary  visits  to 
la  very  arge  number  of  places  in  all  parts  of  Italy — to 
Florence,  Ancona,  Venice,  Verona,  Mantua,  Padua,  Sinigaglia, 
Ravenna,  Bologna,  Leghorn,  Naples,  and  many  other  towns. 
Neither  was  Trieste,  the  old  station,  forgotten.  As  Burtchaell 
remained  in  Rome  only  two  years  after  the  end  of  this  Period, 
leaving  in  1877  to  take  charge  of  the  Society's  mission  at 
Jerusalem,  we  may  as  well  give  here  the  following  summary 
of  his  work  : 

If  we  say  but  little  with  regard  to  Mr.  Burtchaell's  work  in  Italy,  it  is  not 
because  we  do  not  feel  that  he  did  a  work,  yea,  a  great  work  there,  but  rather 
because  to  a  considerable  extent  his  position  there  was  peculiar,  and  one  in  which 
immediate  results  are  not  to  be  expected.  But  we  do  know  that  the  name 
and  features  of  our  departed  missionary  were  familiar  to,  and  beloved  by,  the 
Jews  of  the  Roman  Ghetto,  by  the  Jews  of  Florence,  and  by  the  Jews  of  many 
other  towns  which  he  visited  from  time  to  time  for  missionary  work  ;  multitudes 
of  the  children  of  Israel  listened  to  his  loving  and  earnest  exhortation  to  accept 
Jesus  as  their  Messiah.  He  was  well-skilled  in  the  Jewish  controversy,  and 
could  argue  with  learned  Jews  out  of  their  own  Scriptures  and  in  their  own 
sacred  language  ;  and  who  shall  tell  how  rich  and  abundant  may  be  the  fruit 
which  shall  be  found  long  after  he  has  been  gathered  to  his  rest  ?  * 

The  Rev.  C.  L.  Lauria,  who  was  sent  to  Turin  in  1855, 
remained  there  till  1862.  Since  the  Austro-Italian  War  of 
1848-9,  Sardinia  had  been  open  to  missionary  enterprise. 
The  kingdom  contained  about  8,500  Jews,  of  whom  a  third  re- 
sided at  Turin.  The  majority  were  poor,  but  industrious,  and 
were  no  longer  forcibly  immured  in  the  Ghetto.  "  Indeed,"  as 
Lauria  said,  "  Lombardy  and  Central  Italy  are  now  as 
free  to  the  missionary  as  London  or  New  York."  He  found 
the  Jews  in  Turin  utterly  indifferent  to  all  religious  claims  ; 
whilst  those  in  the  other  towns  of  Piedmont  were  much  more 

*  Jewish  Inteliigencej  1878,  p.  224. 

i874]  COTTER    AT   MODENA  361 

alive  to  their  spiritual  interests,  and  eagerly  purchased  the  New 
as  well  as  the  Old  Testament  from  himself  or  his  colporteur. 
Lauria  translated  the  Old  Paths  into  Italian.  The  Rev.  R.  H. 
Cotter  was  at  Turin  for  a  short  time  in  1861.  Although 
several  Jews  expressed  a  wish  to  be  baptized,  the  difficulties 
were  insuperable.  At  the  end  of  1862  Lauria  removed  to 
Leghorn,  and  Cotter  to  Modena,  Leghorn,  with  its  5,000 
Jews,  was  not  altogether  new  ground,  as  a  Scripture-reader 
had  resided  there  for  four  years,  and  it  had  been  frequently 
visited  by  Lauria.  It  was  a  wider  and  more  promising  field 
of  labour  than  Turin,  for  several  Jews  had  been  instructed 
and  two  baptized  there  in  1861.  The  New  Testament  was 
to  be  found  in  the  library  of  every  Jew,  and  the  rabbis  were 
alarmed  at  the  Christian  influence  spreading  through  the 
entire  community,  and  endeavoured  to  stop  it  by  the  issue  of 
controversial  books.  Several  enquirers  were  under  instruction 
from  1862,  but  had  to  go  elsewhere  in  order  to  be  baptized. 
Lauria  remained  at  Leghorn  till  the  end  of  1866.  He  visited, 
from  time  to  time,  amongst  other  places,  Acqui,  Alessandria, 
Asti,  Bologna,  Casale,  Ferrara,  Florence,  Genoa,  Milan,  Nice, 
Parma,  Piacenza,  Pisa,  Reggio,  Rome,  and  Vercelli. 

Modena  was  a  centre  of  missionary  operations  from  1862 
to  1864,  Cotter  residing  there  during  that  period.  It  had  a 
Jewish  population  of  1,600,  many  of  them  wealthy,  and 
attending  the  Vaudois  Service,  held  by  the  Rev.  J.  P.  M. 
Solomon,  who  was  probably  a  Christian  Israelite.  The 
New  Testament  was  to  be  seen  in  the  houses  of  the 
more  educated  portion  of  the  community,  but  the  poorer 
class  refused  to  accept  it.  Except  in  rare  instances  Cotter 
experienced  no  difficulty  in  gaining  access  to  the  Jews  in 
the  district,  in  which  he  visited  Reggio,  Parma,  Bologna, 
Ferrara,  Mantua,  Verona,  Vicenza,  Venice,  Padua  and 

Milan  was  the  next  scene  of  Cotter's  labours,  he  remaining 
there  from  1864  to  1871.  From  this  centre,  in  company  with 
colporteur  Arias,  he  periodically  visited  the  places  just  men- 
tioned, and  also  Trieste,  Gorizia, Modena,  Nice,  Leghorn,Turin 
Florence,  Cento,  Correggio,  Finale,  Fiorenzuola   and   Carpi 

362  MISSIONS    IN    ROMAN    CATHOLIC    EUROPE      [1860-74 

A  large  quantity  of  Christian  literature  was  in  this  way  put 
into  circulation  ;  and  in  course  of  time  Cotter  saw  reason  to 
believe  that  the  number  of  Jews  favourably  disposed  to 
Christianity  was  increasing.  He  worked  indefatigably 
in  North  Italy  for  several  years,  often  with  impaired  health, 
and  in  1871  was  transferred  to  Trieste.  On  the  Sunday 
after  his  arrival,  Whitsun-Day,  he  commenced  a  Hebrew 
service  in  the  English  Church,  which  was  attended  by  twenty 
Jews.  Cotter  had  an  assistant  missionary,  D.  E.  DaU'Orto, 
as  well  as  colporteur  Arias,  to  help  him.  A  large  number 
of  addresses  were  given  in  different  towns,  with  a  fair  average 
attendance  of  Jews.  Public  discussions  also  were  held  with 
them,  and  on  one  occasion  100  were  present  Two  converts 
were  baptized.  A  good  number  of  Scriptures,  books,  and 
tracts  were  sold  or  distributed  ;  especially  was  there  a  large 
circulation  of  the  Italian  edition  of  Old  PathSy  which  had 
been  prepared  by  Dall'Orto.  Cotter's  health  broke  down 
in  the  midst  of  his  successful  labours,  and  he  had  to  resign 
in  1875.  DairOrto  remained  in  charge  for  a  year  or  two 
longer,  and  then  Trieste  was  finally  relinquished,  and  Arias 
removed  to  Verona. 

Early  in  1863  H.  A.  Markheim  left  Marseilles  for  Nice, 
and  was  there  warmly  welcomed  by  the  Jews,  whom  he  had 
visited  two  years  previously.  He  found  that  whilst  the 
French  Jews  were  worldly  and  disposed  to  ridicule  all 
religion,  the  Italian  Jews  would  at  least  take  the  trouble 
to  search  the  Scriptures  in  order  to  refute  his  arguments. 
This  gave  him  ground  upon  which  to  work.  He  also  made 
tours  through  the  district,  visiting  Genoa,  Acqui,  Alessandria, 
Pavia,  Turin,  Milan  and  several  other  cities,  going  over  to 
Algeria  occasionally,  and  also  revisiting  Marseilles ;  in  fact, 
he  held  a  travelling  commission  amongst  the  Jews  on  the 
Mediterranean  coasts. 

At  Ancona,  an  important  Jewish  centre,  with  4,000  Jews, 
the  Rev.  H.  C.  Reichardt  was  stationed  from  1868  to  1871^  and 
Markheim  in  187 1-2. 



Barclay  and  Stern  at  Constantinople— Dr.  Leltner— Newman  and  Zabanskl- 
Baptisms—"  Children's  Jubilee  Memorial  "—Large  number  of  Scholars— Hometfor 

IN  our  previous  account  of  the  Constantinople  mission  in 
Chapter  XXX.,  we  left  the  Rev.  J.  Barclay  in  charge, 
the  Rev.  H.  A.  Stern  and  Bronkhorst  having  left  on  a 
visit  to  Abyssinia.  Stern,  having  accomplished  successful 
pioneer  work  in  that  country,  returned  to  Constantinople  in 
1 86 1,  leaving  Bronkhorst  behind,  to  carry  on  the  newly-opened 
mission  with  J.  M.  Flad.  In  the  course  of  the  same  year  Stern 
came  to  England  and  was  much  engaged  in  deputation  work, 
before  leaving  for  Abyssinia  in  1862.  Fresh  changes  had 
meanwhile  taken  place  at  Constantinople.  In  1861  Barclay 
was  appointed  to  the  charge  of  the  Jerusalem  mission,  and 
Dr.  Leitner  was  taken  to  his  rest.  He  had  done  an  excellent 
work  at  Balat  for  some  years,  and  his  death  was  a  serious  loss 
to  the  Society.  Stern,  who  was  closely  associated  with  him 
in  the  work,  thus  spoke  of  his  friend  : 

Our  departed  brother,  Dr.  Leitner,  was  born  in  1800,  in  a  town  of  Hungary. 
His  father,  who  was  a  rich  man,  destined  him  for  the  rabbinical  chair,  but  as  he 
preferred  the  medical  profession,  he  proceeded  to  Pesth,  and  there,  after  eight 
years'  study,  he  received  his  diploma,  and  was  engaged  as  a  military  physician  by 
the  Austrian  Government.  Subsequent  events  led  him  to  make  a  voyage  to 
Constantinople,  when,  quite  by  accident,  in  the  house  of  a  Jewish  friend,  he 
became  possessed  of  the  Gospel  he  had  so  long  coveted,  yet  dreaded  to  purchase. 
Brought  in  1844  as  a  humble,  penitent,  and  sincere  believer  to  the  foot  of  the 
mercy-seat,  his  heart  immediately  expanded  with  love  and  deep  compassion 
toward  his  Jewish  brethren ;  and,  in  1853,  after  many  hindrances  and  obstacles, 
he  resigned  a  lucrative  position  at  Broussa,  and  entered  the  service  of  the  Society 
as  medical  missionary,  in  which  capacity  he  continued  until  his  removal  by  death 
on  the  7th  April  in  the  present  year  (1861).  Thoroughly  versed  in  the  Bible, 
and  imbued  with  the  Spirit  of  his  Divine  Master,  he  only  yearned  to  make  others 

364  Jf/SS/OXS    I\   MOHAMJiEDAX   EUROPE  [i860 

ffaauen  in  thoie  blesBOgi  aod  pnrilegcs  be  so  fslh-  lacv  bov  to  appcciaie 
hiir.M-lf.  Ofrcn  did  I  hear  :be  ssppliic:  catroiies  »Uiii  be  addresBed  to  the 
crovds  vbo  sought  his  pro^essioDsJ  skill,  tbai  tber  vocjc  doc  ochr  care  for  the 
bc^r,  bat  also  seek  help  and  safety  xc  redee-ming  kn-e  kv  tbe  iixin>ortal  sooL 

C  S.  Newman  m-as  ordained  and  succeeded  to  the  charge  of 
the  station  in  1863,  and  J.  Zabanski,  another  of  the  Societ>''s 
students,  m-as  sent  out  to  assist  him.  Notwithstanding  these 
changes,  the  work  was  prosecuted  uith  judgment  and  \Tgour. 
Se\-ere  persecution,  which  has  in\-ariably  overtaken  en- 
quirers and  converts  in  Constantinople,  kept  their  numbers 
down,  and,  as  a  matter  of  fact,  the  records  from  1855  to  188 1 
inclusive  sheu-  but  thirty-ti*-o  baptisms.  There  i»"as  public 
preaching  to  Jews  tuice  e\-er>'  Sunday,  the  service  being  held 
in  Judaro-Spanish  in  the  morning,  and  in  German  in  the  after- 
noon, and  also  on  Saturday,  in  addition  to  which  various 
meetings  and  classes  were  held  throughout  the  week.  A  great 
many  Ne>*-  Testaments  were  sold.  Salonica,  and  the  Asiatic 
shores  of  the  Bosphorus  were  occasionally  visited  for  mission- 
ary purposes. 

School  work  continued  to  flourish,  and,  "  The  Children's 
Jubilee  Memorial  Fund,"  amounting  to  ^^679  i&.,  was  devoted 
to  the  erection  of  school  buildings  next  to  the  mission 
house  and  chapel  at  Haskeuy,  on  the  eastern  shore  of  the 
Golden  Horn,  in  a  district  thickly  populated  by  Spanish  Jews. 
The  schools  were  completed  and  opened  in  Februar\'  1864. 
So  successful  were  they,  that  during  the  next  seventeen  years 
to  the  end  of  1881,  the  year  of  the  lamented  death  of  New- 
man, as  many  as  3,219  Jewish  children  had  passed  through 
them.  For  forty-four  years  the  school  work  has  been 
conducted  on  these  premises. 

For  many  years  a  most  excellent  missionary  and  philan- 
thropic work,  in  the  shape  of  an  institution,  or  home,  for  young 
Jewesses,  was  carried  on  by  Mrs.  Newman,  and  subsequently, 
in  a  later  period,  by  Mrs.  Crighton-Ginsburg,  the  wves 
of  the  Society's  missionaries.  The  home  was  originally 
founded  as  an  effort  of  Christian  sympathy  with  the  poor 
children  who  had  become  orphans  during  the  Bulgarian 
troubles   of   1872.      It   was  opened   in   the    same    year    at 

i874]  HOME    FOR  JEWESSES  365 

Haskeuy,  with  two  boarders.  By  degrees,  under  Mrs.  New- 
man's aYid  Mrs.  Crighton-Ginsburg's  fostering  care,  the  home 
grew  in  size  until  there  were  over  fifty  pupils  in  residence.  It 
became  more  and  more  missionary  in  its  character,  and  was 
almost  exclusively  occupied  by  Jewish  girls.  Its  very  name, 
"  Kuzularem,"  that  is,  *'  Feed  My  lambs,"  shewed  its  object. 
It  did  a  splendid  work,  and  proved  an  invaluable  adjunct  to 
the  work  of  the  Society,  which  in  return  helped  it  pecuniarily. 
Hundreds  of  young  Jewesses  received  its  benefits,  which 
consisted  of  a  good  Christian  education  and  domestic  training. 



Its  thrilling  Interest— Palashaa  — Their  origin  — Qobat  and  Kugler,  C.M.S. 
missionaries— Qobat*  8  missionary  party— Flad*s  third  visit— His  letter  and  the 
Society— Stem  sent  to  explore— Joined  by  Flad  and  Bronkhorst— Return  and  speech 
of  Stem— Work  carried  on  by  Flad  and  Bronkhorst— First  converts— Stem's  return 
to  Abyssinia- Results  of  the  work— Imprisonment— The  captive  missionaries- 
English  Expeditionary  Force— Battle  of  Magdala— Release,  return  home  and 
rejoicings— Native  missionaries  at  work— Flad  visits  the  frontier— Letter  from 
Beroo— Training  missionaries  for  the  work— Arrival  In  Abyssinia. 

THE  story  of  the  Society's  Mission  in  Abyssinia  is  one 
of  thrilling  interest,  and  may  even  be  compared  to  that 
of  the  Uganda  Mission  of  the  Church  Missionary 
Society.  Dr.  Stern,  in  his  speech  at  the  Annual  Meeting  in 
1869,  spoke  of  Abyssinia,  whence  he  had  finally  returned 
a  few  months  previously,  as  the  country  where  he  had 
experienced  many  mercies,  sustained  many  hardships,  and 
often  witnessed  palpable  interpositions  of  Divine  Providence. 
Many  indeed  have  always  been  the  obstacles  to  be  over- 
come and  the  dangers  encountered  by  those  who  carry 
the  light  of  truth  to  the  benighted  remnant  of  God's 
ancient  people  living  in  the  unhappy,  down-trodden,  and 
impoverished  land  of  Abyssinia.  In  recent  years  its  internal 
strifes,  endless  wars,  foreign  invasions,  and  raging  famines, 
have  added  misery  to  misery,  and  brought  desolation 
upon  Abyssinians  and  Falashas  alike.  Privations,  sufferings, 
and  the  loss  of  all  things,  have  been  the  lot  of  many 
a  Jew,  who,  through  the  instrumentality  of  the  Society,  has 
become  a  follower  of  Jesus  Christ ;  while  some  have  fearlessly 
faced  the  martyr's  death  rather  than  deny  the  Lord  who 
bought  them. 

Those  who  desire  more  detailed  information  on  this 
interesting    land   and   people,   are  referred    to   the  author's 

i86o-74]  FALASHAS  367 

Sites  and  Scenes^  part  I.,  and  to  the  authorities  there  indicated. 
This  History  can  deal  only  with  the  Jews  of  the  country  and 
the  Society's  work  amongst  them. 

The  origin  of  the  "  Falashas,"  by  which  name  the  50,0CX)  * 
Jews  of  Abyssinia  are  known,  is  unattested  by  documents, 
and  is  accordingly  lost  in  the  dim  distant  past.  The  word 
Falasha  is  derived  from  the  Ethiopic  Falas^  and  signifies 
"  exile."  This  seems  to  indicate  that  these  Jews  were  not 
originally  natives  of  Abyssinia,  but  that  they  immigrated 
from  some  other  country.  The  following  diverse  views  as 
to  their  origin  may  be  given  : 

(i.)  The  Queen  of  Sheba,  Macqueda  by  name,  who  was  attracted  to 
Jerusalem  by  the  wisdom  and  fame  of  Solomon,  is  said  to  have  borne  him  a  son, 
called  Menilek.  When  he  arrived  at  man's  estate,  his  father  sent  him  away 
from  Jerusalem,  where  he  had  been  educated,  to  Ethiopia,  attended  by  a  large 
retinue  of  Jews,  who  intermarried  with  the  native  women. 

(ii.)  When  Solomon's  fleet  made  the  tour  of  the  Red  Sea,  some  Jewish 
adventurers,  or  traders,  settled  in  Ethiopia.  The  late  Dr.  Stem  appears  to  have 
held  this  view  {Biography  of  H.  A,  Stents  p.  190),  also  the  late  Dr.  Krapf, 
missionary  and  explorer.  '*  It  is  very  probable  that  the  Jewish  settlements  in 
Abyssinia  date  from  the  time  of  Solomon.  This  wise,  liberal,  and  cosmopolitan 
monarch,  as  we  learn  from  i  Kings  x.  22,  sent  his  ships  to  Eastern  Africa  and 
India.  His  friendship  with  the  Queen  of  Sheba,  if  it  did  not,  as  the  Abyssinians 
affirm,  result  in  a  closer  connexion,  doubtless  disposed  him  to  further  the  interests 
of  Jewish  commerce  on  both  sides  of  the  Red  Sea,  and  political  motives  would 
lead  him  to  keep  up  friendly  communication  with  the  countries  that  lay  around 
its  shores.  Whence  could  he  have  obtained  better  ivory  and  finer  apes  than 
from  Abyssinia,  where  elephants  and  the  beautiful  Gueresa  apes  are  found  in 
abundance?"  f 

(iii.)  Some  of  the  Jews  who  fled  into  Egypt  at  the  time  of  the  Babylonian 
Captivity  (b.c  586)  sailed  up  the  Nile  and  established  themselves  in  the  province 
of  Kwara,  subsequently  extending  into  Dembea,  Chelga,  Wogera,  Belesa,  Sim  en 
and  other  provinces  round  the  northern  shore  of  Lake  Dembea,  in  which  part 
of  Abyssinia  their  descendants  principally  reside  to  this  day.  A  proof  that  Jews 
were  in  Abyssinia  about  the  time  of  the  Babylonian  Captivity,  perhaps  as  early  as 
B.C.  630,  is  found  in  Zeph.  iii.  10.  The  recent  important  discovery  of  a  Jewish 
Temple  as  far  south  as  Assouan  in  the  sixth  century  B.C.  is,  perhaps,  a  further 
confirmation  of  this  xnew. 

(iv.)  Jews  fled  into  Abyssinia  after  the  destruction  of  Jerusalem  (a.d.  70).  Mr. 
Flad,  who  evidently  holds  the  third  view,  points  out  +  the  improbability  of  this 
conjecture,  as  the  Falashas  do  not  observe  the  Feasts  of  Purim  and  Dedication, 

*  Some  authorities  give  200,000. 
t  The  Falashas,  preface,  p.  iv.  J  Id.  p.  3, 

368  ABYSSINIA    MISSION  [i860 

which  were  established  during  or  after  the  Captivity.  Moreover,  they  are  entirely 
ignorant  of  the  Talmud,  and  do  not  wear  phylacteries  or  fringes  ;  neither  do  they 
observe  any  of  the  613  precepts  which  constitute  the  essence  of  post-Biblical 
Judaism.  As  the  Falasha  religion  thus  follows  the  Temple  and  not  the  synagogue 
ritual,  this  view  seems  to  be  altogether  untenable. 

(v.)  The  Falashas  are  Jews  by  religion  only,  and  not  by  descent.  Dr.  Thiersch 
says  in  his  Abyssinia  (p.  14),  that  they  are  **  Probably  for  the  most  part  the 
posterity  of  proselytes — that  is  of  Abyssinians  who  had  accepted  the  Mosaic 
religion.  They  are  most  likely  the  remnant  of  a  far  more  numerous  population 
holding  that  faith,  to  which  they  still  adhere,  while  the  bulk  of  the  Abyssinian 
nation  accepted  Christianity.  Thus  we  have  here  presented  us  a  nation  to  whom 
Moses  became  in  a  peculiar  manner  a  schoolmaster  to  bring  them  unto  Christ 
(Gal.  iii.  24)." 

This  opinion  appears  to  be  held  by  Jews  generally.  Thus  The  fewish  Year 
Book^  1898-9  (p.  252),  said  the  Falashas  are  **  A  Jewish  sect  of  Abyssinia,  who 
arc  probably  descendants  of  the  old  Jewish  Himyarite  kingdom  of  South  Axabia. 
They  are  not  Jews  in  race,  but  their  ritual  b  distinctly  Jewish,  though  written  in 
the  Gez  language.     They  number  some  50,oc»." 

Details  of  their  domestic  life,  religious  sects  and  distinctions, 
ritual,  worship,  synagogues,  etc.,  will  be  found  in  Sites  and 
Scenes^  part  I. 

The  story  of  Gobat  and  Kugler's  efforts  from  1826  to  1838, 
under  the  auspices  of  the  Church  Missionary  Society,  to 
evangelize  the  Abyssinians,  is  also  briefly  narrated  in  the 
same  book,  and  need  not  be  referred  to  here.  The  former, 
after  his  appointment  to  the  Anglican  Bishopric  in  Jerusalem, 
continued  to  have  the  welfare  of  the  Abyssinians  at  heart, 
and  in  1855  despatched  Krapf  and  Flad  to  ask  the  King  of 
Abyssinia,  Theodore  II.,  if  he  would  allow  some  young  men 
to  establish  schools  in  his  country  and  preach  and  teach 
the  Gospel.  Permission  having  been  obtained,  Flad,  Bender, 
Mayer  and  Kienzler,  who  had  been  educated  at  St.  Chris- 
chona,  Basle,  started  for  Abyssinia  in  November  of  the  same 
year  with  nineteen  camel  loads  of  Amharic  Bibles,  New 
Testaments  and  Psalms. 

Amongst  other  places,  they  went  to  Gondar,  where  they 
were  occupied  from  the  autumn  of  1856  to  1858,  in  visiting 
the  people,  establishing  a  boys'  school,  and  spreading  the 
knowledge  of  the  true  faith,  by  means  of  Bibles  among 
Christians  and  Jews.  The  latter,  Flad  said,  were  particularly 
accessible  and  shewed  great  eagerness  to  possess  the  Bible, 

i874]  FLAiyS    THIRD     VISIT  369 

"  our  Father's  Word,"  as  they  called  it,*  so  the  missionaries 
reserved  the  remainder  of  their  Bibles  exclusively  for  them, 
and  were  soon  able  to  begin  a  school  in  the  Falasha  village 
of  Awora,  which  was  attended  by  more  than  thirty  boys,  t 
Owing  to  ill-health  Flad  had  to  return  to  Jerusalem  in 
the  beginning  of  1858,  but  with  full  purpose  to  re-visit  the 
scene  of  his  labours.  Having  recruited  his  health  and  married 
Miss  Kneller,  in  Christ  Church,  Jerusalem,  on  October  12th, 
1858,  he  and  his  devoted  partner  set  off  for  Abyssinia  on  the 
following  day.  This  time  he  had  thirty-five  camel  loads 
of  Bibles  and  Testaments.  At  Matama,  Mayer  met  them. 
On  account  of  a  rebellion  in  Tigr6,  the  missionaries  settled 
at  Magdala  for  safety.  This  was  the  centre  of  successful  work 
for  some  time,  and  from  this  stronghold  the  Gospel  went  forth 
into  the  neighbouring  Falasha  villages.  After  the  rebellion 
was  over  the  missionaries  went  to  Gaffat.  Flad  had  sent 
to  St.  Chrischona  the  following  report  of  his  work  amongst 
the  Falashas  : 

As  regards  missionary  work  among  them  we  can  testify  that  they  shewed  a 
longing  desire  for  the  Word  of  God  (the  Old  Testament).  Had  we  last  year  had 
hundreds  of  Bibles,  we  might  have  distributed   them  amongst  the  Jews,  with 

certainty  that  they  would  read  them Our  intercourse  with  them  made  us  hope 

much  from  missionary  work  among  them    Our  hope  is  that  this  interesting 

people  may  be  raised  from  their  present  degradation,  and  perhaps  even  become  a 
salt  for  the  Abyssinian  Church. 

This  report  was  forwarded  to  the  Society  by  Pastor  Schlienz, 
the  chaplain  at  St.  Chrischona,  with  the  offer  of  some  of  their 
younger  missionaries  to  begin  work  in  Abyssinia,  under 
Flad,  and  was  indeed  a  call  not  to  be  neglected.  The 
Committee,  however,  before  coming  to  a  definite  decision  to 
occupy  the  field,  decided  to  send  out  one  of  the  Society's 
experienced  missionaries  to  investigate  the  feasibility,  or  other- 
wise, of  opening  a  mission  amongst  the  Falashas.  The  Rev. 
H.  A.  Stern,  then  stationed  at  Constantinople,  who  had  already 
had  experience  of  an  exploratory  mission  in  Arabia,  was  selec- 
ted.   He  set  out  from  Constantinople,  viA  Jerusalem,  in  order 

♦  Notes  from  the  Journal  off.  M.  Flady  p.  43. 
t  Tkvelve  Years  in  Abyssinia,  in  Jewish  Intelligence,  1869,  p.  191. 

B  B 

370  ABYSSINIA    MISSION  [i860 

that  he  might  obtain  from  Bishop  Gobat  trustworthy  informa- 
tion about  the  country  and  its  people.  Accompanied  by  Mr.  S. 
Bronkhorst,  he  reached  Wochni,  on  the  frontier  of  Abyssinia, 
on  March  loth,  i860.  His  first  object  was  to  obtain  permission 
from  the  King  to  work  amongst  the  Falashas.  After  a  great 
deal  of  travelling  he  had  audience,  on  the  shore  of  Lake  Dembea, 
with  Theodore,  who  had  just  returned  from  an  expedition  to 
Tigr6.  The  King  willingly  granted  the  desired  permission, 
on  condition  that  Stern  likewise  obtained  leave  from  the 
Archbishop  or  Aboona.  This  was  shortly  afterward  granted, 
the  Aboona  making  one  condition  that  all  converts  should  be 
baptized  in  the  Abyssinian  Church,  a  condition  which  has 
been  observed  to  the  present  time. 

Flad  now  joined  Stern  and  Bronkhorst  as  guide  and  inter- 
preter, and  the  missionary  party  first  proceeded  to  Gondar,  the 
capital,  strikingly  situated  on  a  mountain  ridge,  the  most 
conspicuous  building  being  that  of  a  castle,  built  by  the 
Portuguese,  which  rises  proudly  above  the  huts  of  the  town.* 
It  is  a  large  square  building,  with  many  towers.  Whilst 
there,  Flad  and  Bronkhorst  visited  King  Theodore.  They 
next  turned  their  attention  to  some  Falasha  villages  in  the 
neighbourhood,  and  Flad  says  : 

We  found  everywhere  open  hearts  and  ears  for  the  Divine  truth  which  we  set 
forth.  In  each  village,  men,  women,  and  children  crowded  around  us  and 
listened,  often  for  hours,  with  the  greatest  attention.  In  places  where  we  passed 
the  night,  or  stayed  some  days  on  account  of  the  numbers  assembled,  we  were  so 
overwhelmed  with  visitors  that  even  Mr.  Stem*s  large  tent  could  not  contain  them 
all.  We,  therefore,  divided  them  into  parties,  so  that  each  might  be  able  to  hear 
the  Gospel  and  receive  answers  to  their  questions  about  the  law,  the  sacrifices,  the 
Messiah,  and  other  points,  from  Mr.  Stem,  I  acting  as  his  interpreter.  It  was  a 
blessed  thing  for  us  to  be  able  to  satisfy  the  spiritual  hunger  and  thirst  of  our 
numerous  visitors  with  the  Word  of  Life,  and  fiom  the  prophecies  in  the  Old 
Testament  to  point  them  to  Jesus  Christ*  t 

Stern,  having  accomplished  his  purpose,  returned  to 
Constantinople,  arriving  there  on  March  12th,  1861.  On  his 
way  back  he  had  written  from  Khartoum,  December  19th, 
i860,  the  following  summary  of  his  vis